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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4624, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816389

RESUMO

Variations in chromosome number are occasionally observed among oomycetes, a group that includes many plant pathogens, but the emergence of such variations and their effects on genome and virulence evolution remain ambiguous. We generated complete telomere-to-telomere genome assemblies for Phytophthora sojae, Globisporangium ultimum, Pythium oligandrum, and G. spinosum. Reconstructing the karyotype of the most recent common ancestor in Peronosporales revealed that frequent chromosome fusion and fission drove changes in chromosome number. Centromeres enriched with Copia-like transposons may contribute to chromosome fusion and fission events. Chromosome fusion facilitated the emergence of pathogenicity genes and their adaptive evolution. Effectors tended to duplicate in the sub-telomere regions of fused chromosomes, which exhibited evolutionary features distinct to the non-fused chromosomes. By integrating ancestral genomic dynamics and structural predictions, we have identified secreted Ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (ANKs) as a novel class of effectors in P. sojae. Phylogenetic analysis and experiments further revealed that ANK is a specifically expanded effector family in oomycetes. These results revealed chromosome dynamics in oomycete plant pathogens, and provided novel insights into karyotype and effector evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Oomicetos , Filogenia , Telômero , Telômero/genética , Oomicetos/genética , Oomicetos/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Pythium/genética , Pythium/patogenicidade , Phytophthora/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Cromossomos/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , Genoma/genética
2.
New Phytol ; 243(1): 330-344, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742296

RESUMO

Arabidopsis Col-0 RPP2A and RPP2B confer recognition of Arabidopsis downy mildew (Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis [Hpa]) isolate Cala2, but the identity of the recognized ATR2Cala2 effector was unknown. To reveal ATR2Cala2, an F2 population was generated from a cross between Hpa-Cala2 and Hpa-Noks1. We identified ATR2Cala2 as a non-canonical RxLR-type effector that carries a signal peptide, a dEER motif, and WY domains but no RxLR motif. Recognition of ATR2Cala2 and its effector function were verified by biolistic bombardment, ectopic expression and Hpa infection. ATR2Cala2 is recognized in accession Col-0 but not in Ler-0 in which RPP2A and RPP2B are absent. In ATR2Emoy2 and ATR2Noks1 alleles, a frameshift results in an early stop codon. RPP2A and RPP2B are essential for the recognition of ATR2Cala2. Stable and transient expression of ATR2Cala2 under 35S promoter in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana enhances disease susceptibility. Two additional Col-0 TIR-NLR (TNL) genes (RPP2C and RPP2D) adjacent to RPP2A and RPP2B are quantitatively required for full resistance to Hpa-Cala2. We compared RPP2 haplotypes in multiple Arabidopsis accessions and showed that all four genes are present in all ATR2Cala2-recognizing accessions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Oomicetos , Doenças das Plantas , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Oomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas NLR/genética , Nicotiana/genética , Nicotiana/microbiologia , Nicotiana/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Alelos
3.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(6): e16656, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38818657

RESUMO

Seaweeds are important components of marine ecosystems with emerging potential in aquaculture and as sources of biofuel, food products and pharmacological compounds. However, an increasingly recognised threat to natural and industrial seaweed populations is infection with parasitic single-celled eukaryotes from the relatively understudied oomycete lineage. Here we examine the eukaryomes of diverse brown, red and green marine macroalgae collected from polar (Baffin Island), cold-temperate (Falkland Islands) and tropical (Ascension Island) locations, with a focus on oomycete and closely related diatom taxa. Using 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we show unexpected genetic and taxonomic diversity of the eukaryomes, a strong broad-brush association between eukaryome composition and geographic location, and some evidence of association between eukaryome structure and macroalgal phylogenetic relationships (phylosymbiosis). However, the oomycete fraction of the eukaryome showed disparate patterns of diversity and structure, highlighting much weaker association with geography and no evidence of phylosymbiosis. We present several novel haplotypes of the most common oomycete Eurychasma dicksonii and report for the first time a cosmopolitan distribution and absence of host specificity of this important pathogen. This indicates rich diversity in macroalgal oomycete pathogens and highlights that these pathogens may be generalist and highly adaptable to diverse environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Oomicetos , Filogenia , Alga Marinha , Oomicetos/genética , Oomicetos/classificação , Alga Marinha/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Simbiose , Biodiversidade , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/classificação , Variação Genética
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 327, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658826

RESUMO

Oomycetes are filamentous organisms that resemble fungi in terms of morphology and life cycle, primarily due to convergent evolution. The success of pathogenic oomycetes lies in their ability to adapt and overcome host resistance, occasionally transitioning to new hosts. During plant infection, these organisms secrete effector proteins and other compounds during plant infection, as a molecular arsenal that contributes to their pathogenic success. Genomic sequencing, transcriptomic analysis, and proteomic studies have revealed highly diverse effector repertoires among different oomycete pathogens, highlighting their adaptability and evolution potential.The obligate biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara viticola affects grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera L.) causing the downy mildew disease, with significant economic impact. This disease is devastating in Europe, leading to substantial production losses. Even though Plasmopara viticola is a well-known pathogen, to date there are scarce reviews summarising pathogenicity, virulence, the genetics and molecular mechanisms of interaction with grapevine.This review aims to explore the current knowledge of the infection strategy, lifecycle, effector molecules, and pathogenicity of Plasmopara viticola. The recent sequencing of the Plasmopara viticola genome has provided new insights into understanding the infection strategies employed by this pathogen. Additionally, we will highlight the contributions of omics technologies in unravelling the ongoing evolution of this oomycete, including the first in-plant proteome analysis of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Doenças das Plantas , Vitis , Oomicetos/patogenicidade , Oomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Vitis/microbiologia , Vitis/genética , Virulência , Evolução Biológica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
5.
J Proteomics ; 301: 105181, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670258

RESUMO

Phytopathogenic oomycetes constitute some of the most devastating plant pathogens and cause significant crop and horticultural yield and economic losses. The phytopathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi causes dieback disease in native vegetation and several crops. The most commonly used chemical to control P. cinnamomi is the oomyceticide phosphite. Despite its widespread use, the mode of action of phosphite is not well understood and it is unclear whether it targets the pathogen, the host, or both. Resistance to phosphite is emerging in P. cinnamomi isolates and other oomycete phytopathogens. The mode of action of phosphite on phosphite-sensitive and resistant isolates of the pathogen and through a model host was investigated using label-free quantitative proteomics. In vitro treatment of sensitive P. cinnamomi isolates with phosphite hinders growth by interfering with metabolism, signalling and gene expression; traits that are not observed in the resistant isolate. When the model host Lupinus angustifolius was treated with phosphite, proteins associated with photosynthesis, carbon fixation and lipid metabolism in the host were enriched. Increased production of defence-related proteins was also observed in the plant. We hypothesise the multi-modal action of phosphite and present two models constructed using comparative proteomics that demonstrate mechanisms of pathogen and host responses to phosphite. SIGNIFICANCE: Phytophthora cinnamomi is a significant phytopathogenic oomycete that causes root rot (dieback) in a number of horticultural crops and a vast range of native vegetation. Historically, areas infected with phosphite have been treated with the oomyceticide phosphite despite its unknown mode of action. Additionally, overuse of phosphite has driven the emergence of phosphite-resistant isolates of the pathogen. We conducted a comparative proteomic study of a sensitive and resistant isolate of P. cinnamomi in response to treatment with phosphite, and the response of a model host, Lupinus angustifolius, to phosphite and its implications on infection. The present study has allowed for a deeper understanding of the bimodal action of phosphite, suggested potential biochemical factors contributing to chemical resistance in P. cinnamomi, and unveiled possible drivers of phosphite-induced host plant immunity to the pathogen.


Assuntos
Fosfitos , Phytophthora , Doenças das Plantas , Proteômica , Fosfitos/farmacologia , Fosfitos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Oomicetos/metabolismo
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544179

RESUMO

Downy mildew caused by Hyaloperonospora brassicae is a severe disease in Brassica oleracea that significantly reduces crop yield and marketability. This study aims to evaluate different vegetation indices to assess different downy mildew infection levels in the Brassica variety Mildis using hyperspectral data. Artificial inoculation using H. brassicae sporangia suspension was conducted to induce different levels of downy mildew disease. Spectral measurements, spanning 350 nm to 1050 nm, were conducted on the leaves using an environmentally controlled setup, and the reflectance data were acquired and processed. The Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA) and signal sensitivity calculation were used to extract the most informative wavelengths that could be used to develop downy mildew indices (DMI). A total of 37 existing vegetation indices and three proposed DMIs were evaluated to indicate downy mildew (DM) infection levels. The results showed that the classification using a support vector machine achieved accuracies of 71.3%, 80.7%, and 85.3% for distinguishing healthy leaves from DM1 (early infection), DM2 (progressed infection), and DM3 (severe infection) leaves using the proposed downy mildew index. The proposed new downy mildew index potentially enables the development of an automated DM monitoring system and resistance profiling in Brassica breeding lines.


Assuntos
Brassica , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas
7.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(3): e13425, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462784

RESUMO

Phosphatases are important regulators of protein phosphorylation and various cellular processes, and they serve as counterparts to kinases. In this study, our comprehensive analysis of oomycete complete proteomes unveiled the presence of approximately 3833 phosphatases, with most species estimated to have between 100 and 300 putative phosphatases. Further investigation of these phosphatases revealed a significant increase in protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PSP) within oomycetes. In particular, we extensively studied the metallo-dependent protein phosphatase (PPM) within the PSP family in the model oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Our results showed notable differences in the expression patterns of PPMs throughout 10 life stages of P. sojae, indicating their vital roles in various stages of oomycete pathogens. Moreover, we identified 29 PPMs in P. sojae, and eight of them possessed accessory domains in addition to phosphate domains. We investigated the biological function of one PPM protein with an extra PH domain (PPM1); this protein exhibited high expression levels in both asexual developmental and infectious stages. Our analysis confirmed that PPM1 is indeed an active protein phosphatase, and its accessory domain does not affect its phosphatase activity. To delve further into its function, we generated knockout mutants of PPM1 and validated its essential roles in mycelial growth, sporangia and oospore production, as well as infectious stages. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive inventory of phosphatases in oomycetes and identifies an important phosphatase within the expanded serine/threonine phosphatase group in oomycetes.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Phytophthora , Proteoma/metabolismo , Phytophthora/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300381, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489283

RESUMO

Water-borne plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes are a major threat in greenhouse production systems. Early detection and quantification of these pathogens would enable us to ascertain both economic and biological thresholds required for a timely treatment, thus improving effective disease management. Here, we used Oxford nanopore MinION amplicon sequencing to analyze microbial communities in irrigation water collected from greenhouses used for growing tomato, cucumber and Aeschynanthus sp. Fungal and oomycete communities were characterized using primers that amplify the full internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. To assess the sensitivity of the MinION sequencing, we spiked serially diluted mock DNA into the DNA isolated from greenhouse water samples prior to library preparation. Relative abundances of fungal and oomycete reads were distinct in the greenhouse irrigation water samples and in water samples from setups with tomato that was inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum. Sequence reads derived from fungal and oomycete mock communities were proportionate in the respective serial dilution samples, thus confirming the suitability of MinION amplicon sequencing for environmental monitoring. By using spike-ins as standards to test the reliability of quantification using the MinION, we found that the detection of spike-ins was highly affected by the background quantities of fungal or oomycete DNA in the sample. We observed that spike-ins having shorter length (538bp) produced reads across most of our dilutions compared to the longer spikes (>790bp). Moreover, the sequence reads were uneven with respect to dilution series and were least retrievable in the background samples having the highest DNA concentration, suggesting a narrow dynamic range of performance. We suggest continuous benchmarking of the MinION sequencing to improve quantitative metabarcoding efforts for rapid plant disease diagnostic and monitoring in the future.


Assuntos
Nanoporos , Oomicetos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Oomicetos/genética , Fungos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542196

RESUMO

Resistance (R) genes were used to recognize pathogen effectors directly or indirectly in plants and activate defense signal pathways. Most of these R proteins consist of a nucleotide-binding adaptor (NB-ARC) domain, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and some also have a coiled-coil (CC) structure. In this study, we cloned a gene which encodes the CC-NB-ARC-LRR R protein (VqCNL) from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis. quinquangularis accession 'Dan-2'. The transcript of VqCNL was obviously induced by inoculation with Plasmopara viticola and the salicylic acid (SA) treatment. The results of sequence analysis showed that the VqCNL gene contained a CC domain at the N-terminus, along with an NB-ARC and an LRR domain at the C-terminus. We transferred this gene into wildtype Arabidopsis and treated transgenic lines with Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000); the results demonstrated that VqCNL promotes broad spectrum resistance to pathogens. Furthermore, qPCR analysis displayed that VqCNL may display a significant function in disease resistance via activating SA signaling pathways. In general, these conclusions primarily demonstrated that VqCNL enhances the disease resistance level in plants and contributes to future research of the R gene identification for grape breeding biotechnology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Oomicetos , Vitis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
10.
Genetics ; 227(1)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529759

RESUMO

FungiDB (https://fungidb.org) serves as a valuable online resource that seamlessly integrates genomic and related large-scale data for a wide range of fungal and oomycete species. As an integral part of the VEuPathDB Bioinformatics Resource Center (https://veupathdb.org), FungiDB continually integrates both published and unpublished data addressing various aspects of fungal biology. Established in early 2011, the database has evolved to support 674 datasets. The datasets include over 300 genomes spanning various taxa (e.g. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Mucoromycota, as well as Albuginales, Peronosporales, Pythiales, and Saprolegniales). In addition to genomic assemblies and annotation, over 300 extra datasets encompassing diverse information, such as expression and variation data, are also available. The resource also provides an intuitive web-based interface, facilitating comprehensive approaches to data mining and visualization. Users can test their hypotheses and navigate through omics-scale datasets using a built-in search strategy system. Moreover, FungiDB offers capabilities for private data analysis via the integrated VEuPathDB Galaxy platform. FungiDB also permits genome improvements by capturing expert knowledge through the User Comments system and the Apollo genome annotation editor for structural and functional gene curation. FungiDB facilitates data exploration and analysis and contributes to advancing research efforts by capturing expert knowledge for fungal and oomycete species.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fungos , Internet , Oomicetos , Oomicetos/genética , Fungos/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Fúngico , Genômica/métodos , Software
11.
Harmful Algae ; 132: 102567, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331547

RESUMO

Oomycetes are fungus-like heterotrophic organisms with a broad environmental distribution, including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. They function as saprotrophs that use the remains of other organisms or as parasites of a variety of eukaryotes, including protists, diatoms, dinoflagellates, macroalgae, plants, fungi, animals, and even other oomycetes. Among the protist hosts, the taxonomy, morphology, and phylogenetic positions of the oomycete parasitoids of diatoms have been well studied; however, this information concerning the oomycete parasitoids of dinoflagellates is poorly understood. During intensive sampling along the east and west coasts of Korea in May and October 2019, a new species of oomycetes was discovered and two strains of the new parasitoid were successfully established in cultures. The new oomycete parasitoid penetrated the dinoflagellate host cell and developed to form a sporangium, which was very similar to the perkinsozoan parasitoids that infect marine dinoflagellates. The most distinctive morphological feature of the new parasitoid was a central large vacuole forming several long discharge tubes. The molecular phylogenetic tree inferred based on the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed that the new parasitoid forms a distinct branch unrelated to other described species belonging to early-diverging oomycetes. It clustered with species belonging to the genus Sirolpidium with strong support values in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) tree. Cross-infection experiments showed that infections by the new parasitoid occurred in only six genera belonging to dinoflagellates among the protists tested in this study. Based on the morphological and molecular data obtained in this study, we propose to introduce a new species, Sirolpidium dinoletiferum sp. nov., for this novel parasitoid, conservatively within the genus Sirolpidium.


Assuntos
Dinoflagellida , Oomicetos , Animais , Dinoflagellida/genética , Filogenia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Oomicetos/genética
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 199, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38270712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brassica species is the second most important edible oilseed crop in India. Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze, a major oomycete disease of oilseed brassica causing white rust, leads to 60% yield loss globally. The prevalence of A. candida race 2 (Ac2V) that specifically infects B. juncea, coupled with limitations of conventional methods has resulted in a dearth of white rust resistance resources in cultivated varieties. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an effort to develop resistant plants, Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of three B. juncea genotypes viz., susceptible host var. Varuna, along with its doubled haploid mutant lines C66 and C69 (showing moderate tolerance to field isolates of A. candida) was initiated to transfer resistance genes (WRR8Sf-2 and WRR9Hi-0) identified in Arabidopsis thaliana against race Ac2V, that encode for Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat proteins that recognize effectors of the pathogen races. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that introduction of resistance genes from a tertiary gene pool by genetic transformation enhances disease resistance in B. juncea genotypes to a highly virulent Ac2V isolate.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oomicetos , Mostardeira/genética , Genótipo , Agrobacterium , Arabidopsis/genética , Candida
14.
Plant Dis ; 108(2): 442-450, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37642548

RESUMO

Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the causal agent of Cucurbit downy mildew (CDM), is one of the most important diseases affecting cucurbit production in the United States. This disease is especially damaging to Florida production areas, as the state is a top producer of many cucurbit species. In addition, winter production in central and south Florida likely serves as a likely source of P. cubensis inoculum for spring and summer cucurbit production throughout the eastern United States, where CDM is unable to overwinter in the absence of a living host. Over 2 years (2017 and 2018) and four seasons (spring 2017, spring 2018, fall 2017, and fall 2018), 274 P. cubensis isolates were collected from cucurbit hosts at production sites in south, central, and north Florida. The isolates were analyzed with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to establish population structure and genetic diversity and further assigned to a clade based on a qPCR assay. Results of population structure and genetic diversity analyses differentiated isolates based on cucurbit host and clade (1 or 2). Of the isolates assigned to clade by qPCR, butternut squash, watermelon, and zucchini were dominated by clade 1 isolates, whereas cucumber isolates were split 34 and 59% between clades 1 and 2, respectively. Clade assignments agreed with isolate clustering observed within discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) based on SSR markers, although watermelon isolates formed a group distinct from the other clade 1 isolates. For seasonal collections from cucumber at each location, isolates were typically skewed to one clade or the other and varied across locations and seasons within each year of the study. This variable population structure of cucumber isolates could have consequences for regional disease management. This is the first study to characterize P. cubensis populations in Florida and evaluate the effect of cucurbit host and clade-type on isolate diversity and population structure, with implications for CDM management in Florida and other United States cucurbit production areas.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Cucurbitaceae , Oomicetos , Peronospora , Estados Unidos , Estações do Ano , Florida , Doenças das Plantas , Oomicetos/genética
15.
Phytopathology ; 114(1): 73-83, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37535821

RESUMO

Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a systemic infectious disease affecting foxtail millet production in Africa and Asia. S. graminicola-infected leaves could be decomposed to a state where only the veins remain, resulting in a filamentous leaf tissue symptom. The aim of the present study was to investigate how S. graminicola influences the formation of the filamentous leaf tissue symptoms in hosts at the morphological and molecular levels. We discovered that vegetative hyphae expanded rapidly, with high biomass accumulated at the early stages of S. graminicola infection. In addition, S. graminicola could affect spikelet morphological development at the panicle branch differentiation stage to the pistil and stamen differentiation stage by interfering with hormones and nutrient metabolism in the host, resulting in hedgehog-like panicle symptoms. S. graminicola could acquire high amounts of nutrients from host tissues through secretion of ß-glucosidase, endoglucanase, and pectic enzyme, and destroyed host mesophyll cells by mechanical pressure caused by rapid expansion of hyphae. At the later stages, S. graminicola could rapidly complete sexual reproduction through tryptophan, fatty acid, starch, and sucrose metabolism and subsequently produce numerous oospores. Oospore proliferation and development further damage host leaves via mechanical pressure, resulting in a large number of degraded and extinct mesophyll cells and, subsequently, malformed leaves with only veins left, that is, "filamentous leaf tissue." Our study revealed the S. graminicola expansion characteristics from its asexual to sexual development stages, and the potential mechanisms via which the destructive effects of S. graminicola on hosts occur at different growth stages.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Setaria (Planta) , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Folhas de Planta
16.
Phytopathology ; 114(2): 348-358, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37698503

RESUMO

Cucurbit downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is responsible for high economic losses worldwide in cucumber production. Synthetic pesticides or copper-based products are still important tools to manage the disease. However, the pathogen has developed resistance against common fungicides rather quickly, and there is a need for alternative plant-protecting agents. Glycyrrhiza glabra leaf extract is known for its antifungal activity and was highly effective in former bioassays and semi-commercial trials against downy mildew of cucumber. To elucidate the active ingredients and the mode of action, licorice leaf extract was here fractionated into five fractions (F1 to F5) with a newly developed and optimized separation process via flash chromatography. The crude extract (P1) and fraction F1 inhibited the zoospore release from sporangia, the zoospore germination, and germ tube development of P. cubensis almost completely on two cucumber cultivars, one tolerant and one susceptible to the pathogen. Infestation rates were reduced between 73 and 96%. F1 contained three previously reported antifungal polyphenols: glabranin, pinocembrin, and licoflavanon. Here, we report an additional new compound, naringenin. Furthermore, F5 is found here to show some protective effects against P. cubensis, based on either direct fungicidal or indirect effects via the host plant. The presented results show that licorice leaf extract can serve as an alternative plant protection agent, able to manage P. cubensis infestation on cucumber cultivars with differing levels of susceptibility by interfering with important early stages in the pathogen development.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Glycyrrhiza , Oomicetos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Bioensaio , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia
17.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(1): e13401, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37991155

RESUMO

Plasmopara viticola is geographically widespread in grapevine-growing regions. Grapevine downy mildew disease, caused by this biotrophic pathogen, leads to considerable yield losses in viticulture annually. Because of the great significance of grapevine production and wine quality, research on this disease has been widely performed since its emergence in the 19th century. Here, we review and discuss recent understanding of this pathogen from multiple aspects, including its infection cycle, disease symptoms, genome decoding, effector biology, and management and control strategies. We highlight the identification and characterization of effector proteins with their biological roles in host-pathogen interaction, with a focus on sustainable control methods against P. viticola, especially the use of biocontrol agents and environmentally friendly compounds.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Peronospora , Vitis , Vitis/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Oomicetos/genética , Gerenciamento Clínico
18.
mSystems ; 9(1): e0100423, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38078741

RESUMO

Oomycetes are fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms which can cause catastrophic diseases in many plants. Successful infection of oomycetes depends highly on their effector proteins that are secreted into plant cells to subvert plant immunity. Thus, systematic identification of effectors from the oomycete proteomes remains an initial but crucial step in understanding plant-pathogen relationships. However, the number of experimentally identified oomycete effectors is still limited. Currently, only a few bioinformatics predictors exist to detect potential effectors, and their prediction performance needs to be improved. Here, we used the sequence embeddings from a pre-trained large protein language model (ProtTrans) as input and developed a support vector machine-based method called POOE for predicting oomycete effectors. POOE could achieve a highly accurate performance with an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.804 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.893, accuracy = 0.874, precision = 0.777, recall = 0.684, and specificity = 0.936) in the fivefold cross-validation, considerably outperforming various combinations of popular machine learning algorithms and other commonly used sequence encoding schemes. A similar prediction performance was also observed in the independent test. Compared with the existing oomycete effector prediction methods, POOE provided very competitive and promising performance, suggesting that ProtTrans effectively captures rich protein semantic information and dramatically improves the prediction task. We anticipate that POOE can accelerate the identification of oomycete effectors and provide new hints to systematically understand the functional roles of effectors in plant-pathogen interactions. The web server of POOE is freely accessible at http://zzdlab.com/pooe/index.php. The corresponding source codes and data sets are also available at https://github.com/zzdlabzm/POOE.IMPORTANCEIn this work, we use the sequence representations from a pre-trained large protein language model (ProtTrans) as input and develop a Support Vector Machine-based method called POOE for predicting oomycete effectors. POOE could achieve a highly accurate performance in the independent test set, considerably outperforming existing oomycete effector prediction methods. We expect that this new bioinformatics tool will accelerate the identification of oomycete effectors and further guide the experimental efforts to interrogate the functional roles of effectors in plant-pathogen interaction.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Oomicetos/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Software , Plantas/metabolismo , Idioma
19.
J Exp Bot ; 75(7): 2100-2112, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069501

RESUMO

Downy mildew of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is an important disease that is present in cultivation areas worldwide, and using resistant varieties provides an environmentally friendly alternative to fungicides. DOWNY MILDEW RESISTANT 6 (DMR6) from Arabidopsis is a negative regulator of plant immunity and its loss of function confers resistance to downy mildew. In grapevine, DMR6 is present in two copies, named VvDMR6-1 and VvDMR6-2. Here, we describe the editing of VvDMR6-1 in embryogenic calli using CRISPR/Cas9 and the regeneration of the edited plants. All edited plants were found to be biallelic and chimeric, and whilst they all showed reduced growth compared with non-transformed control plants, they also had reduced susceptibility to P. viticola. Comparison between mock-inoculated genotypes showed that all edited lines presented higher levels of salicylic acid than controls, and lines subjected to transformation presented higher levels of cis-resveratrol than controls. Our results identify VvDMR6-1 as a promising target for breeding grapevine cultivars with improved resistance to downy mildew.


Assuntos
Oomicetos , Vitis , Resistência à Doença/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Vitis/genética , Doenças das Plantas
20.
Plant J ; 117(3): 873-891, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950600

RESUMO

The downy mildew of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is caused by Plasmopara viticola and is a major production problem in most grape-growing regions. The vast majority of effectors act as virulence factors and sabotage plant immunity. Here, we describe in detail one of the putative P. viticola Crinkler (CRN) effector genes, PvCRN11, which is highly transcribed during the infection stages in the downy mildew-susceptible grapevine V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir' and V. vinifera cv. 'Thompson Seedless'. Cell death-inducing activity analyses reveal that PvCRN11 was able to induce spot cell death in the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana but did not induce cell death in the leaves of the downy mildew-resistant V. riparia accession 'Beaumont' or of the downy mildew-susceptible 'Thompson Seedless'. Unexpectedly, stable expression of PvCRN11 inhibited the colonization of P. viticola in grapevine and Phytophthora capsici in Arabidopsis. Both transgenic grapevine and Arabidopsis constitutively expressing PvCRN11 promoted plant immunity. PvCRN11 is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas PvCRN11-induced plant immunity is nucleus-independent. The purified protein PvCRN11Opt initiated significant plant immunity extracellularly, leading to enhanced accumulations of reactive oxygen species, activation of MAPK and up-regulation of the defense-related genes PR1 and PR2. Furthermore, PvCRN11Opt induces BAK1-dependent immunity in the apoplast, whereas PvCRN11 overexpression in intracellular induces BAK1-independent immunity. In conclusion, the PvCRN11 protein triggers resistance against P. viticola in grapevine, suggesting a potential for the use of PvCRN11 in grape production as a protectant against downy mildew.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oomicetos , Phytophthora , Vitis , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Vitis/metabolismo
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