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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1380970, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38559690

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the efficacy of assessing the severity of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in patients with untreated diabetes. Seventy-two patients with untreated type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized for glycemic control were enrolled and divided into the following two groups: patients who had no prior diagnosis and patients who were unattended or had discontinued treatment. Electrophysiological criteria consistent with Baba's classification were used to diagnose and assess the severity of DPN. The patients were divided into three subgroups: no DPN (stage 0), mild DPN (stage 1), and moderate or more-severe DPN (stages 2-4). Intergroup comparisons were performed for the clinical characteristics and the results of the nerve conduction studies. Twenty-two (30%), 25 (35%), and 25 (35%) patients were categorized into the no DPN, mild DPN, and moderate or more-severe DPN subgroups, respectively. The number of patients who were unattended or had discontinued treatment in the moderate or more-severe DPN subgroup was significantly higher than that in the no DPN subgroup. The patients in the moderate or more-severe DPN subgroup had an increased risk of developing diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, with odds ratios of 19.5 and 11.0 for advanced stages of retinopathy and nephropathy, respectively. Thus, the assessment of the severity of DPN could aid in the prediction of the risk of developing diabetic complications in patients with untreated diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Retinopatia Diabética , Humanos , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1356832, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562416

RESUMO

Background: Non-scarring alopecia is typically represented by two main types: alopecia areata (AA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA). While previous observational studies have indicated a link between non-scarring alopecia and hypothyroidism, the precise causal relationship remains uncertain. To determine the potential links between non-scarring alopecia and hypothyroidism, we conducted a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Methods: We used independent genetic instruments from the FinnGen consortium for AA (682 cases, 361,140 controls) and AGA (195 cases, 201,019 controls) to investigate the association with hypothyroidism in the UK Biobank study (22,687 cases, 440,246 controls). The primary analysis was performed using the inverse variance-weighted method. Complementary approaches were employed to evaluate the pleiotropy and heterogeneity. Results: Genetically predicted AA exhibited a positive causal effect on hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 1.0017; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0004-1.0029; P = 0.0101). Additionally, hypothyroidism was found to be strongly correlated with an increase in the risk of AA (OR, 45.6839; 95% CI, 1.8446-1131.4271, P = 0.0196). However, no causal relationship was demonstrated between AGA and hypothyroidism. A sensitivity analysis validated the integrity of these causal relationships. Conclusion: This MR study supports a bidirectional causal link between AA and hypothyroidism. Nevertheless, additional research is needed to gain a more thorough comprehension of the causal relationship between non-scarring alopecia and hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas , Hipotireoidismo , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Razão de Chances
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 243, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choosing whether to pursue a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) or scheduled repeat cesarean delivery (SRCD) requires prenatal assessment of risks and benefits. Providers and patients play a central role in this process. However, the influence of provider-associated characteristics on delivery methods remains unclear. We hypothesized that different provider practice groups have different obstetric outcomes in patients with one prior cesarean delivery (CD). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of deliveries between April 29, 2015 - April 29, 2020. Subjects were divided into three cohorts: SRCD, successful VBAC, and unsuccessful VBAC (patients who chose TOLAC but had a CD). Disparities were reviewed between five different obstetric provider practice groups, determined from a breakdown of different providers delivering at the study site during the study period. Proportional differences were examined using Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models. RESULTS: 1,439 deliveries were included in the study. There were significant proportional disparities between patients in the different groups. Specifically, patients from Group D were significantly more likely to undergo successful VBAC, while patients seeing a provider from Group A were more likely to deliver by SRCD. In our multivariate analysis of successful versus unsuccessful VBAC, patients from Group D had greater odds ratios of successful VBAC compared to Group A. Patients delivered by Group E had a significantly lower odds ratio of successful VBAC. CONCLUSION: This study suggests an association between provider practice groups and delivery outcomes among patients with one prior CD. These data contribute to a growing body of literature around patient choice in pregnancy and the interplay of patients and providers. These findings help to guide future investigations to improve outcomes among patients with a history of CD.


Assuntos
Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea , Prova de Trabalho de Parto , Razão de Chances
4.
Indian Pediatr ; 61(4): 343-347, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occurrence and severity of deformational plagiocephaly among infants. METHODS: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was done in the pediatric ward of a tertiary care hospital between April 1, 2022 to October 31, 2022. Cranial Vault Asymmetry Index (CVAI) and Argenta Clinical Classification were applied to consecutive infants aged 1 month to 1 year till the calculated sample size was achieved. RESULTS: 67 infants were recruited and the occurrence of deformational plagiocephaly in the sample was estimated to be 46.3%. Level 2 severity of deformational plagiocephaly was the commonest, while as per the Argenta classification, majority belonged to type I (39.2%). Male gender and developmental delay were the significant risk factors for plagiocephaly with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 3.73 (1.23, 11.26) and 19.25 (2.31, 160.3), respectively. CONCLUSION: A high occurrence of deformational plagiocephaly was found in infants studied. There is a need for more studies to further corroborate these findings and study its associated factors.


Assuntos
Plagiocefalia não Sinostótica , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Plagiocefalia não Sinostótica/diagnóstico , Plagiocefalia não Sinostótica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
5.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1361416, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469141

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies have revealed a significant decrease in serum fetuin-A levels in atherosclerotic aneurysms, indicating that fetuin-A may play a protective role in the progression of arterial calcification. However, the specific mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between fetuin-A levels in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and risk of TAAs and to evaluate whether this association was causal. Methods: A total of 26 SNPs were selected as instrumental variables for fetuin-A in 9,055 participants of European ancestry from the CHARGE consortium, and their effects on thoracic aortic aneurysm and decreased descending thoracic aortic diameter were separately estimated in 353,049 and 39,688 individuals from FinnGen consortium. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine the causal association. At the same time, we employed various methods, including random-effects inverse variance weighting, weighted median, MR Egger regression, and MR PRESSO, to ensure the robustness of causal effects. We assessed heterogeneity using Cochran's Q value and examined horizontal pleiotropy through MR Egger regression and retention analysis. Results: Fetuin-A level was associated with a significantly decreasing risk of thoracic aortic aneurysm (odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.47 - 0.87, P = 0.0044). Genetically predicted fetuin-A was also correlated with the decreased descending thoracic aortic diameter (ß = -0.086, standard error (SE) 0.036, P = 0.017). Conclusions: Serum fetuin-A level was negatively associated with risk of TTAs and correlated with the decreased descending thoracic aortic diameter. Mendelian randomization provides support for the potential causal relationship between fetuin-A and thoracic aortic aneurysm.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS , Humanos , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 117, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex difference in the incidence rate of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) indicates that estrogen has a certain protective effect on the disease. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of study investigating the association between factors pertaining to endogenous estrogen exposure level, such as age at menarche (AAM) in women, and IPF. Our study intended to employ Mendelian randomization (MR) method to elucidate the causal association between AAM and IPF. METHODS: Our study utilized AAM as a measure of endogenous estrogen exposure and investigated its causal effect on the risk of IPF through MR. We employed the inverse variance weighted (IVW) method to assess the causal relationship between AAM and IPF risk, with supplementary analyses conducted using the weighted median estimator (WME) and MR-Egger method. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the dependability of MR estimates. RESULTS: A total of 9 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with AAM were selected as instrumental variables. The IVW method showed that genetically later AAM was associated with an increased risk of IPF (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0014, 95%confidence interval [CI] = 1.0005-1.0023, p = 0.001). The median weighting method and the MR-Egger method obtained similar estimates, and no heterogeneity or pleiotropy was found, indicating that the results were robust. CONCLUSIONS: Our MR study suggested a causal relationship between a later onset of menarche and a heightened susceptibility to IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Menarca , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Menarca/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Estrogênios , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Razão de Chances
7.
Brain Behav ; 14(3): e3450, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aphasia and neglect in combination with hemiparesis are reliable indicators of large anterior vessel occlusion (LAVO). Prehospital identification of these symptoms is generally considered difficult by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. Therefore, we evaluated the simple non-paretic-hand-to-opposite-ear (NPE) test to identify aphasia and neglect with a single test. As the NPE test includes a test for arm paresis, we also evaluated the diagnostic ability of the NPE test to detect LAVO in patients with suspected stroke. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we performed the NPE test in 1042 patients with suspected acute stroke between May 2021 and May 2022. We analyzed the correlation between the NPE test and the aphasia/neglect items of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Additionally, the predictive values of the NPE test for LAVO detection were calculated. RESULTS: The NPE test showed a strong, significant correlation with both aphasia and neglect. A positive NPE test result predicted LAVO with a sensitivity of 0.70, a specificity of 0.88, and an accuracy of 0.85. Logistic regression analysis showed an odds ratio of 16.14 (95% confidence interval 10.82-24.44) for predicting LAVO. CONCLUSION: The NPE test is a simple test for the detection of both aphasia and neglect. With its predictive values for LAVO detection being comparable to the results of LAVO scores in the prehospital setting, this simple test might be a promising test for prehospital LAVO detection by EMS personnel. Further prospective prehospital validation is needed.


Assuntos
Afasia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/etiologia , Mãos , Razão de Chances
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 60: 362-372, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disease characterized by abdominal pain, distension, and altered bowel habits. Probiotics may alleviate IBS symptoms, but clinical trials remain conflicting. AIMS: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotics for IBS patients. METHODS: We searched relevant trials in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar from 2000 to June 2023. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for continuous outcomes. A risk ratio (RR) and a 95% CI were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 20 studies involving 3011 patients were obtained. The results demonstrated that probiotics are more effective than placebo in reducing global IBS symptoms improvement rate (RR = 1.401, 95% CI 1.182-1.662, P < 0.001) and quality of life scores (SMD = 0.286, 95% CI = 0.154-0.418, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that a shorter treatment time (less than eight weeks) could reduce distension scores (SMD = 0.197, 95% CI = 0.038-0.356, P = 0.015). High doses (daily dose of probiotics ≥ 10ˆ10) or multiple strains of probiotics exhibit beneficial effects on abdominal pain (SMD = 0.412, 95% CI = 0.112-0.711, P = 0.007; SMD = 0.590, 95% CI = 0.050-1.129, P = 0.032; respectively). However, there was no significant benefit on global symptom scores (SMD = 0.387, 95% CI 0.122 to 0.653, P = 0.004) with statistically high inter-study heterogeneity (I2 = 91.9%, P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was no significant inter-group difference in terms of adverse events frequency (RR = 0.997, 95% CI 0.845-1.177, P = 0.973). CONCLUSION: Probiotics are effective and safe for IBS patients. High doses or multiple probiotic strains seem preferable, but definite conclusions are challenging due to the high heterogeneity. Large-scale, well-designed, and rigorous trials are needed to confirm their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Probióticos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Razão de Chances
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 326: 117967, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431111

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psoraleae Fructus (PF), the dried fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L., is a commonly used traditional medicine that has contributed to the treatment of orthopedic diseases for thousands of years in China. However, recent PF-related liver injury reports have drawn widespread attention regarding its potential hepatotoxicity risks. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and chronic toxicity of PF using a 26-week administration experiment on rats in order to simulate the clinical usage situation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PF aqueous extract was consecutively administrated to rats daily at dosages of 0.7, 2.0, and 5.6 g/kg (equivalent to 1-8 times the clinical doses for humans) for as long as 26 weeks. Samples were collected after 13, 26, and 32 weeks (withdrawal for 6 weeks) since the first administration. The chronic toxicity of PF was evaluated by conventional toxicological methods, and the efficacy of PF was evaluated by osteogenic effects in the natural growth process. RESULTS: In our experiments, only the H group (5.6 g/kg) for 26-week PF treatment demonstrated liver or kidney injury, which the injuries were reversible after 6 weeks of withdrawal. Notably, the PF treatment beyond 13 weeks showed significant benefits for bone growth and development in rats, with a higher benefit-risk ratio in female rats. CONCLUSIONS: PF displayed a promising benefit-risk ratio in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, a disease that lacks effective medicine so far. This is the first study to elucidate the benefit-risk balance associated with clinical dosage and long-term use of PF, thereby providing valuable insights for rational clinical use and risk control of PF.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Fabaceae , Psoralea , Humanos , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Frutas , Razão de Chances , Fígado , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade
10.
Brain Behav ; 14(3): e3468, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders. Evidence has suggested an association between skin disorders, such as atopic dermatitis, and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether atopic dermatitis has a causal effect on PD remains unknown. METHODS: The study aimed to determine whether their association between atopic dermatitis and PD is causal, using a bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization method. Genetic variants from the public genome-wide association studies for atopic dermatitis (n = 10788 cases and 30047 controls) were selected to evaluate their causal effects on the risk of PD (33,674 cases and 449,056 controls). The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used as the primary analysis. RESULTS: The IVW results indicated that atopic dermatitis was associated with decreased risk of PD {fixed effects: odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: .905 [.832-.986], p = .022; OR [95% CI]: .905 [.827-.991], p = .032}. However, we failed to detect the causal effects of PD on risk of atopic dermatitis in the reverse causation analysis. CONCLUSION: This study indicated causal association of genetically proxied atopic dermatitis with the risk of PD. Future studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanism and investigate the targeting effect of atopic dermatitis on PD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Razão de Chances
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(2)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436559

RESUMO

A wide range of approaches can be used to detect micro RNA (miRNA)-target gene pairs (mTPs) from expression data, differing in the ways the gene and miRNA expression profiles are calculated, combined and correlated. However, there is no clear consensus on which is the best approach across all datasets. Here, we have implemented multiple strategies and applied them to three distinct rare disease datasets that comprise smallRNA-Seq and RNA-Seq data obtained from the same samples, obtaining mTPs related to the disease pathology. All datasets were preprocessed using a standardized, freely available computational workflow, DEG_workflow. This workflow includes coRmiT, a method to compare multiple strategies for mTP detection. We used it to investigate the overlap of the detected mTPs with predicted and validated mTPs from 11 different databases. Results show that there is no clear best strategy for mTP detection applicable to all situations. We therefore propose the integration of the results of the different strategies by selecting the one with the highest odds ratio for each miRNA, as the optimal way to integrate the results. We applied this selection-integration method to the datasets and showed it to be robust to changes in the predicted and validated mTP databases. Our findings have important implications for miRNA analysis. coRmiT is implemented as part of the ExpHunterSuite Bioconductor package available from https://bioconductor.org/packages/ExpHunterSuite.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Consenso , Bases de Dados Factuais , MicroRNAs/genética , Razão de Chances , RNA-Seq
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(5): 1976-1986, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leaving Against Medical Advice (LAMA) is a prevalent issue in healthcare settings that may lead to negative patient outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of LAMA on patient outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed across PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus. Studies reporting adverse outcomes, including mortality and hospital readmission rates, in patients who underwent LAMA were included. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Eight studies were included in the review, with four contributing to the meta-analysis on 1-year mortality and five to the meta-analysis on hospital readmission rates. LAMA was not significantly associated with higher 1-year mortality [OR = 0.66, 95% CI (0.38, 1.16), p = 0.15] or hospital readmission rates [OR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.30, 1.23), p = 0.16] across the studies. However, there was substantial heterogeneity in the results (I2 = 91% for mortality; I2 = 99% for readmissions). CONCLUSIONS: While individual studies reported varying outcomes, the pooled results did not show a significant association between LAMA and increased 1-year mortality or hospital readmission rates. However, the high degree of heterogeneity suggests the influence of diverse patient populations, healthcare settings, and study methodologies on these outcomes. Further research is needed to better understand the factors contributing to the adverse outcomes associated with LAMA and to develop targeted interventions to mitigate them.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente , Pacientes , Humanos , Biblioteca Gênica , Razão de Chances
13.
EuroIntervention ; 20(6): e344-e353, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous suture-based arterial access site closure (ProGlide) is commonly applied in patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, the failure of a suture-based vascular closure device (VCD) may require additional treatment. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bailout access site closure using a large-bore plug-based device (MANTA) in patients with failed suture-based closure during transfemoral TAVI. METHODS: Patients undergoing a bailout attempt with the MANTA VCD were identified from a prospectively enrolling, institutional registry. Efficacy was defined as haemostasis at the access site without the need for alternative treatment other than manual compression or endovascular ballooning. Safety was defined as freedom from vascular dissection, stenosis and occlusion requiring intervention. RESULTS: Of 2,505 patients, 66 underwent a bailout attempt with MANTA as a result of ProGlide failure, which occurred before the large-bore sheath insertion in 16.7% of patients and after the sheath removal in 83.3% of patients. Bailout MANTA was deemed effective in 75.8% of patients (50/66), and the technique was considered safe in 86.4% (57/66) of patients. Failure of bailout MANTA occurred because of its superficial application, resulting in persistent bleeding in 18.2% of patients (12/66), and because of its deep application, resulting in stenosis or occlusion in 6.1% of patients (4/66). Operator experience with the technique (odds ratio [OR] 12.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-75.99; p=0.007) and prior use of three ProGlides (OR 0.02, 95% CI: <0.01-0.39; p=0.010) were the only independent predictors of the efficacy endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Bailout MANTA after ProGlide failure was effective and safe, but operator experience seems to be crucial. Further technological refinements to facilitate accurate placement appear necessary.


Assuntos
Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Humanos , Constrição Patológica , Razão de Chances , Pacientes
14.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 27(3): e15128, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and observational studies have indicated an association between Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, consistent conclusions have not been reached due to various limitations. In order to determine whether SS and PD are causally related, we conducted a Mendelian randomization study (MR) with two samples. METHODS: Data for SS derived from the FinnGen consortium's R9 release (2495 cases and 365 533 controls). Moreover, data for PD were acquired from the publicly available GWAS of European ancestry, which involved 33 674 cases and 449 056 controls. The inverse variance weighted, along with four other effective methodologies, were employed to comprehensively infer the causal relationships between SS and PD. To assess the estimation's robustness, a number of sensitivity studies were performed. To determine the probability of reverse causality, we performed a reverse MR analysis. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a significant causal effect of SS on PD risks based on the MR [odds ratio (OR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.95-1.11; p = .45]. Similarly, no evidence supported the causal effects of PD on SS (OR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.81-1.04; p = .20). These findings held up under rigorous sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: MR bidirectional analysis did not reveal any cause-and-effect relationship between SS and PD, or vice versa. Further study of the mechanisms that may underlie the probable causal association between SS and PD is needed.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Síndrome de Sjogren , Humanos , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Causalidade , Razão de Chances , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
15.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 212(4): 197-204, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536046

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Residential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment in the Department of Veterans Affairs is helpful for many Veterans, yet the majority experience symptom rebound after discharge. This study examined a national cohort of Veterans (n = 1872) who completed VA residential PTSD treatment and identified factors associated with maintenance of gains from discharge to 4-month follow-up. We generated three logistic regression models based on response profiles during residential treatment. In the "marginal responders" group, 1-3 "booster" sessions of PTSD treatment were associated with decreased odds of maintenance of gains (odds ratio [OR], 0.42), whereas in the "clinically significant responders" group, these sessions were associated with increased odds of maintenance of gains (OR, 2.89). Greater pain severity was associated with decreased odds of maintenance of gains in the "clinically significant responder" group (OR, 0.90). Results demonstrate several avenues for intervention including targeting pain severity and matching aftercare psychotherapy to Veteran residential treatment response.


Assuntos
Alta do Paciente , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Tratamento Domiciliar , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0011938, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is a vector-borne tropical disease caused by a group of intracellular hemoflagellate protozoa belonging to the family of Trypanosomatide and the genus Leishmania. The disease is distributed around the world and transmitted via the bite of infected female Phlebotomine sandflies, and there is variation in the diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled global sensitivity and specificity of the rk-39 test and to evaluate if there is a difference between the different parts of the world. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis have been conducted on the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy. After setting eligibility criteria, literature was searched in four databases and one searching engine. Articles were screened, critically appraised, and extracted independently by two reviewers, and any disagreements were resolved with the involvement of a third person. The quality of the included studies had been assessed by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS 2) tool. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were determined by bivariate random effect analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed by Higgins's I2, and when it was present, mitigation was conducted by using sensitivity analysis. RESULT: A total of 409 studies were identified, and finally 18 articles were eligible for the review with a total sample size of 5, 253. The bivariate random effect meta-analysis of the 7 diagnostic accuracy studies showed a pooled sensitivity of 0.89 (0.76-0.95) and specificity of 0.86 (0.72-0.94). The +LR was 6.32 (95% CI: 2.85-14.02), the-LR was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06-0.30), and the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 47.8 (95% CI: 11.3-203.2). Abdel-Latif (2018) was both an outlier and influential for sensitivity, and Walter (2011) was both an outlier and influential for specificity, and removing them from sensitivity and specificity, respectively, was beneficial for reducing the heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Rk-39 is found to have highly accurate measures in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Both sensitivity and specificity were found to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.91 (0.88-0.93) and a pooled specificity of 0.89 (0.85-0.91). ETHICAL CONSIDERATION: As we will use secondary data for the systematic review and meta-analysis, ethical concerns are not necessary.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Visceral , Testes Sorológicos , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances
17.
Int Wound J ; 21(4): e14841, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512120

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus refers to a significantly challenging health disease due to its high prevalence and risk of other chronic diseases across the world. Notably, GLP-1 has been recognized to enhance the treatment of T2DM, along with this, GLP-1 is also involved in autophagy modulation. However, ineffectiveness of few analogue types can limit the efficacy of this treatment. This study particularly aims to elucidate the influence of GLP-1 receptor analogues on wound infection and patients with type 2 diabetes. To conduct the meta-analysis, an expansive literature survey was conducted to unveil the studies and research conducted on T2DM patients that revealed whether the adoption of any GLP-1 analogue in the form of specific interventions impacts the type 2 diabetes mellitus. The literature was searched using multiple search terms, screened and data were extracted to conduct the meta-analysis and it was conducted using metabin function of R package meta. A total of 800 patients consisting of the both intervention and control groups were employed to carry out the meta-analysis to analyse and evaluate the impact of GLP-1 mediated modulation to improve wound healing in the T2DM patients. The results revealed that GLP-1 mediated modulation considering one type of analogue was an effective intervention to patients suffering from T2DM. The variations in these results depicted insignificant outcomes with the values (risk ratio [RR]: 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-1.18, p > 0.05) and enlightened the fact that adopting different GLP-1 analogues may significantly improve the efficacy of wound healing in T2DM patients. Hence, interventions of GLP-1 mediated modulation must be utilized in the clinical practice to reduce the incidence of T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Autofagia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances , Cicatrização
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(8): 956-968, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sarcopenia in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) remains to be determined partly because of different diagnostic criteria. Sarcopenia has recently been recognized as a new prognostic factor for predicting outcomes in LT candidates. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia and evaluate its clinical effect on LT candidates. METHODS: This systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library for original English-language articles that investigated the prevalence and influence of sarcopenia in patients undergoing LT from database inception to November 30, 2022. Cohort studies of the definition of sarcopenia that estimate sarcopenia prevalence and evaluate its effect on clinical outcomes and the risk of mortality were included. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies involving 7760 patients undergoing LT were included. The pooled prevalence of sarcopenia in patients undergoing LT was 40.7% [95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 32.1-49.6]. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative probabilities of post-LT survival in patients with preoperative sarcopenia were all lower than those without sarcopenia (P < 0.05). Sarcopenia was associated with an increased risk of post-LT mortality in patients undergoing LT (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.58; 95%CI: 1.21-2.07). Patients with preoperative sarcopenia had a longer intensive care unit stay, a high risk ratio of sepsis, and serious post-LT complications than those without sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is prevalent in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing LT and is strongly and independently associated with higher a risk of mortality risk.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Razão de Chances , Probabilidade
19.
Inflamm Res ; 73(4): 655-667, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is linked to immunity and inflammation. Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and systemic inflammation response index (SIRI) are novel measures for gauging an individual's systemic inflammatory activity. We aim to investigate the potential associations between them. METHODS: This study encompassed a cohort of 40,937 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2018. SII and SIRI were log2-transformed before conducting regression analysis, considering that these inflammatory markers were right skewed distributed. Weighted logistic regression models assessed the association of log2-SII and log2-SIRI levels with CKD prevalence. Weighted Cox regression models were utilized to estimate the risk of death. Subgroup analyses were performed to further clarify the effects of other covariates on the associations. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of our results. RESULTS: 6986 participants with CKD were recorded, and 2818 patients died during a mean follow-up time of 100 months. After adjusting for all covariates, the highest level of log2-SII increased the CKD incidence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.47, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.32-1.65, P < 0.001), as well as log2-SIRI (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.60-2.01, P < 0.001) when compared with the lowest level reference group. The highest level of log2-SII significantly increased all-cause mortality (hazard risk [HR]: 1.29; 95% CI 1.13-1.48, P < 0.001), cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.61, 95% CI 1.25-2.09, P < 0.001), and hypertension mortality (HR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.23-2.42, P = 0.001) in CKD patients. Additionally, the positive associations were also found between log2-SIRI and all cause (HR: 1.54, 95% CI 1.35-1.76, P < 0.001), cardiovascular (HR: 1.90, 95% CI 1.38-2.60, P < 0.001), and hypertension mortality (HR: 2.15, 95% CI 1.56-2.94, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses unveiled variations in these effects among different populations. CONCLUSION: There existed a substantial association of SII and SIRI levels with CKD prevalence, as well as mortality in patients with CKD in the U.S.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances
20.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 12: e51236, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient engagement attrition in mobile health (mHealth) remote patient monitoring (RPM) programs decreases program benefits. Systemic disparities lead to inequities in RPM adoption and use. There is an urgent need to understand patients' experiences with RPM in the real world, especially for patients who have stopped using the programs, as addressing issues faced by patients can increase the value of mHealth for patients and subsequently decrease attrition. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to understand patient engagement and experiences in an RPM mHealth intervention in lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Between May 4, 2020, and November 1, 2022, a total of 601 lung transplant recipients were enrolled in an mHealth RPM intervention to monitor lung function. The predictors of patient engagement were evaluated using multivariable logistic and linear regression. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 6 of 39 patients who had engaged in the first month but stopped using the program, and common themes were identified. RESULTS: Patients who underwent transplant more than 1 year before enrollment in the program had 84% lower odds of engaging (odds ratio [OR] 0.16, 95% CI 0.07-0.35), 82% lower odds of submitting pulmonary function measurements (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.09-0.33), and 78% lower odds of completing symptom checklists (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.43). Patients whose primary language was not English had 78% lower odds of engaging compared to English speakers (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.67). Interviews revealed 4 prominent themes: challenges with devices, communication breakdowns, a desire for more personal interactions and specific feedback with the care team about their results, understanding the purpose of the chat, and understanding how their data are used. CONCLUSIONS: Care delivery and patient experiences with RPM in lung transplant mHealth can be improved and made more equitable by tailoring outreach and enhancements toward non-English speakers and patients with a longer time between transplant and enrollment. Attention to designing programs to provide personalization through supplementary provider contact, education, and information transparency may decrease attrition rates.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente , Telemedicina , Humanos , Comunicação , Modelos Lineares , Razão de Chances
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