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1.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(2): e13253, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575147

RESUMO

Partner specificity is a well-documented phenomenon in biotic interactions, yet the factors that determine specificity in plant-fungal associations remain largely unknown. By utilizing composite soil samples, we identified the predictors that drive partner specificity in both plants and fungi, with a particular focus on ectomycorrhizal associations. Fungal guilds exhibited significant differences in overall partner preference and avoidance, richness, and specificity to specific tree genera. The highest level of specificity was observed in root endophytic and ectomycorrhizal associations, while the lowest was found in arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The majority of ectomycorrhizal fungal species showed a preference for one of their partner trees, primarily at the plant genus level. Specialist ectomycorrhizal fungi were dominant in belowground communities in terms of species richness and relative abundance. Moreover, all tree genera (and occasionally species) demonstrated a preference for certain fungal groups. Partner specificity was not related to the rarity of fungi or plants or environmental conditions, except for soil pH. Depending on the partner tree genus, specific fungi became more prevalent and relatively more abundant with increasing stand age, tree dominance, and soil pH conditions optimal for the partner tree genus. The richness of partner tree species and increased evenness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in multi-host communities enhanced the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, it was primarily the partner-generalist fungi that contributed to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Micorrizas/genética , Árvores/microbiologia , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Fungos/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Fungal Biol ; 128(2): 1724-1734, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575246

RESUMO

The ectomycorrhizal fungi Tuber melanosporum Vittad. and Tuber aestivum Vittad. produce highly valuable truffles, but little is known about the soil fungal communities associated with these truffle species in places where they co-occur. Here, we compared soil fungal communities present in wild and planted truffle sites, in which T. melanosporum and T. aestivum coexist, in Mediterranean and temperate regions over three sampling seasons spanning from 2018 to 2019. We showed that soil fungal community composition and ectomycorrhizal species composition are driven by habitat type rather than climate regions. Also, we observed the influence of soil pH, organic matter content and C:N ratio structuring total and ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages. Soil fungal communities in wild sites revealed more compositional variability than those of plantations. Greater soil fungal diversity was found in temperate compared to Mediterranean sites when considering all fungal guilds. Ectomycorrhizal diversity was significantly higher in wild sites compared to plantations. Greater mould abundance at wild sites than those on plantation was observed while tree species and seasonal effects were not significant predictors in fungal community structure. Our results suggested a strong influence of both ecosystem age and management on the fungal taxa composition in truffle habitats.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Ecossistema , Solo , Árvores , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Mycorrhiza ; 34(1-2): 57-67, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502187

RESUMO

Root-colonizing fungi, such as mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophyte fungi, are often found on pioneer plant species during early primary succession. However, little is known about which fungal species are responsible for the establishment of pioneer plants when these symbionts colonize simultaneously. We investigated the root-colonizing fungal communities of Pinus thunbergii that established prior to lichens, bryophytes, and short-lived herbaceous plants in a primary successional volcanic mudflow site on Kuchinoerabu Island, Japan. We collected a total of 54 current-year and 1- to 2-year-old seedlings. The colonization of root fungi was evaluated by direct observation of key structures (e.g., mantle, arbuscule, microsclerotia, and hyphae) and molecular analysis. Of the 34 current-year seedlings collected, only 12 individuals were colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. By contrast, all 1- to 2-year-old seedlings were colonized by ECM fungi. Seedlings colonized by pine-specific ECM fungi, specifically Rhizopogon roseolus and Suillus granulatus, showed higher nitrogen and phosphorus contents in their needles compared to non-ECM seedlings. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophyte fungi were found in only two and three individuals, respectively. The high density of mycophagous deer on Kuchinoerabu-jima may contribute to the favored dispersal of ECM fungi over other root-colonizing fungi. In conclusion, the seedling establishment of P. thunbergii at the volcanic mudflow may be largely supported by ECM fungi, with negligible effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes.


Assuntos
Cervos , Micorrizas , Pinus , Humanos , Animais , Pinus/microbiologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Japão , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
4.
Mycorrhiza ; 34(1-2): 119-130, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509266

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) live simultaneously inside and outside of host plant roots for a functional mycorrhizal symbiosis. Still, the year-round dynamics and relationships between soil properties and AMF communities of trees in forest ecosystems remain unclear. We collected paired root and soil samples of the same Cryptomeria japonica trees at two forest sites (five trees at each site) every 2 months over a year. Total DNA was extracted from roots and soil separately and soil physicochemical properties were measured. With Illumina's next-generation amplicon sequencing targeting the small subunit of fungal ribosomal DNA, we clarified seasonal dynamics of soil properties and AMF communities. Soil pH and total phosphorus showed significant seasonality while total carbon, nitrogen, and C/N did not. Only pH was a good predictor of the composition and dynamics of the AMF community. The total AMF community (roots + soil) showed significant seasonality because of variation from May to September. Root and soil AMF communities were steady year-round, however, with similar species richness but contained significantly different AMF assemblages in any sampling month. Despite the weak seasonality in the communities, the top two dominant OTUs showed significant but different shifts between roots and soils across seasons with strong antagonistic relationships. In conclusion, few dominant AMF taxa are dynamically shifting between the roots and soils of C. japonica to respond to seasonal and phenological variations in their microhabitats. AMF inhabiting forest ecosystems may have high environmental plasticity to sustain a functional symbiosis regardless of seasonal variations that occur in the soil.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/genética , Solo/química , Ecossistema , Cryptomeria/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores , DNA Fúngico/genética , Fungos/genética
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 119, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429532

RESUMO

Soil bacteria-fungi interactions are essential in the biogeochemical cycles of several nutrients, making these microbes major players in agroecosystems. While the impact of the farming system on microbial community composition has been extensively reported in the literature, whether sustainable farming approaches can promote associations between bacteria and fungi is still unclear. To study this, we employed 16S, ITS, and 18S DNA sequencing to uncover how microbial interactions were affected by conventional and organic farming systems on maize crops. The Bray-Curtis index revealed that bacterial, fungal, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities were significantly different between the two farming systems. Several taxa known to thrive in healthy soils, such as Nitrosophaerales, Orbiliales, and Glomus were more abundant in the organic farming system. Constrained ordination revealed that the organic farming system microbial community was significantly correlated with the ß-glucosidase activity, whereas the conventional farming system microbial community significantly correlated with soil pH. Both conventional and organic co-occurrence interkingdom networks exhibited a parallel node count, however, the former had a higher number of edges, thus being denser than the latter. Despite the similar amount of fungal nodes in the co-occurrence networks, the organic farming system co-occurrence network exhibited more than 3-fold the proportion of fungal taxa as keystone nodes than the conventional co-occurrence network. The genera Bionectria, Cercophora, Geastrum, Penicillium, Preussia, Metarhizium, Myceliophthora, and Rhizophlyctis were among the fungal keystone nodes of the organic farming system network. Altogether, our results uncover that beyond differences in microbial community composition between the two farming systems, fungal keystone nodes are far more relevant in the organic farming system, thus suggesting that bacteria-fungi interactions are more frequent in organic farming systems, promoting a more functional microbial community.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Micorrizas , Agricultura Orgânica , Micorrizas/genética , Agricultura , Solo/química , Bactérias/genética
6.
Mycorrhiza ; 34(1-2): 33-44, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520554

RESUMO

Although the absence of normal leaves is often considered a sign of full heterotrophy, some plants remain at least partially autotrophic despite their leafless habit. Leafless orchids with green stems and capsules probably represent a late evolutionary stage toward full mycoheterotrophy and serve as valuable models for understanding the pathways leading to this nutritional strategy. In this study, based on molecular barcoding and isotopic analysis, we explored the physiological ecology of the leafless orchid Eulophia zollingeri, which displays green coloration, particularly during its fruiting phase. Although previous studies had shown that E. zollingeri, in its adult stage, is associated with Psathyrellaceae fungi and exhibits high 13C isotope signatures similar to fully mycoheterotrophic orchids, it remained uncertain whether this symbiotic relationship is consistent throughout the orchid's entire life cycle and whether the orchid relies exclusively on mycoheterotrophy for its nutrition during the fruiting season. Our study has demonstrated that E. zollingeri maintains a specialized symbiotic relationship with Psathyrellaceae fungi throughout all life stages. However, isotopic analysis and chlorophyll data have shown that the orchid also engages in photosynthesis to meet its carbon needs, particularly during the fruiting stage. This research constitutes the first discovery of partial mycoheterotrophy in leafless orchids associated with saprotrophic non-rhizoctonia fungi.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Micorrizas , Orchidaceae , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Madeira/química , Madeira/metabolismo , Simbiose , Carbono/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/microbiologia
7.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120754, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522280

RESUMO

Afforestation on degraded croplands has been proposed as an effective measure to promote ecosystem functions including soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) plays a crucial role in promoting the accumulation and stability of SOC. Nevertheless, mechanisms underlying the effects of afforestation on GRSP accumulation have not been well elucidated. In the present study, 14 pairs of maize fields and plantation forests were selected using a paired-site approach in a karst region of southwest China. By measuring soil GRSP and a variety of soil biotic and abiotic variables, the pattern of and controls on GRSP accumulation in response to afforestation were explored. The average content of total GRSP (T-GRSP) and its contribution to SOC in the maize field were 5.22 ± 0.29 mg g-1 and 42.33 ± 2.25%, and those in the plantation forest were 6.59 ± 0.32 mg g-1 and 25.77 ± 1.17%, respectively. T-GRSP content was increased by 26.4% on average, but its contribution to SOC was decreased by 39.1% following afforestation. T-GRSP content decreased as soil depth increased regardless of afforestation or not. Afforestation increased T-GRSP indirectly via its positive effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biomass, which was stimulated by afforestation through elevating fine root biomass or increasing the availability of labile C and N. The suppressed contribution of T-GRSP to SOC following afforestation was due to the relatively higher increase in other SOC components than T-GRSP and the significant increase of soil C:N ratio. Our study reveals the mechanisms underlying the effects of afforestation on T-GRSP accumulation, and is conducive to improving the mechanistic understanding of microbial control on SOC sequestration following afforestation.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Solo , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Micorrizas/química , Micorrizas/metabolismo , China
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133934, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447370

RESUMO

It remains unclear how symbiotic microbes impact the growth of peanuts when they are exposed to the pollutants cadmium (Cd) and microplastics (MPs) simultaneously. This study aimed to investigate the effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus velezens SC60 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on peanut growth and rhizosphere microbial communities in the presence of Cd at 40 (Cd40) or 80 (Cd80) mg kg-1 combined without MP or the presence of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT). This study assessed soil indicators, plant parameters, and Cd accumulation indicators. Results showed that the application of R. irregularis and B. velezens significantly enhanced soil organic carbon and increased Cd content under the conditions of Cd80 and MPs co-pollution. R. irregularis and B. velezens treatment increased peanut absorption and the enrichment coefficient for Cd, with predominate concentrations localized in the peanut roots, especially under combined pollution by Cd and MPs. Under treatments with Cd40 and Cd80 combined with PBAT pollution, soil microbes Proteobacteria exhibited a higher relative abundance, while Actinobacteria showed a higher relative abundance under treatments with Cd40 and Cd80 combined with LDPE pollution. In conclusion, under the combined pollution conditions of MPs and Cd, the co-treatment of R. irregularis and B. velezens effectively immobilized Cd in peanut roots, impeding its translocation to the shoot.


Assuntos
Glomeromycota , Micorrizas , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Arachis , Carbono , Polietileno , Solo , Raízes de Plantas , Bactérias , Poluição Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
9.
Environ Pollut ; 347: 123804, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493864

RESUMO

Industrial activities pose a significant ecological risk to water resources as they pollute surrounding waters with vanadium (V). Although the contribution of plants and substrates to V removal in constructed wetlands (CWs) has been reported, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of AMF in V removal in CWs and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Reed plants (Phragmites australis) were inoculated with an AMF strain (Rhizophagus irregularis) in CW columns, creating AMF-inoculated (+AMF) and non-inoculated (-AMF) treatments. Three levels of influent V concentrations (low: 0.50 mg L-1, medium: 1.14 mg L-1 and high: 1.52 mg L-1) were examined. The + AMF treatment showed higher V removal (60%-98%) than the control (40%-82%) in all three conditions, although the difference was not significant in some cases. The mean mycorrhizal effects were 75%, 19%, and 28% for low, moderate, and high influent V concentrations, respectively. The +AMF treatment showed a higher GRSP-bonded V concentration (5.5 mg g-1) than the -AMF treatment (4.0 mg g-1). Furthermore, +AMF treatment showed larger plants with higher V concentrations in their tissues, accompanied by increased biological concentration factors and biological accumulation factors. Given the remarkable positive effect of AMF on V removal, our study suggests that treating AMF in CWs is a worthwhile approach.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Áreas Alagadas , Vanádio , Rios , Fungos , Plantas , Água , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
10.
Mycorrhiza ; 34(1-2): 69-84, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441669

RESUMO

Trees form symbioses with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, maintained in part through mutual benefit to both organisms. Our understanding of the signaling events leading to the successful interaction between the two partners requires further study. This is especially true for understanding the role of volatile signals produced by ECM fungi. Terpenoids are a predominant class of volatiles produced by ECM fungi. While several ECM genomes are enriched in the enzymes responsible for the production of these volatiles (i.e., terpene synthases (TPSs)) when compared to other fungi, we have limited understanding of the biochemical products associated with each enzyme and the physiological impact of specific terpenes on plant growth. Using a combination of phylogenetic analyses, RNA sequencing, and functional characterization of five TPSs from two distantly related ECM fungi (Laccaria bicolor and Pisolithus microcarpus), we investigated the role of these secondary metabolites during the establishment of symbiosis. We found that despite phylogenetic divergence, these TPSs produced very similar terpene profiles. We focused on the role of P. microcarpus terpenes and found that the fungus expressed a diverse array of mono-, di-, and sesquiterpenes prior to contact with the host. However, these metabolites were repressed following physical contact with the host Eucalyptus grandis. Exposure of E. grandis to heterologously produced terpenes (enriched primarily in γ -cadinene) led to a reduction in the root growth rate and an increase in P. microcarpus-colonized root tips. These results support a very early putative role of fungal-produced terpenes in the establishment of symbiosis between mycorrhizal fungi and their hosts.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Micorrizas , Sesquiterpenos , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
11.
Mycorrhiza ; 34(1-2): 145-158, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441668

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can increase plant tolerance and/or resistance to pests such as the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. However, the ameliorative effects may depend on AMF species. The aim of this work was therefore to evaluate whether four AMF species differentially affect plant performance in response to M. incognita infection. Tomato plants grown in greenhouse conditions were inoculated with four different AMF isolates (Claroideoglomus claroideum, Funneliformis mosseae, Gigaspora margarita, and Rhizophagus intraradices) and infected with 100 second stage juveniles of M. incognita at two different times: simultaneously or 2 weeks after the inoculation with AMF. After 60 days, the number of galls, egg masses, and reproduction factor of the nematodes were assessed along with plant biomass, phosphorus (P), and nitrogen concentrations in roots and shoots and root colonization by AMF. Only the simultaneous nematode inoculation without AMF caused a large reduction in plant shoot biomass, while all AMF species were able to ameliorate this effect and improve plant P uptake. The AMF isolates responded differently to the interaction with nematodes, either increasing the frequency of vesicles (C. claroideum) or reducing the number of arbuscules (F. mosseae and Gi. margarita). AMF inoculation did not decrease galls; however, it reduced the number of egg masses per gall in nematode simultaneous inoculation, except for C. claroideum. This work shows the importance of biotic stress alleviation associated with an improvement in P uptake and mediated by four different AMF species, irrespective of their fungal root colonization levels and specific interactions with the parasite.


Assuntos
Glomeromycota , Micorrizas , Solanum lycopersicum , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Plantas
12.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14205, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439620

RESUMO

Rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are symbiotic microorganisms important for plants grown in nutrient-deficient and heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, it remains unclear how plants respond to the coupled stress by heavy metal and nitrogen (N) deficiency under co-inoculation. Here, we investigated the synergistic effect of Mesorhizobium huakuii QD9 and Funneliformis mosseae on the response of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) grown in sand culture to cadmium (Cd) under N deficiency conditions. The results showed that single inoculation of AMF improved the growth and Cd resistance of black locust, co-inoculation improved the most. Compared to non-inoculated controls, co-inoculation mediated higher biomass and antioxidant enzyme activity, reduced oxidative stress, and promoted nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization, photosynthetic capacity, and N, P, Fe and Mg acquisition when exposed to Cd. This increase was significantly higher under N deficiency compared to N sufficiency. In addition, the uptake of Cd by co-inoculated black locust roots increased, but Cd translocation to the above-ground decreased under both N deficiency and sufficiency. Thus, in the tripartite symbiotic system, not merely metabolic processes but also Cd uptake increased under N deficiency. However, enhanced Cd detoxification in the roots and reduced allocation to the shoot likely prevent Cd toxicity and rather stimulated growth under these conditions.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Rhizobium , Robinia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Areia , Antioxidantes
13.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(3): e16597, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450872

RESUMO

Salinity is an increasing problem in coastal areas affected by saltwater intrusion, with deleterious effects on tree health and forest growth. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi may improve the salinity tolerance of host trees, but the impact of external potassium (K+ ) availability on these effects is still unclear. Here, we performed several experiments with the ECM fungus Paxillus ammoniavirescens and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in axenic and symbiotic conditions at limited or sufficient K+ and increasing sodium (Na+ ) concentrations. Growth rate, biomass, nutrient content, and K+ transporter expression levels were recorded for the fungus, and the colonization rate, root development parameters, biomass, and shoot nutrient accumulation were determined for mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. P. ammoniavirescens was tolerant to high salinity, although growth and nutrient concentrations varied with K+ availability and increasing Na+ exposure. While loblolly pine root growth and development decreased with increasing salinity, ECM colonization was unaffected by pine response to salinity. The mycorrhizal influence on loblolly pine salinity response was strongly dependent on external K+ availability. This study reveals that P. ammoniavirescens can reduce Na+ accumulation of salt-exposed loblolly pine, but this effect depends on external K+ availability.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Micorrizas , Pinus taeda/genética , Salinidade , Potássio
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17215, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429894

RESUMO

Tropospheric ozone (O3 ) threatens agroecosystems, yet its long-term effects on intricate plant-microbe-soil interactions remain overlooked. This study employed two soybean genotypes of contrasting O3 -sensitivity grown in field plots exposed elevated O3 (eO3 ) and evaluated cause-effect relationships with their associated soil microbiomes and soil quality. Results revealed long-term eO3 effects on belowground soil microbiomes and soil health surpass damage visible on plants. Elevated O3 significantly disrupted belowground bacteria-fungi interactions, reduced fungal diversity, and altered fungal community assembly by impacting soybean physiological properties. Particularly, eO3 impacts on plant performance were significantly associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, undermining their contribution to plants, whereas eO3 increased fungal saprotroph proliferation, accelerating soil organic matter decomposition and soil carbon pool depletion. Free-living diazotrophs exhibited remarkable acclimation under eO3 , improving plant performance by enhancing nitrogen fixation. However, overarching detrimental consequences of eO3 negated this benefit. Overall, this study demonstrated long-term eO3 profoundly governed negative impacts on plant-soil-microbiota interactions, pointing to a potential crisis for agroecosystems. These findings highlight urgent needs to develop adaptive strategies to navigate future eO3 scenarios.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Ozônio , Solo/química , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2756: 291-304, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427300

RESUMO

Full compatible interactions between crop plants and endoparasitic sedentary nematodes (ESNs) lead to severe infestation of the roots and plant growth impairing, as well as to the increase of nematode population in the soil that is a threat for the next planting crop. In the absence of activators, basic plant defense is overcome by nematode secretion of effectors that suppress defense gene expression, inhibit ROS generation and the oxidative burst used by plants to hamper nematode feeding site settlement and limit its development and reproduction. Activators can be exogenously added as a preventive measure to prime plants and strengthen their defense against ESNs. Activators can be an array of antioxidant compounds or biocontrol agents, such as mutualist microorganisms living in the rhizosphere (biocontrol fungi (BCF), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), etc.). In this chapter, methods are described for usage of both salicylic acid (SA) and its methylated form (Met-SA), and BCF/AMF as elicitors of resistance of vegetable crops against root-knot nematodes (RKNs). The rhizosphere-living BCF/AMF were recovered from commercial formulates pre-incubated in suitable growth media and provided exclusively as soil drench of potted plants. The plant hormones SA and Met-SA were provided to plants as soil drench, foliar spray, and root dip. It is indicated that activators' dosages and plant age are crucial factors in determining the success of a pre-treatment to reduce nematode infection. Therefore, dosages should be expressed as amounts of activators per g of plant weight at treatment. Thresholds exist above which dosages start to work; overdoses were found to be toxic to plants and useless as activators.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Nematoides , Animais , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Nematoides/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Solo
16.
Tree Physiol ; 44(4)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470306

RESUMO

Drought is a major environmental stressor that limits seedling growth. Several studies have found that some ectomycorrhizal fungi may increase the drought tolerance of nursery-raised seedlings. However, the precise role that different ectomycorrhizal fungi species play in drought tolerance remains unclear. We evaluated the transpiration rate of Pinus sylvestris seedlings under drought stress in greenhouse conditions by exposing seedlings to 10 ectomycorrhizal fungi species, with different functional traits (exploration type and hydrophobicity), and to 3 natural soil inoculums. We measured the transpiration and water potential of the seedlings during a 10-day drought period and a 14-day recovery period. We then analyzed their root morphology, stem, needle, root biomass and needle chlorophyll fluorescence. We showed that exposing seedlings to ectomycorrhizal fungi or soil inoculum had a positive effect on their transpiration rate during the driest period and through the recovery phase, leading to 2- to 3-fold higher transpiration rates compared with the nonexposed control seedlings. Seedlings exposed to medium-distance ectomycorrhizal fungi performed better than other exploration types under drought conditions, but ectomycorrhizal fungi hydrophobicity did not seem to affect the seedlings response to drought. No significant differences were observed in biomass accumulation and root morphology between the seedlings exposed to different ectomycorrhizal fungi species and the control. Our results highlight the positive and species-specific effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi exposure on drought tolerance in nursery-raised Scots pine seedlings. The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi functional traits may not be sufficient to predict the seedling response to drought stress, thus physiological studies across multiple species are needed to draw the correct conclusion. Our findings have potential practical implications for enhancing seedling drought tolerance in nursery plant production.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Pinus sylvestris , Pinus , Pinus sylvestris/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Biomassa , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Secas , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Solo , Pinus/fisiologia
17.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108478, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430785

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and enhance plant drought tolerance with varying effect size among different fungal species. However, the linkage between the variation and the lipid metabolism, which is exclusively derived from plants, has been little explored thus far. Here, we established AM symbiosis between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and three AMF species (Rhizophagus intraradices, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus irregularis) under well watered (WW) or drought stressed (DS) conditions in pot experiment. The plant biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence Fv/Fm, shoot P content and mycorrhizal colonization were determined. Meanwhile, fatty acid (FA) profiles and relative expression of genes encoding for nutrition exchange (SlPT4, SlPT5, RAM2, STR/STR2) in roots were also monitored. DS significantly decreased plant biomass while AMF significantly increased it, with three fungal species varying in their growth promoting capacity and drought tolerance capacity. The growth promoting effect of R. irregularis was lower than those of R. intraradices and F. mosseae, and was associated with higher mycorrhizal colonization and more consumption of lipids. However, the drought tolerance capacity of R. irregularis was greater than those of R. intraradices and F. mosseae, and was associated with less decrease in mycorrhizal colonization and lipid content. We also found that AMF mediated plant drought tolerance via regulating both AM specific FAs and non-AM specific FAs in a complementary manner. These data suggest that lipid metabolism in AM plays a crucial role in plant drought tolerance mediated by AMF.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Solanum lycopersicum , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Resistência à Seca , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Simbiose/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108479, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461752

RESUMO

Drought is known to be the most important constraint to the growth and yield of agricultural products in the world, and plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be a way to reduce drought stress negative impacts. A two-year experiment to investigate the factorial combination of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices, Control) and phosphorus fertilizer (application and non-application of phosphorus) on fruit yield and phenolic acids changes bitter gourd under different irrigation regimes as a split factorial based on a randomized complete block design. Three irrigation regimes, including irrigation after 20%, 50%, and 80% available soil water content depletion (ASWD), were considered in the main plots. The results showed that under water deficit stress, fruit yield and physiological (photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), RWC, total chlorophyll, and root colonization) parameters decreased compared to 20% ASWD, and biochemical (proline, soluble sugar, MDA, CAT, SOD, phenol) parameters and fruit phenolic acids (caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid) increased. However, the inoculation of AMF and phosphorus fertilizer in three irrigation regimes decreased MDA content, but physiological and biochemical parameters and fruit phenolic acids were increased. In this study, the factorial combination of AMF and sufficient phosphorus improved the resistance of bitter gourd to water deficit, and this not only improved fruit yield but also increased fruit phenolic acids under 80% ASWD, which can be an innovation in the management of water resources and the production industry of medicinal plants with high antioxidant properties in water deficit areas.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Fertilizantes , Fósforo , Frutas , Água
19.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 360, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519711

RESUMO

Root-associated microbes can alleviate plant abiotic stresses, thus potentially supporting adaptation to a changing climate or to novel environments during range expansion. While climate change is extending plant species fundamental niches northward, the distribution and colonization of mutualists (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) and pathogens may constrain plant growth and regeneration. Yet, the degree to which biotic and abiotic factors impact plant performance and associated microbial communities at the edge of their distribution remains unclear. Here, we use root microscopy, coupled with amplicon sequencing, to study bacterial, fungal, and mycorrhizal root-associated microbial communities from sugar maple seedlings distributed across two temperate-to-boreal elevational gradients in southern Québec, Canada. Our findings demonstrate that soil pH, soil Ca, and distance to sugar maple trees are key drivers of root-associated microbial communities, overshadowing the influence of elevation. Interestingly, changes in root fungal community composition mediate an indirect effect of soil pH on seedling growth, a pattern consistent at both sites. Overall, our findings highlight a complex role of biotic and abiotic factors in shaping tree-microbe interactions, which are in turn correlated with seedling growth. These findings have important ramifications for tree range expansion in response to shifting climatic niches.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Plântula , Árvores/microbiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Solo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 273: 116157, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430578

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stress and promote plant growth in contaminated soil. However, the interaction mechanism between rhizosphere microbial communities under chromium (Cr) stress remains unclear. This study conducted a greenhouse pot experiment and metagenomics analysis to reveal the comprehensive effects of the interaction between AMF (Rhizophagus intraradices) and nitrogen-N metabolizing plant growth promoters on the growth of Iris tectorum. The results showed that AMF significantly increased the biomass and nutrient levels of I. tectorum in contaminated soil and decreased the content of Cr in the soil. Metagenomics analysis revealed that the structure and composition of the rhizosphere microbial community involved in nitrogen metabolism changed significantly after inoculation with AMF under Cr stress. Functional genes related to soil nitrogen mineralization (gltB, gltD, gdhA, ureC, and glnA), nitrate reduction to ammonium (nirB, nrfA, and nasA), and soil nitrogen assimilation (NRT, nrtA, and nrtC) were up-regulated in the N-metabolizing microbial community. In contrast, the abundance of functional genes involved in denitrification (nirK and narI) was down-regulated. In addition, the inoculation of AMF regulates the synergies between the N-metabolic rhizosphere microbial communities and enhances the complexity and stability of the rhizosphere ecological network. This study provides a basis for improving plant tolerance to heavy metal stress by regulating the functional abundance of N-metabolizing plant growth-promoting bacteria through AMF inoculation. It helps to understand the potential mechanism of wetland plant remediation of Cr-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Iris (Planta) , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Iris (Planta)/genética , Plantas , Bactérias , Solo/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas , Fungos
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