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1.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 11-16, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362017

RESUMO

Las cardiopatías congénitas se consideran una de las anomalías que alteran la irrigación y el intercambio de oxigenación adecuado a las principales venas y arterias. Esto puede generar consecuencias en el desarrollo neurológico que se puede traducir en retraso psicomotor, déficits de aprendizaje, dificultades académicas y problemas de integración social. Para mejorar los trastornos cognitivos, se propone la habilitación cognitiva basada en los principios de mecánica y robótica de LEGO® Education. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir el efecto de un programa de intervención, basado en el uso de ensamblado y programación robótica con LEGO® Education, sobre las funciones frontales básicas como primera aproximación a un modelo propuesto en pacientes cardiópatas congénitos que han sido sometidos a cirugía cardiovascular. Se trató de un estudio de serie de casos, en el que finalizaron el tratamiento una niña y dos niños con cardiopatías congénitas con RACHS 2 y 3. Se aplicaron sub-escalas BANFE-2 y el cuestionario neuropsicológico de daño frontal antes y después del tratamiento; así como una escala para medir el nivel de ejecución por intervención, durante las ocho sesiones. Los resultados muestran en la escala BANFE2, cambios en las medias de las funciones frontales básicas, de daño leve-moderado y normal a normal alto, principalmente en memoria de trabajo y fluidez verbal. En esta primera aproximación, el método LEGO® Education mostró ser una buena herramienta para la habilitación neuropsicológica de estos pacientes.


Congenital heart diseases are considered to be an anomaly which alter the irrigation and the adequate exchange of oxygenation to the main veins and arteries. They can have neurodevelopmental consequences that could translate into psychomotor retardation, learning deficits, academic difficulties, and social integration problems. Cognitive empowerment based on the mechanics and robotics principles of LEGO® Education is proposed to improve cognitive disorders. In this study, the objective was to measure the effect of an intervention program, based on the use of assembly and robotic programming with LEGO® Education, upon basic frontal functions as a first approach to a proposed model in congenital heart disease patients who have undergone cardiovascular surgery. This was a case-series study, in which a girl and two boys with congenital heart disease with RACHS 2 and 3, completed the treatment. BANFE-2 subscales and the neuropsychological questionnaire of frontal damage were applied before and after the treatment; as well as a scale to measure the level of performance per intervention, through all the eight sessions. The BANFE-2 scale showed changes in the means of frontal functions, from mild-moderate damage and normal to high normal, mainly in working memory and verbal fluency. In this first approach, LEGO® Education method proved to be a useful tool for the neuropsychological empowerment of these patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Robótica , Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Cardiopatias Congênitas/reabilitação , Mecânica , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(1)2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969855

RESUMO

We present a numerical method specifically designed for simulating three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems based on the reference map technique (RMT). The RMT is a fully Eulerian FSI numerical method that allows fluids and large-deformation elastic solids to be represented on a single fixed computational grid. This eliminates the need for meshing complex geometries typical in other FSI approaches and greatly simplifies the coupling between fluid and solids. We develop a three-dimensional implementation of the RMT, parallelized using the distributed memory paradigm, to simulate incompressible FSI with neo-Hookean solids. As part of our method, we develop a field extrapolation scheme that works efficiently in parallel. Through representative examples, we demonstrate the method's suitability in investigating many-body and active systems, as well as its accuracy and convergence. The examples include settling of a mixture of heavy and buoyant soft ellipsoids, lid-driven cavity flow containing a soft sphere, and swimmers actuated via active stress.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Suspensões , Humanos , Locomoção , Mecânica , Modelos Cardiovasculares
4.
Rev. argent. cir ; 113(1): 117-120, abr. 2021. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288181

RESUMO

RESUMEN La resección gástrica atípica ha demostrado ser beneficiosa para tumores submucosos. La técnica pre senta mayor riesgo cuando estos se desarrollan próximos a la unión esófago-gástrica (UEG). Para esta limitación se propuso la resección intragástrica mediante una técnica mixta combinando laparoscopia y endoscopia. En nuestro medio no existen publicaciones al respecto. Se trata de una mujer de 42 años, con lesión subepitelial-subcardial de 2 cm, evaluada mediante videoendoscopia alta (VEDA), compa tible con tumor del estroma gastrointestinal (GIST) evaluado mediante ecoendoscopia. La lesión fue resecada mediante abordaje combinado laparoendoscópico. Bajo visión laparoscópica se introdujeron en cavidad abdominal trocares con balón, y bajo visión endoscópica intragástrica se introdujeron estos en el estómago y se fijó la pared gástrica a la pared abdominal insuflando dichos balones. Posterior mente se realizó la resección de la lesión con sutura mecánica. El abordaje combinado es seguro y eficaz, simple en manos entrenadas, pero constituye una opción reproducible en casos seleccionados.


ABSTRACT Atypical gastric resection has proved to be beneficial to treat submucosal tumors. The technique is more difficult when these tumors develop next to the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Intragastric resection combining endoscopic and laparoscopic approach was proposed to solve this limitation. There are no publications about this technique in our environment. A 42-year-old female patients with a 2-mm subepithelial tumor below the cardia evaluated by upper gastrointestinal (UGI) videoendoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound suggestive of a gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST) underwent resection using the combined laparo-endoscopic approach. Under laparoscopic guidance, balloon-tipped trocars were introduced in the abdominal cavity and then into the stomach using endoscopic view. The balloons were inflated to fix the gastirc wall to the abdominal wall. The lesion was resected using mechanical stapler. The combined approach is safe and efficient, and simple to perform for trained professionals, constituting a reproducible option in selected cases.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Junção Esofagogástrica , Neoplasias , Pacientes , Estômago , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Visão Ocular , Mulheres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Cárdia , Endossonografia , Mecânica , Cavidade Abdominal , Endoscopia , Meio Ambiente , Mãos , Métodos
5.
Hist Sci ; 59(1): 93-118, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987947

RESUMO

This paper highlights the significance of sensory studies and psychophysical investigations of the relations between psychic and physical phenomena for our understanding of the development of the physics discipline, by examining aspects of research on sense perception, physiology, esthetics, and psychology in the work of Gustav Theodor Fechner, Hermann von Helmholtz, Wilhelm Wundt, and Ernst Mach between 1860 and 1871. It complements previous approaches oriented around research on vision, Fechner's psychophysics, or the founding of experimental psychology, by charting Mach's engagement with psychophysical experiments in particular. Examining Mach's study of the senses and esthetics, his changing attitudes toward the mechanical worldview and atomism, and his articulation of comparative understandings of sensual, geometrical, and physical spaces helps set Mach's emerging epistemological views in the context of his teaching and research. Mach complemented an analytic strategy focused on parallel psychic and physical dimensions of sensation, with a synthetic comparative approach - building analogies between the retina, the individual, and social life, and moving between abstract and sensual spaces. An examination of the broadly based critique that Mach articulated in his 1871 lecture on the conservation of work shows how his historical approach helped Mach cast what he now saw as a narrowly limiting emphasis on mechanics as a phase yet to be overcome.


Assuntos
Física/história , Psicofísica/história , Tchecoslováquia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Mecânica , Psicologia/história , Sensação/fisiologia
6.
Res Synth Methods ; 12(1): 20-28, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264498

RESUMO

Meta-analysis results are usually presented in forest plots, which show the individual study results and the summary effect along with their confidence intervals. In this paper, we propose a system of linear springs as a mechanical analogue of meta-analysis that enables visualization and enhances intuition. The length of a spring corresponds to a study treatment effect and the stiffness of the spring corresponds to its inverse variance. To synthesize study springs we use two main operations: connection in parallel and connection in series. We show the equivalence between meta-analysis and linear springs for fixed effect and random effects pairwise meta-analysis and we also derive indirect treatment effects. We use examples to illustrate the different meta-analytical schemes using the corresponding system of springs. The proposed visualization can serve as an educational tool, especially useful for researchers with no statistical background. The analogy between meta-analysis and springs facilitates intuition for notions such as heterogeneity and the differences between fixed and random effects meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Metanálise como Assunto , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Mecânica , Modelos Estatísticos , Metanálise em Rede , Terminologia como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 16(4): 142-145, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361899

RESUMO

El trabajo respiratorio se ejerce en una estructura cerrada donde se encuentran los pulmones, estos son sometidos a cambios de presiones determinados por la musculatura pulmonar en las diferentes fases del ciclo respiratorio, lo que generará gradientes y permite la entrada y salida de aire. Se suman a ello el calibre de las vías aéreas, el tipo de flujo, las características de las vías aéreas y del surfactante pulmonar, que determinan un menor o mayor trabajo respiratorio según la condición fisiológica.


The work of breathing is exerted in a closed structure where the lungs are located. These are subjected to pressure changes determined by the pulmonary musculature in the different phases of the respiratory cycle, which will generate gradients and allow the entry and exit of air. In addition to the aforesaid, airway calibre, type of flow, airway characteristics and pulmonary surfactant determine less or more work of breathing depending on the physiological condition.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , Pulmão/fisiologia , Pressão , Mecânica
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(3): 382-389, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138798

RESUMO

Resumen El tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis ha evolucionado de forma significativa desde que Robert Abbe realizó la primera coledocotomía y la exploración de las vías biliares en Nueva York, en 1889. La colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE), que inicialmente fue un método diagnóstico, ahora solo tiene validez como método terapéutico. En la actualidad, los principales métodos diagnósticos son la colangioresonancia magnética (CRM) y la ultrasonografía endoscópica (USE). El tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis pasó de la técnica quirúrgica abierta -en la que, de forma rutinaria, se realizaba la coledocorrafia sobre un tubo de Kehr o tubo en T- a la endoscópica, mediante el uso de la CPRE, la esfinteroplastia y la instrumentación con balones y canastilla. Hoy en día se dispone de técnicas adicionales como la litotricia mecánica (LM) o extracorpórea, la dilatación con balón (DB) de gran tamaño y el Spyglass ® . La técnica laparoscópica se usa desde hace varios años, en diversas partes del mundo, para el tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis. Estudios recientes proponen incluso el cierre primario del colédoco o la coledocoduodenostomía, con lo cual no sería necesaria la utilización del tubo en T. Pero en muchos otros sitios, y por diversas razones, se continúa usando la exploración quirúrgica abierta y el tubo en T, que representa una importante opción en el tratamiento de algunos pacientes. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 88 años, con coledocolitiasis recidivante, cálculo gigante de difícil manejo endoscópico y sepsis de origen biliar, que requirió drenaje quirúrgico abierto de urgencias. Se realizó una coledocotomía, y se dejó el tubo en T. Posteriormente, se efectuó un tratamiento exitoso conjunto, mediante instrumentación por el tubo en T, por parte de cirugía general, y CPRE, por gastroenterología.


Abstract The treatment of choledocholithiasis has evolved significantly since Robert Abbé performed the first bile duct exploration via choledochotomy in New York in 1889. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which was initially used for diagnosis, is now only valid as a therapeutic tool. Currently, the main diagnostic methods are magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The treatment of choledocholithiasis moved from the open surgery in which biliary stenting was routinely performed on a Kehr tube or T-tube, to the endoscopic technique using ERCP, sphincteroplasty and instrumentation with balloons and baskets. Additional techniques are now available such as mechanical or extra-corporeal lithotripsy, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation and SpyGlass cholangioscopy. The laparoscopic technique has been used for several years in different parts of the world for the treatment of choledocholithiasis. Recent studies even propose performing the primary closure of the bile duct or choledochoduodenostomy, so that the T-tube is not necessary. However, in many other places, and for a variety of reasons, open exploratory surgery and the T-tube continue to be used, being an important option in the treatment of some patients. Case presentation: 88-year-old male patient with recurrent choledocholithiasis and a giant gallstone that was difficult to treat endoscopically, with sepsis of biliary origin, which required open surgical drainage at the emergency room. Choledocotomy was performed, and a T-tube was inserted at the site. Subsequently, a successful joint treatment was performed by the General Surgery Service and the Gastroenterology Service, using T-tube instrumentation and ERCP, respectively.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Coledocolitíase , Cirurgia Geral , Ductos Biliares , Coledocostomia , Mecânica
9.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 15(5): 056013, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575081

RESUMO

Biomimetic scale-covered substrates provide geometric tailorability via scale orientation, spacing and also interfacial properties of contact in various deformation modes. No work has investigated the effect of friction in twisting deformation of biomimetic scale-covered beams. In this work, we investigate the frictional effects in the biomimetic scale-covered structure by developing an analytical model verified by finite element simulations. In this model, we consider dry (Coulomb) friction between rigid scales surfaces, and the substrate as the linear elastic rectangular beam. The obtained results show that the friction has a dual contribution on the system by advancing the locking mechanism due to change of mechanism from purely kinematic to interfacial behavior, and stiffening the twist response due to sharp increase in the engagement forces. We also discovered, by increasing the coefficient of friction potentially using engineering scale surfaces to a critical coefficient, the system could reach to instantaneous post-engagement locking. The developed model outlines analytical relationships between geometry, deformation, frictional force and strain energy, to design biomimetic scale-covered metamaterials for a wide range of applications.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Fricção/fisiologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Mecânica , Torque
10.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(2): 80-88, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499463

RESUMO

Background: Roadside automobile mechanics are in the course of their work exposed to several hazards that put them at risk of severe debilitating health challenges. This group of workers, however, is reported not to know much about such hazards and to have little or no training on workplace safety. Aim: The study aimed to identify the determinants of occupational health hazards among roadside automobile mechanics in Sokoto Metropolis. Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, and using a two-stage sampling technique, a total of 205 roadside mechanics were recruited for the study. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used, and the data were imputed into and analyzed using IBM SPSS. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 31.10 ± 10.19 years, and over one-third of them (38.1%) were general vehicle repairers. Majority of the respondents had good knowledge of and attitude toward workplace hazards. However, a good proportion (91.0%) of the mechanics felt that their occupation was a risky one and 80.1% ate and 86.1% drank while working. Type of training and job description were the predictors of knowledge of workplace hazards. Job description was the only predictor of attitude. Burns, bruises, headache/dizziness, and cuts were the most reported work-related illnesses and injuries. Conclusion: Although most of the auto-mechanics were aware and had good knowledge of workplace hazards, they did not adhere to safety practices in the workplace, mostly due to nonavailability of protective apparels. There is, therefore, need for continuous health education under the platform of the auto-mechanics association so that they can voluntarily adopt safety practices in their workplace.


Résumé Contexte: Au cours de leur travail, les mécaniciens d'automobiles au bord de la route sont exposés à plusieurs risques qui les exposent à de graves problèmes de santé débilitants. Cependant, ce groupe de travailleurs ne connaît pas grand-chose à ces dangers et n'a pas ou peu de formation sur la sécurité au travail. Objectif: L'étude visait à identifier les déterminants des risques professionnels en matière de santé chez les mécaniciens automobiles de Sokoto Metropolis. Matériel et Méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive et, en utilisant une technique d'échantillonnage en deux étapes, un total de 205 mécaniciens de bord de route ont été recrutés pour l'étude. Un questionnaire administré par un intervieweur semi-structuré a été utilisé et les données ont été imputées et analysées à l'aide d'IBM SPSS. Résultats: L 'âge moyen des répondants était de 31.10 ± 10.19 et plus d' un tiers d 'entre eux (38.1%) étaient des réparateurs de véhicules généraux. La majorité des répondants avaient de bonnes connaissances et une bonne attitude à l'égard des dangers au travail. Cependant, une bonne partie des mécaniciens estimaient que leur profession était risquée 183 (91,0%) et majoritaire, en mangeait 161 (80,1%) et en buvait 173 (86,1%) pendant qu'ils travaillaient. Le type de formation et la description de poste étaient des prédicteurs de la connaissance des dangers au travail. La description de travail était le seul prédicteur de l'attitude. Les brûlures, les ecchymoses, les maux de tête/vertiges et les coupures étaient les maladies et les blessures liées au travail les plus souvent rapportées. Conclusion: Bien que la plupart des mécaniciens et des mécaniciennes d'automobiles aient été au courant et aient une bonne connaissance des risques au travail, ils n'ont pas respecté les pratiques de sécurité sur le lieu de travail. Il existe donc un besoin d'éducation continue en matière de santé dans le cadre de la plate-forme de l'association de mécanique automobile afin qu'ils puissent adopter volontairement des pratiques de sécurité sur leur lieu de travail.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Mecânica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1090-1098, 01-06-2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147208

RESUMO

Paricá seeds have dormancy and, even after mechanical scarification, these seeds show slow and uneven germination. Pre-germination treatments can be used to increase seed germination performance. Thus, the aimed to evaluate the physiological potential and initial growth of paricá seeds after pre-germination treatments, using different substances as plant regulators and nutrients, in addition to mechanical scarification. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2x7 factorial scheme, consisting of the following pre-germination treatments: mechanical scarification (10% and 50% of the seed coat) and seed pre-soaking [control-water, KNO3 0.2%,Ca(NO3)2 0.2%, gibberellin 0.02%, cytokinin 0.02%, and mixture of gibberellin + cytokinin (1:1)] besides a control group without pre-soaking, with four replicates. The study evaluated germination and emergence rates, germination and emergence speed indices, collar diameter, plant height, seedling dry mass, hypocotyl and seedling length, and electrical conductivity. It was observed that pre-soaking the seeds in gibberellin after mechanical scarification at 50% as a pre-germination treatment resulted in seeds with higher vigor expression and greater initial seedling growth.


Sementes de paricá apresentam dormência e após superada pela escarificação mecânica, as sementes apresentam germinação lenta e desuniforme. Tratamentos pré-germinativos podem ser utilizados para incrementar a performance de germinação de sementes. Assim, o objetivo foi avaliar o potencial fisiológico de sementes, crescimento inicial de Paricá após tratamentos pré-germinativos, utilizando diferentes substâncias como reguladores vegetais e nutrientes, além da intensidade da escarificação mecânica. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x7, constituído pelos tratamentos pré-germinativos: escarificação mecânica (10% e 50% do tegumento) e pré-embebição das sementes [controle- água, KNO3 0,2%,Ca(NO3)2 0,2%, giberelina 0,02%, citocinina 0,02%, e a mistura da solução de giberelina + citocinina (1:1)] além de um grupo controle sem pré-embebição, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação e emergência, índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência, diâmetro, altura e fitomassa seca de plantas, comprimento de plântulas e hipocótilo e condutividade elétrica. A pré-embebição das sementes com giberelina após escarificação mecânica de 50% como tratamento pré-germinativo é recomendado para obtenção de sementes com maior expressão de vigor e crescimento inicial de plântulas.


Assuntos
Plantas , Sementes , Germinação , Mecânica
12.
Más Vita ; 2(1): 8-15, mar 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1255331

RESUMO

Existe un conglomerado importante de fundamento teórico que en su discurso sustenta la importancia de la mecánica corporal en la medicina, por ser una actividad completa; su correcta aplicación garantiza una buena salud. Objetivo: Describir los fundamentos teóricos de la mecánica corporal en la movilización de pacientes en el ámbito de la enfermería. Metodología: Documental, descriptiva. Resultados: Diversos estudios demuestran que las lesiones musculo-esqueléticas en el personal de enfermería, en un porcentaje alto se deben a la aplicación inadecuada de la mecánica corporal durante la movilización de pacientes. La bibliografía consultada revela: en el ámbito de la enfermería se refleja desconocimiento en el tema de la mecánica corporal en la movilización de pacientes, antes, durante o después de la ejecución de procedimientos, lo cual es causante de lesiones musculo-esqueléticas en el personal de enfermería. Recomendación: Es un deber para el personal de enfermería aplicar la mecánica corporal en todas las acciones que realiza en la práctica consigo mismo y también con el paciente, aprovechando al máximo la energía que brinda, el bienestar que ofrece a ambos y la prevención que trae consigo ante posibles lesiones músculo-esqueléticas(AU)


There is an important conglomerate of theoretical foundation, which in its speech supports the importance of body mechanics in medicine as a complete activity; because its correct application guarantees good health. Objective: Describe the theoretical foundations of body mechanics in the mobilization of patients in the field of Nursing. Methodology: Documentary, descriptive. Several studies show that musculoskeletal injuries in nursing staff, in a high percentage, are due to improper application of body mechanics during patient mobilization. Conclusion: The bibliography consulted reveals that in the nursing field the subject of body mechanics in the mobilization of patients, before, during or after the execution of procedures is unknown, which is the cause of musculoskeletal injuries in nursing staff. Recommendation: It is a duty for the nursing staff to apply body mechanics in all the actions they perform in practice with themselves and also with the patient, taking full advantage of the energy it provides, the well-being it offers to both and the prevention it brings before possible musculoskeletal injuries(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Mau Alinhamento Ósseo , Movimentação e Reposicionamento de Pacientes , Assistência ao Paciente , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Riscos Ocupacionais , Mecânica , Manuais como Assunto
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013009

RESUMO

We investigate how pressure-sensitive smart textiles, in the form of a headband, can detect changes in facial expressions that are indicative of emotions and cognitive activities. Specifically, we present the Expressure system that performs surface pressure mechanomyography on the forehead using an array of textile pressure sensors that is not dependent on specific placement or attachment to the skin. Our approach is evaluated in systematic psychological experiments. First, through a mimicking expression experiment with 20 participants, we demonstrate the system's ability to detect well-defined facial expressions. We achieved accuracies of 0.824 to classify among three eyebrow movements (0.333 chance-level) and 0.381 among seven full-face expressions (0.143 chance-level). A second experiment was conducted with 20 participants to induce cognitive loads with N-back tasks. Statistical analysis has shown significant correlations between the Expressure features on a fine time granularity and the cognitive activity. The results have also shown significant correlations between the Expressure features and the N-back score. From the 10 most facially expressive participants, our approach can predict whether the N-back score is above or below the average with 0.767 accuracy.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Testa/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mecânica , Miografia/métodos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Têxteis
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 20200000. 99 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1119563

RESUMO

Parte I. A discrepância positiva, recomendada para as coroas protéticas em metalocerâmica, tem sido apontada como um dos fatores que pode contribuir para a maior taxa de lascamento ("chipping") nas porcelanas sobre a infraestrutura de zircônia Y-TZP. Objetivo: Comparar a distribuição das tensões residuais, in silico, em peças de duas camadas, uma de porcelana feldspáticas sinterizada sobre a outra, de material de infraestrutura, com discrepância de valores de coeficiente de expansão térmica linear (CETL) entre elas. Métodos: Espécimes de formato de barra plana e coroa com espessuras de 0,7 mm de infraestrutura e 1,5 mm de porcelana de cobertura foram investigadas por meio da análise elástica de elementos finitos. Oito condições de discrepância ("mismatch") de CETL foram simuladas, através da combinação de dois tipos de materiais de infraestrutura (zircônia e metal) e seis porcelanas de cobertura (distintas por valores de CETL). Além das combinações dos sistemas metal-porcelana e zircônia-porcelana recomendadas pelo fabricante, foram apresentados modelos com valores de mismatch similares (1 ppm/°C) com diferentes materiais de infraestrutura (metal ou zircônia) e modelos de infraestrutura de zircônia com porcelanas compatíveis ao metal também foram testadas. O protocolo de resfriamento após a sinterização adotado foi o protocolo denominado resfriamento lento, com taxa de 32ºC/min, entre 600 °C e a temperatura ambiente. Além disso, a natureza multidirecional das tensões residuais em barras e coroas foi apresentada para que fosse possível explorar as contradições aparentes entre os diferentes estudos. Foram analisadas as tensões principais máxima (?1) e mínima (?3), assim como as componentes paralelas a interface (?pi) ao longo eixo dos espécimes. Resultados: Espécimes barras e coroas geraram diferentes padrões de distribuições de tensões. Quando analisadas as combinações recomendadas pelo fabricante, tensões residuais em modelos de zircônia foram, significantemente, maiores aos modelos com infraestrutura metálica. Quando combinadas as infraestruturas de zircônia com as porcelanas indicadas para metal, os valores de tensões residuais foram ainda maiores. Tensões residuais não foram diferentes entre os modelos de infraestrutura em metal e em zircônia quando as discrepâncias de CETL foram similares (1 ppm/°C). Significância: Algumas conclusões obtidas com os espécimes planos não podem ser extrapoladas para as situações clínicas porque o formato dos espécimes influencia fortemente nos padrões de tensões residuais. Uma vez que discrepância positiva gera tensões de compressão circunferencial e tensões de tração radial e uma vez que as coroas com infraestrutura em zircônia tendem a ser mais vulneráveis para o lascamento ("chipping"), um estado livre de tensão de tração a partir da discrepância zero poderia ser mais vantajosa. Parte II. Objetivo: Verificar os padrões das tensões residuais em espécimes com formato de coroa utilizando dois tipos de métodos: Método de Indentação Vickers (MIV) e Análises em Elementos Finitos (AEF). Métodos: Infraestruturas anatômicas estilizadas e axissimétrica de zircônia e metal (n=20) foram recobertas com as respectivas porcelanas recomendadas (VM9/Y-TZP ou VM13/NiCrMo). As porcelanas foram sinterizadas de acordo com as instruções do fabricante, seguidas dos protocolos de resfriamento lento ou rápido. As coroas foram seccionadas longitudinalmente em duas metades. Para cada seção plana polida, sete indentações foram realizadas, distantes 0,375 mm da interface porcelana/infraestrutura. As regiões de medição foram rotuladas de acordo com o perfil do plano de corte: A - interface convexa da porcelana na área cervical, B - porcelana linear, paralela à parede axial da preparação do dente, C - interface côncava da porcelana, no ângulo oclusal e D - porcelana linear, paralela à parede oclusal. O indentador Vickers foi posicionado de forma a permitir o cálculo da tensão residual em duas orientações específicas: paralela e perpendicular à interface porcelana - infraestrutura. Os valores de tensão residual coletados foram submetidos a ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey. Os modelos de elementos finitos foram desenvolvidos de acordo com o teste experimental, exceto para a secção longitudinal. Resultados: Tensões residuais paralelas à interface, medidas por MIV, mostraram prevalência de compressão em coroas com infraestrutura em zircônia, e prevalência de tensões de tração em infraestrutura em metal, para ambos os protocolos de resfriamento. Os valores de tensões na região A foram similares aos das regiões B e inferiores aos das regiões C e D. Em relação à orientação perpendicular à interface, a tensão de tração nas coroas de infraestrutura metálica não foi influenciada nem pelo protocolo de resfriamento, nem pela região de medição. Contudo, para as coroas com infraestrutura em zircônia, as tensões de tração perpendicular foram maiores quando foi usado o protocolo de resfriamento lento. O padrão de tensões em MIV não ficou de acordo com os resultados encontrados em AEF. Este resultado não confirmou a influência das tensões residuais térmicas no lascamento das porcelanas de recobrimento nas coroas de zircônia.


Assuntos
Mecânica , Porcelana Dentária
15.
Revista Areté ; 20(2): 13-23, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354747

RESUMO

La participación del Fonoaudiólogo en la rehabilitación neuromuscular orofacial y musculatura implicada en la mecánica deglutoria, se ha complementado con el uso de la terapia eléctrica funcional; esta carece de evidencia científica que respalde su efectividad en los procesos de recuperación funcional. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión documental sobre el uso de la terapia eléctrica funcional en el manejo de la disfagia, con el fin de crear un soporte teórico que respalde los procesos de intervención en fonoaudiología. Metodología: La revisión de la literatura se realizó en las bases de datos de Proquest, EBSCO, Scielo, Redalyc y Medic Latina. Fueron revisados artículos entre el 2008 y 2018. Para la selección de los artículos se utilizó el diagrama de flujo PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Hems for Systematic Reviews and Meta analyses). Resultados: Se revisaron 2980 artículos para exclusión por título, quedando 66 artículos en la primera depuración, de los cuales 21 fueron descartados por no cumplir con ningún criterio propuesto, 10 por repetición y 12 por no permitir el acceso al documento. Finalmente fueron considerados 23 artículos y 5 fuentes de consulta física para realizar el respectivo análisis. Conclusiones: Existe escasa evidencia científica que respalde la intervención fonoaudiológica en la disfagia con electroterapia.


The participation of the speech therapist within the orofacial neuromuscular rehabilitation and the musculature involved in swallowing mechanics, has been complemented with the use of functional electrical therapy, which has lacked scientific evidence that supports its effectiveness in faster recovery processes in terms of functionality. Objective: To carry out a documentary review of information related to the use of functional electric therapy on the management of dysphagia, to create a theoretical support that supports the processes of speech therapy intervention. Methodology: The review of the literature was carried out in the databases of Proquest, EBSCO, Scielo, Redalyc and Medic Latina. Articles were reviewed between 2008 and 2018. For the selection of the articles the PRISMA flow chart (Preferred Reporting Hems for Systematic Reviews and Meta analyzes) was used. Results: 2980 articles were reviewed for exclusion by title, leaving 66 articles in the first debugging, of which 21 were discarded for not complying with any proposed criteria, 10 for repetition and 12 for not allowing access to the document. Finally, 23 articles and 5 sources of physical consultation were considered to perform the respective analysis. Conclusions: There is little scientific evidence to support the speech therapy intervention in dysphagia with electrotherapy.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Deglutição , Fonoaudiologia , Fala , Efetividade , Transtornos de Deglutição , Mecânica , Metodologia como Assunto , Literatura
16.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e47832, 20200000.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1118759

RESUMO

To know, be aware of, the Basic Human Needs of chronic renal patients on hemodialysis, according to Wanda Horta's Theory. Methods: exploratory and descriptive research of qualitative approach, conducted from interviews with 10 patients followed in a hemodialysis clinic located in a city in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. Data were categorized according to Bardin's Content Analysis technique and discussed from the perspective of Wanda Horta's Basic Human Needs Theory. Results: Three categories emerged themes that highlight the basic human needs affected in the lives of patients with chronic renal failure and on hemodialysis treatment, highlighting: Nutrition and hydration changes; Changes in sleep and rest ; and Deprivation of freedom, leisure and sociability. Final considerations: there was a predominance of psychobiological needs, namely: hydration, nutrition, locomotion, sleep, rest and body mechanics. As for psychosocial NHB, it was possible to observe those related to recreation, leisure, freedom, participation, gregarious, of self-esteem and self-realization. No NHB affections regarding the psycho-spiritual domain emerged.


Conhecer as Necessidades Humanas Básicas de pacientes renais crônicos em hemodiálise, conforme a Teoria de Wanda Horta. Métodos:pesquisa exploratória e descritiva de abordagem qualitativa, realizada a partir de entrevistas com 10 pacientes acompanhados em uma clínica de hemodiálise localizada em uma cidade do interior da Bahia, Brasil. Os dados foram categorizados de acordo com a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin e discutidos sob a ótica da Teoria das Necessidades Humanas Básicas de Wanda Horta. Resultados: emergiram três categorias temáticas que evidenciam as necessidades humanas básicas afetadas na vida dos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica e em tratamento com hemodiálise, destacando-se: Mudanças nutricionais e de hidratação; Alterações no sono e repouso; e Privação da liberdade, lazer e sociabilidade. Considerações finais: observou-se o predomínio das necessidades psicobiológicas, a saber: hidratação, nutrição, locomoção, sono, repouso e mecânica corporal. Quanto às NHB psicossociais, foi possível observar aquelas relacionadas à recreação, lazer, liberdade, participação, gregária, de autoestima e autorrealização. Não emergiram NHB afetas quanto ao domínio psicoespiritual.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diálise Renal , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pacientes , Qualidade de Vida , Recreação , Descanso , Sono , Terapêutica , Teoria de Enfermagem , Doença Crônica , Mecânica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Ciências da Nutrição , Enfermagem em Nefrologia , Hidratação , Liberdade , Atividades de Lazer , Locomoção
17.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487935

RESUMO

The growing interest in controlling the glycemic index of starchy-rich food has encouraged research about the role of the physical structure of food. The aim of this research was to understand the impact of the structure and the in vitro oral processing methods on bolus behavior and starch hydrolysis of wheat bread. Two different bread structures (loaf bread and bread roll) were obtained using different shaping methods. Starch hydrolysis during in vitro oro-gastro-intestinal digestion using the INFOGEST protocol was analyzed and oral processing was simulated by applying two different disintegration processes (basic homogenizer, crystal balls). The bread structure, and thus the shaping method during breadmaking, significantly affected the bolus particle size during all digestion stages. The different in vitro oral processing methods affected the bolus particle sizes after the oral phase in both breads, but they affected the particle size distribution after the gastric and intestinal phase only in the case of loaf bread. Aggregates were observed in the gastric phase, which were significantly reduced in the intestinal phase. When simulated oral processing with crystal balls led to bigger particle size distribution, bread rolls presented the highest in vitro starch hydrolysis. The type of in vitro oral processing allowed discrimination of the performance of the structures of the two breads during starch hydrolysis. Overall, crumb structure significantly affected texture properties, but also had a significant impact on particle size during digestion and starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Pão , Índice Glicêmico , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Hidrólise , Mecânica , Tamanho da Partícula , Amido/química , Triticum/química
18.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 34(3): 307-313, jul.-set. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042820

RESUMO

Resumen Los espirales de embolización (coils o microcoils) son los agentes más comúnmente usados, con un éxito técnico reportado en aproximadamente el 81-100 % de los casos. Los espirales o coils se encuentran disponibles en una amplia variedad de configuraciones y tamaños, lo que permite acomodarse a vasos de distintos calibres; además, por su buena radiopacidad, tienen la ventaja de ser liberados con precisión. Los espirales o coils son el análogo de una ligadura arterial quirúrgica, debido a que producen una oclusión mecánica por su posicionamiento en el lumen vascular, lo que disminuye el flujo sanguíneo, y sus fibras sintéticas tienen un efecto trombogénico adicional. Caso: presentamos cuatro casos del Hospital Universitario Fundación Santa Fe de pacientes con várices gástricas tratadas satisfactoriamente con embolización transcatéter con coils, los cuales tuvieron un buen resultado técnico; además presentamos una revisión de la literatura.


Abstract Coils and microcoils, the most commonly used embolization agents, have reported technical success rates ranging from 81% to 100% of cases. The spirals or coils are available in a wide variety of configurations and sizes which fit into vessels of different calibers. They have good radiopacity allowing for accurate release. Coils are the analogue of a surgical arterial ligation, because they produce mechanical occlusion due to their positioning in the vascular lumen. This decreases blood flow while their synthetic fibers have an additional thrombogenic effect. Case: We present four cases of coil embolization treatment of gastric varicose veins at our institution. All procedures were successful and had good technical results. We also present a review of the literature.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Terapêutica , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Mecânica , Ligadura
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242233

RESUMO

An intriguing simple toy, commonly known as the Notched Stick, is discussed as an example of a "vibrot", a device designed and built to yield conversion of mechanical vibrations into a rotational motion. The toy, that can be briefly described as a propeller fixed on a stick by means of a nail and free to rotate around it, is investigated from both an experimental and a numerical point of view, under various conditions and settings, to investigate the basic working principles of the device. The conversion efficiency from vibration to rotational motion turns out to be very small, or even not detectable at all, whenever the propeller is tightly connected to the stick nail and perfectly axisymmetrical with respect to the nail axis; the small effects possibly observed can be ascribed to friction forces. In contrast, the device succeeds in converting vibrations into rotations when the propeller center of mass is not aligned with the nail axis, a condition occurring when either the nail-propeller coupling is not tight or the propeller is not completely axisymmetrical relative to the nail axis. The propeller rotation may be induced by a process of parametric resonance for purely vertical oscillations of the nail, by ordinary resonance if the nail only oscillates horizontally or, finally, by a combination of both processes when nail oscillations take place in an intermediate direction. Parametric resonance explains the onset of rotations also when the weight of the propeller is negligible. In contrast with what is commonly claimed in the literature, the possible elliptical motion of the nail, due to a composition of two harmonic motions of the same frequency imposed along orthogonal directions, seems unnecessary to determine the propeller rotation.


Assuntos
Jogos e Brinquedos , Rotação , Vibração , Simulação por Computador , Engenharia , Humanos , Mecânica , Modelos Teóricos , Movimento (Física) , Madeira
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