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1.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(7): 435, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current strategies for hypertrophic scar prevention and treatment are limited. OBJECTIVE: To facilitate these efforts, a minimally invasive hypertrophic scar model was created in a rabbit ear for the first time based on previous methods used to induce ischemia. METHODS: Six New Zealand white rabbits (12 ears total) were studied. First, ischemia was achieved by ligating the cranial artery, cranial vein and central artery, while preserving the caudal artery, caudal vein and central vein, respectively. The relative level of ischemia induced at time of surgery, both baseline and maximum perfusion, was assessed with a fluorescent light-assisted angiography and demonstrated lower rates of perfusion in the ischemic ears. Following vascular injury, a 2-cm full thickness linear wound was created on the ventral ear and closed with 4 - 0 Nylon sutures under high tension. For each rabbit, one ear received a combination of ischemia and wounding with suture tension (n = 6), while the other ear was non-ischemic with wounding and suture tension alone (n = 6). RESULTS: Four weeks post-operatively, ischemic ears developed scar hypertrophy (histological scar thickness: 1.1 ± 0.2 mm versus 0.5 ± 0.1 mm, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Herein, we describe a novel, prototypical minimally invasive rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scar formation that can allow investigation of new drugs for scar prevention.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Animais , Coelhos , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/patologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/etiologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/prevenção & controle , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Orelha/cirurgia , Orelha/patologia , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Isquemia/patologia , Humanos , Cicatrização , Técnicas de Sutura
2.
Med Eng Phys ; 129: 104192, 2024 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38906574

RESUMO

Poor utilization of earplugs among military personnel may be due to discomfort caused by the occlusion effect (OE). The OE occurs when an earplug occludes the ear canal, thereby changing bone conduction (BC) hearing and amplifying physiological noises from the wearer. There is a need to understand and reduce the OE in the human ear. A 3D finite element model of the human ear including a 3-chambered spiral cochlea was employed to simulate the OE caused by foam and aerogel earplugs. 90 dB sound pressure was applied at the ear canal entrance and BC sound was applied as vibration of the canal bony wall. The model reported the ear canal pressure and the displacements of the stapes footplate and cochlear basilar membrane with and without earplugs. Without BC stimulation, the foam earplug showed a greater pressure attenuation than the aerogel earplug. However, the foam earplug results were more affected by BC stimulation, with a maximum sound pressure increase of 34 dB, compared to the 21.0 dB increase with the aerogel earplug. The aerogel earplug's lower OE demonstrates its promise as an earplug material. Future work with this model will examine BC sound transmission in the cochlea.


Assuntos
Análise de Elementos Finitos , Pressão , Humanos , Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Orelha , Condução Óssea , Modelos Biológicos
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303761, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal care for body organs is a well-known practice of human beings, especially those organs that need regular care to improve function or hygiene. The ear is a unique sense organ with a specific anatomical shape to perform the function of hearing and balance. OBJECTIVES: To determine healthcare practitioners' current knowledge, behavior, and attitude regarding ear care. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare practitioners at different hospitals in Najran City, Saudi Arabia, from 25th June to 30th August 2022. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among healthcare practitioners using an online survey. The questionnaire includes basic demographic characteristics (i.e. gender, speciality, and religion). It assesses the knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward ear care, and the use of mobile headphones and earrings that affect ear health. All statistical data were analyzed using SPSS version 26. RESULTS: Of the 209 healthcare practitioners involved, 60.8% were females, and 46.9% were physicians. The prevalence of self-ear cleaning was 97.6%. Of them, 33% were cleaning their ears every week. Cotton buds were the most preferred method for self-ear cleaning. The proportion of participants who injured their ears while cleaning was 8.6%. The most common treatment method to relieve ear pain was visiting a doctor (44.4%) and utilizing a painkiller (29.7%). Interestingly, respondents who injured their ears during cleaning and those who experienced wax accumulation were significantly more common among physicians. CONCLUSION: Self-ear cleaning practices are widely prevalent in this study which could be related to the lack of knowledge about ear care among healthcare practitioners. Physicians who experienced wax accumulation tend to use other methods for self-ear cleaning rather than cotton buds. Further research is needed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the population who are working in healthcare institutions.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Orelha
4.
Opt Lett ; 49(11): 3054-3057, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824326

RESUMO

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) utilizes the photoacoustic effect to record both vascular and functional characteristics of a biological tissue. Photoacoustic signals have typically low amplitude that cannot be read efficiently by data acquisition systems. This necessitates the use of one or more amplifiers. These amplifiers are somewhat bulky (e.g., the ZFL-500LN+, Mini-Circuits, USA, or 351A-3-50-NI, Analog Modules Inc., USA). Here, we describe the fabrication and development process of a transducer with a built-in low-noise preamplifier that is encased within the transducer housing. This new, to the best of our knowledge, design could be advantageous for applications where a compact transducer + preamplifier is required. We demonstrate the performance of this compact detection unit in a laser scanning photoacoustic microscopy system by imaging a rat ear ex vivo and a rat brain vasculature in vivo.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Transdutores , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Animais , Ratos , Miniaturização , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Orelha/irrigação sanguínea , Amplificadores Eletrônicos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791809

RESUMO

Accurate body temperature measurement is essential for monitoring and managing safety during outdoor activities. Physical activities are an essential consideration for public health, with sports taking up an important proportion of these. Athletes' performances can be directly affected by body temperature fluctuations, with overheating or hypothermia posing serious health risks. Monitoring these temperatures allows coaches and medical staff to make decisions that enhance performance and safety. Traditional methods, like oral, axillary, and tympanic readings, are widely used, but face challenges during intense physical activities in real-world environments. This study evaluated the agreement, correlation, and interchangeability of oral, axillary, and tympanic temperature measurements in outdoor exercise conditions. Systems developed for specific placements might generate different sensor readouts. Conducted as an observational field study, it involved 21 adult participants (11 males and 10 females, average age 25.14 ± 5.80 years) that underwent the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test protocol on an outdoor court. The main outcomes measured were the agreement and correlation between temperature readings from the three methods, both before and after exercise. The results indicate poor agreement between the measurement sites, with significant deviations observed post-exercise. Although the Spearman correlation coefficients showed consistent temperature changes post-exercise across all methods, the standard deviations in the pairwise comparisons exceeded 0.67 °C. This study concluded that widely used temperature measurement methods are challenging to use during outdoor exercises and should not be considered interchangeable. This variability, especially after exercise, underscores the need for further research using gold standard temperature measurement methods to determine the most suitable site for accurate readings. Care should thus be taken when temperature screening is done at scale using traditional methods, as each measurement site should be considered within its own right.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Boca/fisiologia , Orelha/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação
6.
IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med ; 12: 448-456, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sleep monitoring has extensively utilized electroencephalogram (EEG) data collected from the scalp, yielding very large data repositories and well-trained analysis models. Yet, this wealth of data is lacking for emerging, less intrusive modalities, such as ear-EEG. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The current study seeks to harness the abundance of open-source scalp EEG datasets by applying models pre-trained on data, either directly or with minimal fine-tuning; this is achieved in the context of effective sleep analysis from ear-EEG data that was recorded using a single in-ear electrode, referenced to the ipsilateral mastoid, and developed in-house as described in our previous work. Unlike previous studies, our research uniquely focuses on an older cohort (17 subjects aged 65-83, mean age 71.8 years, some with health conditions), and employs LightGBM for transfer learning, diverging from previous deep learning approaches. RESULTS: Results show that the initial accuracy of the pre-trained model on ear-EEG was 70.1%, but fine-tuning the model with ear-EEG data improved its classification accuracy to 73.7%. The fine-tuned model exhibited a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05, dependent t-test) for 10 out of the 13 participants, as reflected by an enhanced average Cohen's kappa score (a statistical measure of inter-rater agreement for categorical items) of 0.639, indicating a stronger agreement between automated and expert classifications of sleep stages. Comparative SHAP value analysis revealed a shift in feature importance for the N3 sleep stage, underscoring the effectiveness of the fine-tuning process. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the potential of fine-tuning pre-trained scalp EEG models on ear-EEG data to enhance classification accuracy, particularly within an older population and using feature-based methods for transfer learning. This approach presents a promising avenue for ear-EEG analysis in sleep studies, offering new insights into the applicability of transfer learning across different populations and computational techniques. CLINICAL IMPACT: An enhanced ear-EEG method could be pivotal in remote monitoring settings, allowing for continuous, non-invasive sleep quality assessment in elderly patients with conditions like dementia or sleep apnea.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Idoso , Couro Cabeludo/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Feminino , Sono/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Orelha/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polissonografia/métodos
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732771

RESUMO

Human activity recognition (HAR) technology enables continuous behavior monitoring, which is particularly valuable in healthcare. This study investigates the viability of using an ear-worn motion sensor for classifying daily activities, including lying, sitting/standing, walking, ascending stairs, descending stairs, and running. Fifty healthy participants (between 20 and 47 years old) engaged in these activities while under monitoring. Various machine learning algorithms, ranging from interpretable shallow models to state-of-the-art deep learning approaches designed for HAR (i.e., DeepConvLSTM and ConvTransformer), were employed for classification. The results demonstrate the ear sensor's efficacy, with deep learning models achieving a 98% accuracy rate of classification. The obtained classification models are agnostic regarding which ear the sensor is worn and robust against moderate variations in sensor orientation (e.g., due to differences in auricle anatomy), meaning no initial calibration of the sensor orientation is required. The study underscores the ear's efficacy as a suitable site for monitoring human daily activity and suggests its potential for combining HAR with in-ear vital sign monitoring. This approach offers a practical method for comprehensive health monitoring by integrating sensors in a single anatomical location. This integration facilitates individualized health assessments, with potential applications in tele-monitoring, personalized health insights, and optimizing athletic training regimes.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Atividades Humanas , Orelha/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Atividades Cotidianas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Aprendizado Profundo , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Movimento (Física) , Caminhada/fisiologia
8.
Opt Lett ; 49(10): 2637-2640, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748124

RESUMO

Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) excels in precisely imaging a biological tissue based on absorption contrast. However, existing OR-PAMs are confined by fixed compromises between spatial resolution and field of view (FOV), preventing the integration of large FOV and local high-resolution within one system. Here, we present a non-telecentric OR-PAM (nTC-PAM) that empowers efficient adaptation of FOV and spatial resolution to match the multi-scale requirement of diverse biological imaging. Our method allows for a large-scale transformation in FOV and even surpassing the nominal FOV of the objective with minimal marginal degradation of the lateral resolution. We demonstrate the advantage of nTC-PAM through multi-scale imaging of the leaf phantom, mouse ear, and cortex. The results reveal that nTC-PAM can switch the FOV and spatial resolution to meet the requirements of different biological tissues, such as large-scale imaging of the whole cerebral cortex and high-resolution imaging of microvascular structures in local brain regions.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Animais , Camundongos , Microscopia/métodos , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Orelha/irrigação sanguínea , Imagens de Fantasmas
9.
ACS Sens ; 9(4): 2166-2175, 2024 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625680

RESUMO

Relying on the strong optical absorption of hemoglobin to pulsed laser energy, photoacoustic microscopy provides morphological and functional information on microvasculature label-freely. Here, we propose speckle variance photoacoustic microscopy (SV-PAM), which harnesses intrinsic imaging contrast from temporal-varied photoacoustic signals of moving red blood cells in blood vessels, for recovering three-dimension hemodynamic images down to capillary-level resolution within the microcirculatory tissue beds in vivo. Calculating the speckle variance of consecutive photoacoustic B-scan frames acquired at the same lateral position enables accurate identification of blood perfusion and occlusion, which provides interpretations of dynamic blood flow in the microvasculature, in addition to the microvascular anatomic structures. We demonstrate high-resolution hemodynamic imaging of vascular occlusion and reperfusion in the microvasculature of mice ears in vivo. The results suggest that our SV-PAM is potentially invaluable for biomedical hemodynamic investigations, for example, imaging ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Animais , Camundongos , Microscopia/métodos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Orelha/irrigação sanguínea , Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Eritrócitos , Microcirculação
10.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 281(6): 2849-2859, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The indications of Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) have been expanded to include patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss due to congenital aural atresia (CAA). However, the current evidence supporting the auditory outcomes of VSB is based mainly on case reports and retrospective chart reviews. Therefore, the present systematic review aims to summarize and critically appraise the current evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of VSB in children and adult patients with CAA. METHODS: A systematic literature search retrieved studies that evaluated the outcomes of unilateral or bilateral implantation of VSB in patients with CAA. The bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases from January 2000 to December 2022. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies were included in the present systematic review. Overall, the speech perception after VSB was good, with a mean word recognition score (WRS) score ranging from 60 to 96.7%. The mean postoperative speech recognition threshold (SRT) after implantation ranged from 20.8 to 50 dB. The effective gain was reported in 15 studies, ranging from 31.3 to 45.5 dB. In terms of user satisfaction with VSB, the included studies showed significant improvements in the patient-reported outcomes, such as the Speech Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale and Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile. The VSB implantation was generally safe with low incidence of postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: VSB provides significant benefits to individuals with hearing loss owing to CAA, with very good subjective outcomes and a low risk of complications.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas , Orelha , Humanos , Anormalidades Congênitas/cirurgia , Orelha/anormalidades , Orelha/cirurgia , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/cirurgia , Perda Auditiva Condutiva/congênito , Perda Auditiva Condutiva-Neurossensorial Mista/cirurgia , Percepção da Fala
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563168

RESUMO

Objective:This study analyzed the pure tone audiometry results of the affected ear and the contralateral ear of unilateral Meniere's disease to investigate the correlation of the hearing threshold of the contralateral ear and the hearing prognosis of unilateral Meniere's disease. Methods:In this study, the follow-up data of 135 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease in Beijing Tongren Hospital were used to analyze the pure tone audiometry results of the affected and contralateral ears at the first visit and 1 year later. Results:①At the first visit, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean hearing thresholds of the affected ear in the normal hearing group and the high-frequency hearing loss group of the contralateral ear(P>0.05). ②The range of improvement of hearing thresholds in the affected ear was greater in the contralateral ear normal hearing group than in the contralateral ear high-frequency hearing loss group. In the normal hearing group of the contralateral ear, the hearing thresholds of the affected ear at 0.25 kHz(P<0.01), 0.50 kHz(P<0.01), 1.00 kHz(P<0.01), and 2.00 kHz(P<0.05) were significantly improved; and in the high-frequency hearing loss group of the contralateral ear, the hearing thresholds at 0.25 kHz(P<0.01) hearing thresholds improved significantly, and there was no significant difference between the rest of the frequencies before and after treatment(P>0.05). A consistent pattern was observed in both higher and lower age groups. ③After 1 year of follow-up, the low and mid-frequency hearing of the affected ear improved. 0.25 kHz(P<0.01), 0.50 kHz(P<0.01), 1.00 kHz(P<0.01) hearing thresholds improved significantly; 8.00 kHz hearing thresholds decreased slightly(P<0.05). Conclusion:After standardized treatment, the results of 1-year follow-up suggested that the low-frequency hearing of MD patients could be improved, but the high-frequency hearing was slightly decreased. The hearing prognosis of the affected ear with normal hearing threshold of the contralateral ear may be better.


Assuntos
Doença de Meniere , Humanos , Doença de Meniere/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva de Alta Frequência , Orelha , Audição , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Prognóstico
12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 152, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microtia is a congenital ear malformation that can occur as isolated microtia or as part of a syndrome. The etiology is currently poorly understood, although there is strong evidence that genetics has a role in the occurrence of microtia. This systematic review aimed to determine the genes involved and the abnormalities in microtia patients' head and neck regions. METHODS: We used seven search engines to search all known literature on the genetic and phenotypic variables associated with the development or outcome of microtia. The identified publications were screened and selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and assessed for methodological quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. We found 40 papers in this systematic review with phenotypic data in microtia involving 1459 patients and 30 articles containing genetic data involved in microtia. RESULT: The most common accompanying phenotype of all microtia patients was external ear canal atresia, while the most common head and neck abnormalities were the auricular, mental, and oral regions. The most common syndrome found was craniofacial microsomia syndrome. In the syndromic microtia group, the most common genes were TCOF1 (43.75%), SIX2 (4.69%), and HSPA9 (4.69%), while in the non-syndromic microtia group, the most frequently found gene was GSC exon 2 (25%), FANCB (16.67%), HOXA2 (8.33%), GSC exon 3 (8.33%), MARS1 (8.33%), and CDT1 (8.33%). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review shows some genes involved in the microtia development, including TCOF1, SIX2, HSPA9, GSC exon 2, FANCB, HOXA2, GSC exon 3, MARS1, and CDT1 genes. We also reveal a genotype-phenotype association in microtia. In addition, further studies with more complete and comprehensive data are needed, including patients with complete data on syndromes, phenotypes, and genotypes.


Assuntos
Microtia Congênita , Humanos , Microtia Congênita/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Orelha/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Síndrome , Estudos de Associação Genética
13.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 12(4): e2441, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND) is a rare congenital craniofacial developmental malformation syndrome of the first and second pharyngeal arches with external ear malformation at the junction between the lobe and helix, micromaxillary malformation, and mandibular condylar hypoplasia. Four subtypes of ARCND have been described so far, that is, ARCND1 (OMIM # 602483), ARCND2 (ARCND2A, OMIM # 614669; ARCND2B, OMIM # 620458), ARCND3 (OMIM # 615706), and ARCND4 (OMIM # 620457). METHODS: This study reports a case of ARCND2 resulting from a novel pathogenic variant in the PLCB4 gene, and summarizes PLCB4 gene mutation sites and phenotypes of ARCND2. RESULTS: The proband, a 5-day-old male neonate, was referred to our hospital for respiratory distress. Micrognathia, microstomia, distinctive question mark ears, as well as mandibular condyle hypoplasia were identified. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant of NM_001377142.1:c.1928C>T (NP_001364071.1:p.Ser643Phe) in the PLCB4 gene, which was predicted to impair the local structural stability with a result that the protein function might be affected. From a review of the literature, only 36 patients with PLCB4 gene mutations were retrieved. CONCLUSION: As with other studies examining familial cases of ARCND2, incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity were observed within different families' heterozygous mutations in PLCB4 gene. Although, motor and intellectual development are in the normal range in the vast majority of patients with ARCND2, long-term follow-up and assessment are still required.


Assuntos
Otopatias , Orelha , Micrognatismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , China , Orelha/anormalidades , Fosfolipase C beta , População do Leste Asiático
14.
Am J Audiol ; 33(2): 503-509, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668691

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between microtia severity and hearing function has been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the relationship between microtia grade, number of ear subunits (i.e., helix, antihelix, scapha, triangularis fossa, concha, lobule, tragus, and antitragus) with auditory brainstem response (ABR) findings in children with microtia. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was employed in this study. METHOD: We analyzed the ABR test results and photographs of 22 children with 30 microtia ears at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital, Jakarta. The ABR test results were acquired using click (air conduction only) and 500-Hz tone burst stimuli (air- and bone-conduction). Ear photographs were overlaid with a template of a normal ear to determine the number of ear subunits present and the subsequent microtia grade. Number of ear subunits and ABR results were analyzed using the chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman's correlation tests. RESULTS: ABR thresholds for click and 500-Hz tone bursts air-conduction were significantly poorer for ears with a subunit < 5 compared to ears with a subunit ≥ 5. No significant difference was observed in 500 Hz bone-conduction ABR thresholds between these groups. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between increased ear subunits and click ABR thresholds. No significant correlation was found between ear subunits and 500-Hz air- and bone-conduction ABR thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: A higher number of ear subunits are associated with a lower hearing threshold, as assessed using ABR with click stimuli. Therefore, the number of ear subunits and microtia grades can be used to examine the hearing level thresholds in infants and children with microtia. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.25669440.


Assuntos
Microtia Congênita , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Humanos , Microtia Congênita/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pré-Escolar , Limiar Auditivo , Adolescente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Orelha/anormalidades , Orelha/fisiopatologia
15.
Dev Biol ; 513: 50-62, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492873

RESUMO

The voltage gated (Kv) slow-inactivating delayed rectifier channel regulates the development of hollow organs of the zebrafish. The functional channel consists of the tetramer of electrically active Kcnb1 (Kv2.1) subunits and Kcng4b (Kv6.4) modulatory or electrically silent subunits. The two mutations in zebrafish kcng4b gene - kcng4b-C1 and kcng4b-C2 (Gasanov et al., 2021) - have been studied during ear development using electrophysiology, developmental biology and in silico structural modelling. kcng4b-C1 mutation causes a C-terminal truncation characterized by mild Kcng4b loss-of-function (LOF) manifested by failure of kinocilia to extend and formation of ectopic otoliths. In contrast, the kcng4b-C2-/- mutation causes the C-terminal domain to elongate and the ectopic seventh transmembrane (TM) domain to form, converting the intracellular C-terminus to an extracellular one. Kcng4b-C2 acts as a Kcng4b gain-of-function (GOF) allele. Otoliths fail to develop and kinocilia are reduced in kcng4b-C2-/-. These results show that different mutations of the silent subunit Kcng4 can affect the activity of the Kv channel and cause a wide range of developmental defects.


Assuntos
Orelha , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Orelha/embriologia , Mutação/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/genética , Canais de Ânion Dependentes de Voltagem/metabolismo
16.
S Afr J Commun Disord ; 71(1): e1-e8, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Bone-conduction hearing devices (BCHD) can provide hearing solutions in settings where middle ear pathology is rife. OBJECTIVES:  Describe functional hearing outcomes and device use of children fitted with BCHD. METHOD:  Retrospective review of 79 children fitted with BCHD between January 2017 and May 2022. Outcomes included device use and subjective reports measured with the Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) and the Teachers' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (TEACH). Analysis of variance established association between mean data logging and type and degree of hearing loss. Thematic analyses were done for qualitative outcomes. RESULTS:  Average usage was 7.0 h/day (5.4 SD; range 0.1-24). PEACH ratings indicated 93.3% of children wore their BCHD 'always' or 'often', with 80% displaying Typical auditory performance at 1-month follow-up. TEACH ratings indicated 84.2% of children wore their BCHD 'always' or 'often', with 78.9% showing typical auditory behaviour. Increased usage was noted for conductive, mixed, moderate and severe hearing losses. There was a mean delay of 17.2 months (23.4 SD; range 0-90) between age of diagnosis and fitting. Thematic analyses identified two main themes: advantages and barriers to BCDH use. CONCLUSION:  Average device use fell short of the internationally recommended 10 h/day. Higher BCHD use was associated with higher functional listening performance scores. Long waiting times for medical or surgical intervention for conductive hearing losses can delay BCHD fitting.Contribution: Limited information is available to examine outcomes in children fitted with BCHD.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva , Criança , Humanos , África do Sul , Condução Óssea , Orelha , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Audição
17.
Vet Rec ; 194(6): e3993, 2024 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some prior evidence has suggested that lop-eared rabbits and those with brachycephalic skull conformations have a higher dental disease risk. This retrospective cohort study reports the frequency and conformational risk factors for primary-care veterinary diagnosis with dental disease in companion rabbits in the UK. METHODS: Anonymised VetCompass clinical records were manually reviewed to confirm dental disease cases. Risk factor analysis used multivariable binary logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: From 161,979 rabbits under primary veterinary care in 2019, the 1-year period prevalence of overall dental disease was 15.36% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.78-15.96). The prevalence of dental disease affecting incisors was 3.14% (95% CI: 2.87-3.44), and for cheek teeth it was 13.72% (95% CI: 13.17-14.29). Neither lop-eared conformation nor brachycephalic skull conformation was significantly associated with increased odds of dental disease. Dental disease odds increased as age increased and decreased as bodyweight increased. LIMITATIONS: This study retrospectively accessed clinical records, so breed names may sometimes be imprecise. CONCLUSION: The high overall prevalence of dental disease represents a major welfare concern for all companion rabbits, regardless of conformation. This information can be used to encourage regular routine dental assessment of rabbits of all conformations to promote earlier diagnosis, paying particular attention to older rabbits and those with low bodyweight.


Assuntos
Orelha , Doenças Estomatognáticas , Coelhos , Animais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Estomatognáticas/veterinária , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Mol Pharm ; 21(5): 2298-2314, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527915

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scars (HS) still remain an urgent challenge in the medical community. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has unique advantages in the treatment of HS. However, due to the natural barrier of the skin, it is difficult for the natural active components of TCM to more effectively penetrate the skin and exert therapeutic effects. Therefore, the development of an efficient drug delivery system to facilitate enhanced transdermal absorption of TCM becomes imperative for its clinical application. In this study, we designed a compound Salvia miltiorrhiza-Blumea balsamifera nanoemulsion gel (CSB-NEG) and investigated its therapeutic effects on rabbit HS models. The prescription of CSB-NEG was optimized by single-factor, pseudoternary phase diagram, and central composite design experiments. The results showed that the average particle size and PDI of the optimized CSB-NE were 46.0 ± 0.2 nm and 0.222 ± 0.004, respectively, and the encapsulation efficiency of total phenolic acid was 93.37 ± 2.56%. CSB-NEG demonstrated excellent stability and skin permeation in vitro and displayed a significantly enhanced ability to inhibit scar formation compared to the CSB physical mixture in vivo. After 3 weeks of CSB-NEG treatment, the scar appeared to be flat, pink, and flexible. Furthermore, this treatment also resulted in a decrease in the levels of the collagen I/III ratio and TGF-ß1 and Smad2 proteins while simultaneously promoting the growth and remodeling of microvessels. These findings suggest that CSB-NEG has the potential to effectively address the barrier properties of the skin and provide therapeutic benefits for HS, offering a new perspective for the prevention and treatment of HS.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Emulsões , Géis , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Absorção Cutânea , Coelhos , Animais , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Emulsões/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Pele/metabolismo , Administração Cutânea , Tamanho da Partícula , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Orelha/patologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369790

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the current application and the level of knowledge of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring among medical staff in China. Methods: A comprehensive online questionnaire was conducted among medical professionals across different regions in China from October 2022 to February 2023. The survey exclusively targeted departments specializing in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery, neurosurgery, and oral and maxillofacial surgery. The questionnaire covered various aspects including general information, intraoperative facial nerve monitoring practices, training history, indications for monitoring, parameters used during monitoring procedures, as well as factors influencing its implementation. Results: A total of 417 participants from 31 provincial, municipal, and autonomous regions were included. Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring was found to be implemented in 227 (54.4%,227/417) repondents of 53 institutions (24.9%, 53/213). The top three indications for implementing this technique were acoustic neuroma, parotid gland surgery, and modified middle ear surgery (mastoidectomy). Herein 81.1%(184/227) medical staff involved in intraoperative facial nerve monitoring had received relevant training, 57.3%(130/227)-92.1%(209/227) reported a lack of clear description regarding recording thresholds, stimulation currents/frequencies/wave widths. Conclusion: The majority of the institutions surveyed have not yet adopted intraoperative facial nerve monitoring. Furthermore, significant gaps concerning the procedure exist. It is imperative to establish standards or guidelines to promote its better development and application.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nervo Facial , Neuroma Acústico , Humanos , Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Nervo Facial/fisiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Orelha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos do Nervo Facial/cirurgia , Eletromiografia/métodos
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