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1.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2058719, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379074

RESUMO

Plants have evolved a network of complex signaling pathways that allow them to cope with the fluctuations of internal and external environmental cues. GIGANTEA (GI), a well-known, highly conserved plant nuclear protein, has been shown to regulate multiple biological functions in plants such as circadian rhythm, light signaling, cold tolerance, hormone signaling, and photoperiodic flowering. Recently, the role of GI in disease tolerance against different pathogens has come to light; however, a detailed mechanism to understand the role of GI in pathogen defense remains largely unexplained. Here, we report that GIGANTEA is upregulated upon infection with a virulent oomycete pathogen, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0. To investigate the role of GI in Arabidopsis defense, we examined the pathogen infection phenotype of gi mutant plants and found that gi-100 mutant was highly susceptible to Hpa Noco2 infection. Notably, the quantitative real-time PCR showed that PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4) and several PAD4-regulated downstream genes were downregulated upon Noco2 infection in gi-100 mutant as compared to Col-0 plants. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation results show that GI can directly bind to the intronic region of the PAD4 gene, which might explain the mechanism of GI function in regulating disease resistance in plants. Taken together, our results suggest that GI expression is induced upon Hpa pathogen infection and GI can regulate the expression of PAD4 to promote resistance against the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis in Arabidopsis thaliana.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Oomicetos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Sesquiterpenos
2.
J Plant Res ; 135(3): 501-515, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426578

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Grapevine aspartic proteases gene family is characterized and five VviAPs appear to be involved in grapevine defense against downy mildew. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide. However, it is highly susceptible to the downy mildew disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & Curt.) Berl. & De Toni. To minimize the use of fungicides used to control P. viticola, it is essential to gain a deeper comprehension on this pathosystem and proteases have gained particular interest in the past decade. Proteases were shown to actively participate in plant-pathogen interactions, not only in the processes that lead to plant cell death, stress responses and protein processing/degradation but also as components of the recognition and signalling pathways. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the aspartic proteases (APs) involvement in grapevine defense against P. viticola. A genome-wide search and bioinformatics characterization of the V. vinifera AP gene family was conducted and a total of 81 APs proteins, coded by 65 genes, were found. VviAPs proteins can be divided into three categories, similar to those previously described for other plants. Twelve APs coding genes were selected, and expression analysis was conducted at several time-points after inoculation in both compatible and incompatible interactions. Five grapevine APs may be involved in grapevine tolerance against P. viticola. Our findings provide an overall understanding of the VviAPs gene family and establish better groundwork to further describe the roles of VviAPs in defense against P. viticola.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Peronospora , Vitis , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peronospora/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vitis/genética
3.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(4)2022 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420669

RESUMO

Members of the Peronosporaceae (Oomycota, Chromista), which currently consists of 25 genera and approximately 1,000 recognized species, are responsible for disease on a wide range of plant hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses over the last two decades have improved our understanding of evolutionary relationships within Peronosporaceae. To date, 16 numbered and three named clades have been recognized; it is clear from these studies that the current taxonomy does not reflect evolutionary relationships. Whole organelle genome sequences are an increasingly important source of phylogenetic information, and in this study, we present comparative and phylogenetic analyses of mitogenome sequences from 15 of the 19 currently recognized clades of Peronosporaceae, including 44 newly assembled sequences. Our analyses suggest strong conservation of mitogenome size and gene content across Peronosporaceae but, as previous studies have suggested, limited conservation of synteny. Specifically, we identified 28 distinct syntenies amongst the 71 examined isolates. Moreover, 19 of the isolates contained inverted or direct repeats, suggesting repeated sequences may be more common than previously thought. In terms of phylogenetic relationships, our analyses of 34 concatenated mitochondrial gene sequences resulted in a topology that was broadly consistent with previous studies. However, unlike previous studies concatenated mitochondrial sequences provided strong support for higher-level relationships within the family.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Oomicetos , Evolução Molecular , Genes Mitocondriais , Oomicetos/genética , Filogenia , Sintenia
5.
Sci Adv ; 8(10): eabj9406, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275729

RESUMO

Microbial plant pathogens secrete a range of effector proteins that damage host plants and consequently constrain global food production. Necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like proteins (NLPs) are produced by numerous phytopathogenic microbes that cause important crop diseases. Many NLPs are cytolytic, causing cell death and tissue necrosis by disrupting the plant plasma membrane. Here, we reveal the unique molecular mechanism underlying the membrane damage induced by the cytotoxic model NLP. This membrane disruption is a multistep process that includes electrostatic-driven, plant-specific lipid recognition, shallow membrane binding, protein aggregation, and transient pore formation. The NLP-induced damage is not caused by membrane reorganization or large-scale defects but by small membrane ruptures. This distinct mechanism of lipid membrane disruption is highly adapted to effectively damage plant cells.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Lipídeos , Necrose , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4078, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260725

RESUMO

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is a globally important cereal whose production is severely constrained by downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.). In this study, immunity eliciting properties of 3,5-dichloroanthranilic acid (DCA), Cell Wall Glucan (CWG), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Glycinebetaine (GB) was deciphered through enzymatic and protein studies based on elicitor treatment activated defense mechanisms. Glycinebetaine, LPS, CWS and DCA elicited enzyme activities and gene expression of the defense enzymes, such as ß-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), lipoxygenase (LOX) and defense protein hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). However, the speed and the extent of elicitation differed. High levels of enzyme activities and gene expression in elicitor-treated P. glaucum positively correlated with the increased downy mildew resistance. A very rapid and large changes in elicitor-treated seedlings, in contrast to the delayed, smaller changes in the untreated susceptible control seedlings suggests that the rate and magnitude of defense gene expression are important for effective manifestation of defense against pathogen. As compared to other elicitors and control, GB promoted increase in enzyme activities and gene expression, implicating that GB is a promising elicitor of downy mildew resistance in P. glaucum.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Pennisetum , Peronospora , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pennisetum/genética , Doenças das Plantas
7.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 159: 103676, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219809

RESUMO

Zoospores are motile, asexual reproductive propagules that enable oomycete pathogens to locate and infect new host tissue. While motile, they have no cell wall and maintain tonicity with their external media using water expulsion vacuoles. Once they locate host tissue, they encyst and form a cell wall, enabling the generation of turgor pressure that will provide the driving force for germination and invasion of the host. It is not currently known how these spores respond to the osmotic stresses that might arise due to different environments on and around their hosts that have different osmotic strengths. We have made microaspiration (MA) measurements on > 800 encysted zoospores and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on 12 encysted zoospores to determine their mechanical properties and how these change after hyperosmotic stress. Two types of encysted zoospores (Type A and Type B) were produced from the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, that differed in their morphology and response. With a small hyperosmotic stress (using 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 155.4 and 295.6 mOsmol/kg), Type A zoospores initially became stiffer, with an increase in the Young's modulus (E) over 30 mins from 0.16 MPa to 0.25 and 0.22 MPa respectively. E then returned to its original value after 120 min. With a greater osmotic stress (using 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 M sorbitol to give media osmolality changes of 438.2, 587.2 and 787.6 mOsmol/kg) the reverse occurred, with an initial decrease in E over 30 - 60 mins to values of 0.1, 0.08 and 0.09 MPa respectively, before recovery to the original value after 120 min. In 0.5 M sorbitol this recovery was only observed with AFM, but not with MA. Type B zoospores, which may be primary/secondary spores about to release secondary/tertiary spores, or else spores that were damaged during encystment, initially stiffened in response to the lower hyperosmotic stresses with a slight increase in E (from 0.077 to 0.1 MPa after 15 min (with both 0.1 and 0.2 M sorbitol) before recovering to the original value after 60 min. These spores showed no change in response to the higher osmotic stresses. The responses of the Type A spores are consistent with rapid changes in cell wall thickness and a turgor regulation mechanism. Turgor regulation is further supported by microscopic observations of the Type A spores showing protoplast retraction from the cell wall followed by deplasmolysis, coupled with measurements of spore volume. As far as we are aware this is the first demonstration of turgor regulation, not just in encysted zoospores, but in oomycetes in general.


Assuntos
Achlya , Oomicetos , Pressão Osmótica , Reprodução , Sorbitol
8.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35204683

RESUMO

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is a valuable crop in Europe for both economical and cultural reasons, but highly susceptible to Downy mildew (DM). The generation of resistant vines is of critical importance for a sustainable viticulture and can be achieved either by introgression of resistance genes in susceptible varieties or by mutation of Susceptibility (S) genes, e.g., by gene editing. This second approach offers several advantages: it maintains the genetic identity of cultivars otherwise disrupted by crossing and generally results in a broad-spectrum and durable resistance, but it is hindered by the poor knowledge about S genes in grapevines. Candidate S genes are Downy mildew Resistance 6 (DMR6) and DMR6-Like Oxygenases (DLOs), whose mutations confer resistance to DM in Arabidopsis. In this work, we show that grapevine VviDMR6-1 complements the Arabidopsis dmr6-1 resistant mutant. We studied the expression of grapevine VviDMR6 and VviDLO genes in different organs and in response to the DM causative agent Plasmopara viticola. Through an automated evaluation of causal relationships among genes, we show that VviDMR6-1, VviDMR6-2, and VviDLO1 group into different co-regulatory networks, suggesting distinct functions, and that mostly VviDMR6-1 is connected with pathogenesis-responsive genes. Therefore, VviDMR6-1 represents a good candidate to produce resistant cultivars with a gene-editing approach.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Peronospora , Vitis , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vitis/genética , Vitis/metabolismo
9.
Environ Microbiol ; 24(3): 1622-1637, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191594

RESUMO

Peronospora effusa causes downy mildew, the economically most important disease of cultivated spinach worldwide. To date, 19 P. effusa races have been denominated based on their capacity to break spinach resistances, but their genetic diversity and the evolutionary processes that contribute to race emergence are unknown. Here, we performed the first systematic analysis of P. effusa races showing that those emerge by both asexual and sexual reproduction. Specifically, we studied the diversity of 26 P. effusa isolates from 16 denominated races based on mitochondrial and nuclear comparative genomics. Mitochondrial genomes based on long-read sequencing coupled with diversity assessment based on short-read sequencing uncovered two mitochondrial haplogroups, each with distinct genome organization. Nuclear genome-wide comparisons of the 26 isolates revealed that 10 isolates from six races could clearly be divided into three asexually evolving groups, in concordance with their mitochondrial phylogeny. The remaining isolates showed signals of reticulated evolution and discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies, suggesting that these evolved through sexual reproduction. Increased understanding of this pathogen's reproductive modes will provide the framework for future studies into the molecular mechanisms underlying race emergence and into the P. effusa-spinach interaction, thus assisting in sustainable production of spinach through knowledge-driven resistance breeding.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Peronospora , Peronospora/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Reprodução/genética , Spinacia oleracea/genética
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(5): 1806-1814, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cucumber downy mildew (CDM) is a severe plant disease and affects the yield of cucumber production worldwide. As the resistance toward conventional fungicides is emerging as a ubiquitous issue, it is urgent to discover efficient fungicides with unique structures. RESULTS: In this study, a series of novel phenylpyridine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Bioassays revealed that most of these compounds possessed excellent fungicidal activities against CDM. Among the phenylpyridine compounds, 2-(4-(4-(tert-butyl)benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-6-phenylnicotinonitrile (C8) [half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) = 4.40 mg L-1 ] displayed the highest activity, which was better than those of the commercial fungicides, such as azoxystrobin (EC50  = 42.77 mg L-1 ) and flumorph (EC50  = 41.94 mg L-1 ). Furthermore, the molecular electrostatic potential of high-activity compound C8 indicated that nitrogen atom of the cyano group on the pyridine ring was in the negative region and may easily form hydrogen bonds and allow for electrostatic interactions with potential receptors. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the novel N-substituted piperazine-containing phenylpyridine derivatives could be further developed as a candidate compound to control CDM.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Oomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Piperazina , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
New Phytol ; 233(3): 1074-1082, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705271

RESUMO

Oomycete phytopathogens have adapted to colonise plants using effectors as their molecular weapons. Intracellular effectors, mostly proteins but also small ribonucleic acids, are delivered by the pathogens into the host cell cytoplasm where they interfere with normal plant physiology. The diverse host processes emerging as 'victims' of these 'specialised bullets' include gene transcription and RNA-mediated silencing, cell death, protein stability, protein secretion and autophagy. Some effector targets are directly involved in defence execution, while others participate in fundamental metabolisms whose alteration collaterally affects defences. Other effector targets are susceptibility factors (SFs), that is host components that make plants vulnerable to pathogens. SFs are mostly negative regulators of immunity, but some seem necessary to sustain or promote pathogen colonisation.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Oomicetos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas/metabolismo
12.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 35(2): 146-156, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698534

RESUMO

Many fungi and oomycete species are devasting plant pathogens. These eukaryotic filamentous pathogens secrete effector proteins to facilitate plant infection. Fungi and oomycete pathogens have diverse infection strategies and their effectors generally do not share sequence homology. However, they occupy similar host environments, either the plant apoplast or plant cytoplasm, and, therefore, may share some unifying properties based on the requirements of these host compartments. Here, we exploit these biological signals and present the first classifier (EffectorP 3.0) that uses two machine-learning models: one trained on apoplastic effectors and one trained on cytoplasmic effectors. EffectorP 3.0 accurately predicts known apoplastic and cytoplasmic effectors in fungal and oomycete secretomes with low estimated false-positive rates of 3 and 8%, respectively. Cytoplasmic effectors have a higher proportion of positively charged amino acids, whereas apoplastic effectors are enriched for cysteine residues. The combination of fungal and oomycete effectors in training leads to a higher number of predicted cytoplasmic effectors in biotrophic fungi. EffectorP 3.0 expands predicted effector repertoires beyond small, cysteine-rich secreted proteins in fungi and RxLR-motif containing secreted proteins in oomycetes. We show that signal peptide prediction is essential for accurate effector prediction, because EffectorP 3.0 recognizes a cytoplasmic signal also in intracellular, nonsecreted proteins.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Oomicetos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(3): 905-913, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxathiapiprolin is a piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline fungicide discovered by DuPont and commercialized by Corteva Agriscience. It acts by inhibiting a novel fungal target, an oxysterol binding protein (OSBP), and is intrinsically highly active against oomycetes including grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Because the fungicide acts at a single site there is a need to determine the risk of resistance development. RESULTS: Oxathiapiprolin controlled European Plasmopara viticola and Phytophthora infestans isolates at very low concentrations with half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values ranging from 0.001 to 0.0264 mg L-1 and 0.001 to 0.03 mg L-1 , respectively. Laboratory mutagenesis studies performed with Phytophthora capsici using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generated mutants with reduced sensitivity to oxathiapiprolin. All resistant mutants had a base pair change in the OSBP gene that resulted in an amino acid change. Most common substitutions were S768Y, G770V, G839W and L863W. Isolates of Plasmopara viticola and Phytophthora infestans with reduced sensitivity were also detected in field trial sites where oxathiapiprolin had been applied repeatedly each season over several consecutive years. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of oxathiapiprolin resistance development in Plasmopara viticola and Phytophthora infestans is medium to high and strict resistance management measures are required. Over-exposure of target populations to single-site fungicides during product development should be avoided.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Oomicetos , Phytophthora infestans , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados , Oomicetos/genética , Phytophthora infestans/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Pirazóis
14.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 35(1): 39-48, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546764

RESUMO

Albugo candida is an obligate oomycete pathogen that infects many plants in the Brassicaceae family. We resequenced the genome of isolate Ac2V using PacBio long reads and constructed an assembly augmented by Illumina reads. The Ac2VPB genome assembly is 10% larger and more contiguous compared with a previous version. Our annotation of the new assembly, aided by RNA-sequencing information, revealed a 175% expansion (40 to 110) in the CHxC effector class, which we redefined as "CCG" based on motif analysis. This class of effectors consist of arrays of phylogenetically related paralogs residing in gene sparse regions, and shows signatures of positive selection and presence/absence polymorphism. This work provides a resource that allows the dissection of the genomic components underlying A. candida adaptation and, particularly, the role of CCG effectors in virulence and avirulence on different hosts.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Oomicetos , Candida/genética , Genoma , Oomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas
15.
Plant Dis ; 106(4): 1167-1174, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546773

RESUMO

Cucurbit production in Florida is impacted by downy mildew on a yearly basis. Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM), caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is one of the most devastating cucurbit diseases and can lead to complete yield loss. Nearly continuous production of cucurbits occurs temporally throughout Florida, which puts extensive pressure on the pathogen population to select for individuals that are resistant to fungicides in use labeled for CDM. Loss of efficacy as a result of fungicide resistance developing is becoming a major concern for Florida cucurbit growers who rely on these products to manage CDM. This study was established to evaluate the field activity of 11 utilized fungicides by determining their duration of activity when applied at various intervals for the management of CDM in cucumber under Florida field conditions. By comparing levels of percent CDM control and area under the disease progress curve values, the fungicide's duration of field activity was established. Field activities were <1 week for dimethomorph and fluopicolide; 1 week for cymoxanil; 1 to 2 weeks for chlorothalonil and mancozeb; 2 weeks for ethaboxam; 1 to 3 weeks for propamocarb, cyazofamid, and ametoctradin + dimethomorph; and 2 to 4 weeks for oxathiapiprolin and fluazinam. Knowledge of duration of field activity can potentially improve the development of CDM management programs and slow the resistance selection.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fungicidas Industriais , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Florida , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
16.
Trends Biotechnol ; 40(3): 320-337, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489105

RESUMO

Fungicide use is one of the core elements of intensive agriculture because it is necessary to fight pathogens that would otherwise cause large production losses. Oomycete and fungal pathogens are kept under control using several active compounds, some of which are predicted to be banned in the near future owing to serious concerns about their impact on the environment, non-targeted organisms, and human health. To avoid detrimental repercussions for food security, it is essential to develop new biomolecules that control existing and emerging pathogens but are innocuous to human health and the environment. This review presents and discusses the use of novel low-risk biological compounds based on small RNAs and short peptides that are attractive alternatives to current contentious fungicides.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Oomicetos , Agricultura , Fungos/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Humanos , Peptídeos
17.
Plant Dis ; 106(3): 1009-1019, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735276

RESUMO

Cucurbit downy mildew caused by the oomycete Pseudoperonospora cubensis is an important disease that affects members of Cucurbitaceae family globally. However, temporal dynamics of the disease have not been characterized at the field scale to understand how control strategies influence disease epidemics. Disease severity was assessed visually on cucumber and summer squash treated with weekly alternation of chlorothalonil with cymoxanil, fluopicolide, or propamocarb during the 2018 spring season and 2019 and 2020 fall seasons in North Carolina and the 2018 and 2020 fall seasons in South Carolina. Disease onset was observed around mid-June during the spring season and early September during the fall season, followed by a rapid increase in severity until mid-July in the spring season and late September or mid-October in the fall season, typical of polycyclic epidemics. The Gompertz, logistic, and monomolecular growth models were fitted to disease severity using linear regression and parameter estimates to compare the effects of fungicide treatment and cucurbit host type on disease progress. The Gompertz and logistic models were more appropriate than the monomolecular model in describing temporal dynamics of cucurbit downy mildew, with the Gompertz model providing the best description for 34 of the 44 epidemics examined. Fungicide treatment and host type significantly (P < 0.0001) affected the standardized area under disease progress curve (sAUDPC), final disease severity (Final DS), and weighted mean absolute rates of disease progress (ρ), with these variables, in most cases, being significantly (P < 0.05) lower in fungicide-treated plots than in untreated control plots. Except in a few cases, sAUDPC, Final DS, and ρ were lower in cases where chlorothalonil was alternated with fluopicolide or propamocarb than in cases where chlorothalonil was alternated with cymoxanil or when chlorothalonil was applied alone. These results characterized the temporal progress of cucurbit downy mildew and provided an improved understanding of the dynamics of the disease at the field level. Parameters of disease progress obtained from this study could serve as inputs in simulation studies to assess the efficacy of fungicide alternation in managing fungicide resistance in this pathosystem.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Epidemias , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
18.
Phytopathology ; 112(3): 595-607, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213959

RESUMO

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum, 2n = 4x = 48) is susceptible to downy mildew caused by Peronospora belbahrii. The Pb1 gene exhibits complete resistance to the disease. However, Pb1 became prone to disease because of occurrence of new virulent races. Here, we show that Zambian accession PI 500950 (Ocimum americanum var. pilosum) is highly resistant to the new races. From an interspecies backcross between PI 500950 and the susceptible 'Sweet basil' we obtained, by embryo rescue, a population of 131 BC1F1 plants. This population segregated 73 resistant (58) and susceptible (1:1; P = 0.22) plants, suggesting that resistance is controlled by one incompletely dominant gene called Pb2. To determine whether allelic relationship exists between Pb1 and Pb2, we used two differential races: race 0, which is avirulent to both PI 500945 (Pb1) and PI 500950 (Pb2), and race 1, which is virulent to PI 500945 but avirulent to PI 500950. F1 plants obtained from '12-4-6' (BC6F3 derived from PI 500945) and '56' (BC3F3 derived from PI 500950) showed resistant superiority to both races through dominant complementary interaction. F2 plants segregated to race 0 as follows: 12:3:1 (immune/incomplete resistant/susceptible) as opposed to 9:3:4 to race 1, indicating that Pb1 and Pb2 are not alleles. Because joint action is contributed in F1 plants and in advanced [BC3F3(56) × BC6F3(12-4-6) F4] populations that carry both genes, it can be assumed that both accessions carry two unlinked genes but share a common signal transduction pathway, which leads to dominant complementation superiority of the resistance against different races of basil downy mildew.


Assuntos
Ocimum basilicum , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Chumbo , Ocimum basilicum/genética , Peronospora/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas
19.
Plant Dis ; 106(1): 144-150, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515501

RESUMO

Impatiens downy mildew (IDM) disease is a primary constraint on the production of Impatiens walleriana, a popular and economically important floriculture plant. IDM is caused by the biotrophic. oomycete Plasmopara destructor that emerged as a pathogen of I. walleriana in the 2000s. To enable P. destructor detection and quantification, a hydrolysis-probe-based quantitative PCR diagnostic assay was developed based on unique orientation and order of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1) and ATP synthase subunit alpha (atp1) genes in the genus Plasmopara. Nucleotide sequences and analysis of the cox1/atp1 region distinguished P. destructor and its sister-species P. obducens, consistent with prior phylogenetic analyses using cox2 and rDNA markers. Specificity for P. destructor was incorporated into a hydrolysis probe targeting the cox1 gene and flanking primers that amplified across the cox1/atp1 intergenic region. The limit of detection was 0.5 fg/µl of P. destructor DNA (∼100 plasmid copies/µl), with amplification efficiency = 0.95. The assay was validated against a panel of target and nontarget oomycetes, which showed that the primers were specific for Plasmopara spp., while the probe was specific for P. destructor infecting both I. walleriana and I. balsamina. Testing of Impatiens tissue collected from 23 locations across 13 states indicated all samples with IDM symptoms tested positive for P. destructor. Asymptomatic plants from two locations also tested positive for P. destructor.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Impatiens , Oomicetos , Oomicetos/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884778

RESUMO

Oomycete and fungal interactions with plants can be neutral, symbiotic or pathogenic with different impact on plant health and fitness. Both fungi and oomycetes can generate so-called effector proteins in order to successfully colonize the host plant. These proteins modify stress pathways, developmental processes and the innate immune system to the microbes' benefit, with a very different outcome for the plant. Investigating the biological and functional roles of effectors during plant-microbe interactions are accessible through bioinformatics and experimental approaches. The next generation protein modeling software RoseTTafold and AlphaFold2 have made significant progress in defining the 3D-structure of proteins by utilizing novel machine-learning algorithms using amino acid sequences as their only input. As these two methods rely on super computers, Google Colabfold alternatives have received significant attention, making the approaches more accessible to users. Here, we focus on current structural biology, sequence motif and domain knowledge of effector proteins from filamentous microbes and discuss the broader use of novel modelling strategies, namely AlphaFold2 and RoseTTafold, in the field of effector biology. Finally, we compare the original programs and their Colab versions to assess current strengths, ease of access, limitations and future applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Conformação Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia
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