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1.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(2): 403-414, 2021 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increased loneliness is a common consequence of widowhood in later life. However, individuals with high levels of perceived social support from friends tend to cope more effectively following major social losses like widowhood. Military service is associated with cultivation of strong social support structures. This effect may not only influence those who serve, but also their spouses. Roughly half of older women today are married to veterans, which could shape how they cope with widowhood. We tested two hypotheses: (a) widows of veterans will be less lonely following widowhood compared to their nonveteran counterparts, and (b) this effect will be explained by perceived social support from friends. METHODS: We used the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine changes in loneliness following widowhood among wives of veterans and nonveterans. We used Ordinary Least Squares regression and mediation tests to address our hypotheses. RESULTS: Net of baseline differences, widows of veterans reported statistically lower levels of loneliness (p < .05) following widowhood compared to widows of nonveterans. Widows of veterans retained the same level of perceived social support from friends pre- and postwidowhood, whereas nonveteran wives experienced a loss. Perceived social support from friends mediated the association between veteran status of the deceased spouse and loneliness. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest wives of veterans may have more resilient social support structures than nonveteran spouses, helping them cope at widowhood. Future research should explore whether these effects persist in association with other major stressful events in later life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Solidão/psicologia , Apoio Social , Veteranos/psicologia , Viuvez/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Luto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia Militar , Resiliência Psicológica , Rede Social , Estados Unidos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4366, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868764

RESUMO

Armed forces often rely on strict hierarchical organization, where people are required to follow orders. In two cross-sectional studies, we investigate whether or not working in a military context influences the sense of agency and outcome processing, and how different durations (junior cadets vs senior cadets) and types (cadets vs privates) of military experience may modulate these effects. Participants could administer painful electrical shocks to a 'victim' in exchange for money, either by their own free choice, or following orders of the experimenter. Results indicate that working in a strictly hierarchical structure may have a generalized negative impact on one's own sense of agency and outcome processing by reducing it, even when participants could freely decide their action. However, trained officers showed an enhanced sense of agency and outcome processing. This study offers insights on the potential for training the sense of agency and outcome processing.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia Militar , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sanid. mil ; 76(2): 118-125, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197394

RESUMO

La literatura científica señala que las situaciones de emergencias y desastres tienen un impacto más elevado para la salud mental que para la salud física. No había razones para pensar que la pandemia por COVID-19 y la situación de estado de alarma fueran a impactar menos que epidemias anteriores. Por ello, la psicología militar debía aportar algunas de sus capacidades para reducir el impacto de la emergencia en la salud mental de una parte de la población. MÉTODO: Se realizaron búsquedas bibliográficas en PubMed, PsycINFO y EBSCOhost de cara a analizar el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en la salud mental. Además, se describen algunas de las diferentes actuaciones que ha llevado a cabo la psicología militar en todo el territorio nacional, durante la mencionada crisis sanitaria. RESULTADOS: Se observa un impacto psicológico negativo del COVID-19 en países como China, Argelia, Irán, India, Italia, España, Reino Unido o Alemania. La psicología militar realizó al menos 15000 actuaciones, aunque no todas se concretaron en intervenciones psicológicas y solo unas 8000 se pudieron contabilizar formalmente. El 40% de las personas atendidas recibieron al menos una intervención psicológica (13% en formato individual y 27% en sesión grupal para intervinientes). De las actuaciones individuales contabilizadas, aproximadamente el 18% derivó en intervención psicológica. En las intervenciones individuales se observaron síntomas de salud mental negativos, así como patrones de resiliencia para gestionar el estrés. Las actuaciones se llevaron a cabo con: Trabajadores y usuarios de residencias de mayores y centros de personas vulnerables; hospitalizados y familiares de hospitalizados y fallecidos por COVID-19; militares intervinientes en la emergencia; familiares de militares; trabajadores civiles del Ministerio de Defensa; militares en situación de retiro; y viudas de militares. CONCLUSIONES: Según la literatura científica, la emergencia sanitaria ha tenido un impacto negativo en la salud mental. Sin embargo, pese a los síntomas negativos, los individuos también demuestran patrones de resiliencia bien establecidos


Scientific community indicates that emergency and disaster situations have a higher impact on mental health than on physical health. There was no reason to believe that outbreak COVID-19 and state of alarm were going to impact less than previous epidemics. For this reason, military psychology needed to contribute with some of its capabilities to reduce the impact of the emergency on the mental health of part of the population. METHOD: Bibliographic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO and EBSCOhost were performed for analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. In addition, some of the actions that military psychology has carried out throughout the Nation are described. RESULTS: A negative psychological impact of COVID-19 was observed in countries such as China, Algeria, Iran, India, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom or Germany. Military psychology carried out at least 15,000 actions, although not all of them resulted in psychological interventions and about half of them were formally accounted. Approximately 40% of the people received at least one psychological intervention (13% in individual format and 27% in group session for participants). Of the individual actions recorded, about 18% needed psychological first aid. Negative symptoms but also positive resilience patterns were observed in people. Actions were done in different contexts: Workers and users of nursing homes and centers for vulnerable people; hospitalized and hospitalized's relatives and deceased by COVID-19; military personnel as first workers; military relatives; civil workers from the Ministry of Defense; retired military personnel; and military widows. CONCLUSIONS: According to the scientific literature, this outbreak has had a negative impact on mental health. However, despite negative symptoms, people also presented resilience patterns


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Militar/métodos , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Intervenção na Crise/métodos , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração , Psicologia Militar/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
4.
Psychol Serv ; 17(2): 195-198, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211574

RESUMO

With increasing requirements for expeditionary support to military units, models of integrated and embedded psychology have emerged. Operational psychology represents one such model. Military operational psychologists receive specialized training, are embedded in operational units, and are employed to provide operational mission support to organizations and their personnel as opposed to providing individual health care per se. The following article describes the employment of military operational psychology and discusses its unique organizational and ethical challenges. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Militares , Psicologia Militar , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Psicologia Militar/ética , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração
5.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 694-707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328927

RESUMO

In 2015, the American Psychological Association (APA) commissioned an independent review (IR) to examine APA's potential involvement with "enhanced interrogation" procedures following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The IR concluded that certain APA officials acted together with the Department of Defense to "align APA and curry favor with" the Department of Defense to allow the involvement of psychologists in such enhanced interrogations (Hoffman et al., 2015, p. 9). Discussion following the IR's release underscored differences in the views of psychologists regarding the IR's conclusions. Despite extensive discussion, there is only anecdotal evidence regarding the views of psychologists on many of the questions investigated in the IR. This study examined the opinions of psychologists and the public shortly after the IR's release regarding the roles of psychologists in national security interrogations and other non-treatment-focused contexts. This survey of psychologists (N = 1,146) engaged in treatment-focused and non-treatment-focused activities, and of the general public (N = 522), sheds light on the broader perceptions of the IR's conclusions, and is relevant in considering future directions for the profession. Results suggest that the public is more accepting of psychologists' involvement in national security settings, including involvement in many of the activities highlighted as problematic in the IR, than are psychologists. The perceptions of treatment-focused and non-treatment-focused psychologists regarding the appropriate roles of psychologists in national security settings did not differ significantly. These empirical data should help inform the ongoing discussion in this area. None of the authors is associated with an unequivocal position on the IR or the issues addressed as part of it. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Psicologia Militar/ética , Medidas de Segurança/ética , Sociedades Científicas/ética , Tortura/ética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 56(3): 186-200, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867737

RESUMO

In April 1951 president Harry S. Truman established the Psychological Strategy Board to enhance and streamline America's sprawling psychological warfare campaign against the USSR. As soon as the Board's staff began work on improving US psychological operations, they wondered how social science might help them achieve their task. Board Director, Gordon Gray, asked physicist turned research administrator Henry Loomis to do a full review of America's social science research program in support of psychological operations. Loomis willingly accepted the task. This paper documents Loomis's investigation into America's social science research program. It uncovers the critical role that government departments had in the creation of research in the early 1950s and thus highlights that the government official is an important actor in the history of social science and the application of social science to psychological operations at the beginning of the Cold War.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais/história , Metafísica/história , Guerra Psicológica/história , Psicologia Militar/história , Relatório de Pesquisa/história , Ciências Sociais/história , Adulto , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , U.R.S.S. , Estados Unidos , II Guerra Mundial
7.
Quad. psicol. (Bellaterra, Internet) ; 22(1): e1501-e1501, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198420

RESUMO

En el marco del conflicto armado la producción de conocimiento sobre Desmovilización, Desarme y Reintegración reconoce a la familia como un factor fundamental en el proceso de reintegración, tal y cómo se encuentra al interior de diversas producciones, aunque las mismas no hayan sido lo suficientemente difundidas. En este artículo, analizamos la producción académica en torno a la familia durante el proceso de reintegración, teniendo como contexto la desmovilización de personas de Grupos Armados Ilegales (GAI) en Colombia. Construimos un estado del arte con artículos y tesis durante el periodo 2010-2018 publicadas revistas indexadas y centros de investigación universitarios. Entre los resultados se destaca la importancia de la familia como factor de riesgo y protección en el proceso de reintegración, se identifican los ajustes en las dinámicas familiares antes, durante y después de la vinculación al grupo armado y se exploran perspectivas de género en las transformaciones de sujetos y familias


In the framework of the armed conflict the production of knowledge on Demobilization, Dis-armament and Reintegration recognizes the family as a fundamental factor in the process of reintegration, as it is found within various productions, even though these have not been sufficiently disseminated. In this article, we analyze the academic production around the family during the reintegration process, taking as a context the demobilization of people from Illegal Armed Groups (IAG) in Colombia. We build a state of the art with articles and theses during the period 2010-2018 published in indexed journals and university research centers. Among the results, we highlight the importance of the family as a risk and protection factor in the reintegration process, we identify the adjustments in family dynamics before, during and after joining the armed group, and we explore gender perspectives in the transformations of subjects and families


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Atividades Militares , Família Militar/psicologia , Psicologia Militar , Apoio Social , Colômbia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056810

RESUMO

Abstract The Portuguese military in mission state that parents and siblings are a fundamental support; however, research is very scarce in this area. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a mission on the daily life, communication and emotional responses of 227 relatives of 92 military personnel, 114 siblings (M age = 29.14, SD = 9.81) e 113 parents (M age = 55.06, SD = 9.12). A questionnaire related to the mission was applied, focusing on changes in the daily life, social support, communication and advice to other family members; and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule since receiving notification. The results revealed that the parents suffered more with the notification and that there were changes in family functioning and in the functional support. Communication with the deployed military service member strengthens family relationships, morale, and well-being. Participants reported emotions of concern and pride, and gave advice based on a positive attitude toward the military and the mission.


Resumo Os militares portugueses em missão costumam mencionar que pais e irmãos são um apoio fundamental, contudo a investigação é muito escassa nesta área. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o impacto de uma missão no cotidiano, comunicação e nas respostas emocionais de 227 familiares de 92 militares, 114 irmãos (M idade = 29.14, DP = 9.81) e 113 progenitores (M idade = 55.06, DP = 9.12). Aplicou-se um questionário relativo à missão, focando alterações do cotidiano, suporte social, comunicação e conselhos a outros familiares; e a Escala de Afetos Positivos e Negativos perante a notificação da mesma. Os resultados revelaram que os progenitores sofreram mais com a notificação e que existiram alterações no funcionamento familiar e no suporte funcional. A comunicação com o militar destacado fortalece as relações familiares, a moral e o bem-estar. Os participantes destacaram as emoções de preocupação e orgulho assim como conselhos pautados por uma atitude positiva face aos militares e à missão.


Resumen Los militares portugueses en misión mencionan que los padres y hermanos son un apoyo fundamental, pero la investigación es muy escasa en esta área. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el impacto de una misión en la vida cotidiana, la comunicación y las respuestas emocionales de 227 familiares de 92 militares, 114 hermanos (M edad = 29.14 SD = 9.81) y 113 padres (M edad = 55.06, SD = 9.12). Se aplicó un cuestionario de misión, centrado en los cambios diarios, el apoyo social, la comunicación y el asesoramiento a otros miembros de la familia; y la Escala de Afectos Positivos y Negativos tras la notificación. Los resultados revelaron que los padres sufrieron más con la notificación y que hubo cambios en el funcionamiento familiar y el apoyo funcional. La comunicación con el militar separado fortalece las relaciones familiares, la moral y el bienestar. Los participantes destacaron emociones de preocupación y orgullo, así como consejos basados en una actitud positiva hacia los militares y la misión.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia Militar , Apoio Social , Atitude , Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comunicação , Emoções Manifestas , Afeto , Relações Familiares , Militares
9.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMO

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia/história , Ergonomia , Psicologia Comparada , Psicologia Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervoso
10.
Sanid. mil ; 75(4): 193-202, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189638

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Análisis sobre la importancia de realizar una óptima selección de los aspirantes a Ofciales y Subofciales de las Fuerzas Armadas. OBJETIVOS: Revisar la frecuencia de las evaluaciones psicológicas realizadas a los aspirantes a ofciales y subofciales de las Fuerzas Armadas y las variables implicadas, así como describir el contexto normativo en el que se enmarca y las difcultades que se plantean. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio observacional, transversal y retrospectivo de los aspirantes a ofciales y subofciales en julio y agosto de 2016, considerados "no aptos provisionales" en el Inventario de Personalidad de las Fuerzas Armadas (IPFAS). Estos aspirantes fueron evaluados por psicólogos en la Unidad de Reconocimientos del HCD Gómez Ulla para determinar si se encontraban dentro de los criterios de exclusión médica de la normativa vigente. RESULTADOS: Se identifcaron 114 aspirantes (7.39%) que obtuvieron puntuaciones que indicaban desajustes en la personalidad, de un total de 1542 que realizaron su reconocimiento médico. La valoración para éstos consistió en entrevista clínica, Cuestionario de Salud e Inventario Clínico Multiaxial de Millon (MCMI-III). Resultaron "no aptos" 32 aspirantes (2,07% del total). CONCLUSIONES: Sería benefcioso aprovechar las medidas de personalidad aportadas por el IPFAS para seleccionar a los futuros mandos en base a la posesión de atributos relacionados con el éxito profesional independientemente de la valoración médica que explora patología mental, así como encontrar una solución para poder decidir sobre la aptitud de los aspirantes que distorsionan e invalidan las pruebas como resultado de una deseabilidad social anormalmente elevada


INTRODUCTION: Analysis on the importance of performing optimum selective process of candidates Armed Forces offcers and NCO's. Objetive: To assess the frequency of the psychological evaluations performed to candidates offcers and NCO's and the variables involved, as well as to describe the normative context and the diffculties that may arise. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Observational, transversal and retrospective study of candidates offcers and NCO's declared as "provisionally not suitable" according to the Armed Forces Personality Inventory (IPFAS) carried out during July and August 2016. These people were assessed at the Reconnaissance Unit located in HCD Gomez Ulla in order to determine if they met the medical exclusion criteria according to existing legislation. RESULTS: 114 candidates out of a total of 1542 (7.39%) were identifed whose scores indicated personality misadjustments. For these individuals, the assessments consisted of clinical interview and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. 32 candidates were found "not suitable" (2.07% of the total). Conclussions: It would be convenient to take beneft from personality measurements provided by IPFAS in order to select future commanders based on possession of personal qualities or attributes related to professional success, regardless of the medical assessment exploring mental pathology, as well as coming up with a solution allowing to take a decision on the suitability of the candidates that distort and invalidate the tests as a consequence of a social desirability abnormally elevated


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Psicologia Militar , Militares/psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Sanid. mil ; 75(3): 129-130, jul.-sept. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187447

RESUMO

No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Militar , Militares/psicologia , Psicologia Militar
12.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 141-148, mayo-ago. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183644

RESUMO

En el marco de la Fuerza Internacional de Asistencia para la Seguridad (International Security Assistance Force, ISAF) de la OTAN, España mantuvo desplegado desde 2005 a 2014 en Herat (Afganistán) un Hospital Militar de Campaña (Role 2 Enhanced, en termi-nología OTAN) dotado, entre otras especialidades, de un Servicio de Psicología. Durante casi diez años de misión, los psicólogos mi-litares allí comisionados han ejercido diversas funciones, incluyendo la clínica-asistencial, asesora, preventiva y pericial, cuyo objetivo ha sido mejorar el bienestar y la salud psicológica de nuestro personal desplegado en zona de operaciones. En el presente trabajo se expone, a modo de lecciones aprendidas, una serie de reflexiones y propuestas al objeto de contribuir al mejor funcionamiento del Servicio de Psicología Militar en operaciones internacionales en el exterior y, por ende, a la mejora de la adaptación a las mismas de los contingentes que participan en ellas


Within the framework of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), a NATO-led mission, Spain deployed from 2005 to 2014 in Herat, Afghanistan, a (Role 2 Enhanced) military field hospital endowed with, among other health specialties, a psychology service. During almost ten years of mission, military psychologists commissioned there performed various functions and tasks, including clinical-assistance, support to commanders, preventive and expert duties, whose goal was to improve the well-being and psychological health of our personnel deployed in the area of operations. Lessons learned from this experience are presented in this paper. In this respect, several reflections and proposals are presented, the objective of which is to contribute to a better functioning of the military psychology service in international operations abroad and, therefore, to the improvement of the adaptation of our contingents engaged in these operations


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Militar/métodos , Cooperação Internacional , Saúde da Família , Adaptação Psicológica , Psicologia Militar/instrumentação , Afeganistão , Hospitais Militares , Promoção da Saúde
13.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 49(6): 1707-1720, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study describes characteristics of United States Air Force (USAF) suicide decedents and determines subgroups. METHOD: Retrospective review of demographic, psychiatric, event-related, and psychosocial variables for USAF suicide decedents in the Suicide Event Surveillance System database was conducted between February 1999 and July 2009 (N = 376). Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to determine initial clusters and cluster centroids. RESULTS: Analyses identified three clusters. Cluster 1 (n = 149) individuals were mostly single or divorced, E-1-E-6 rank, living alone, and less likely to have psychiatric disorder diagnoses or engage with most helping resources. Cluster 2 (n = 126) decedents were mostly married, living with a partner, higher ranking, and least likely to communicate suicide intent. Cluster 3 (n = 101) individuals were mostly E-4-E-6 rank, with the highest rates of most psychiatric diagnoses, previous suicide-related events, engagement with multiple helping resources, communication of intent, and psychosocial precipitants. Clusters differed significantly in marital status, rank, psychiatric diagnoses, precipitants, service utilization, previous suicide-related events, risk factors, communication of intent, location and method of death, and residential status. CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies empirically based suicide typologies within a military decedent sample. While further research and replications of findings are needed, these typologies have clinical and policy implications for military suicide prevention.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Militares , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio Consumado , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia , Psicologia Militar/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio Consumado/prevenção & controle , Suicídio Consumado/psicologia , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 80-86, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886008

RESUMO

This paper considers the manifestation and treatment of psychological trauma in the military. The article describes how military psychologists conceptualise psychological trauma within the culture of the Armed Forces (AF), which is reflected in the process of acquiring what has been referred to as cultural competency. Psychologists in this context acquire an understanding of the manner in which the psychological and organisational systems and culture of the military affect the presentation of psychological trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The paper outlines core psychological features of military life, including some of the ways in which the AF functions effectively as an adaptable fighting force. This highlights, for example, the potential for stigma within and between military personnel who experience mental health difficulties. The article proceeds to examine aspects of help-seeking in military mental healthcare, how symptoms can present at different stages in a deployment process, and the consequences that such problems can cause for military conduct and performance. Psychological care in the military is structured within an occupational mental health ethos, in which psychologists fulfil a range of clinical, organisational and leadership roles. These dynamics are explored with examples of care pathways and clarity on evidence-based interventions for trauma and PTSD in those experiencing military-related psychological injuries. Two vignettes are then offered to illustrate how some of these interventions can be used psychotherapeutically in addressing symptoms pertaining to hyperarousal, hypervigilance, guilt and shame.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Medicina Militar , Psiquiatria Militar , Psicologia Militar , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Humanos , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Medicina Militar/normas , Militares , Psiquiatria Militar/organização & administração , Psiquiatria Militar/normas , Psicologia , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração , Psicologia Militar/normas
15.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 109-112, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711923

RESUMO

The Department of Communication and Applied Behavioural Science is one of the three departments in the academic faculty at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. The aim of the Department is to equip officer cadets with the skills, knowledge and personal qualities in order for them to develop their own potential, as both individuals and leaders in the British Army. The members of the Department have a range of backgrounds, with most having served in various capacities across UK Defence, both in uniformed and/or civilian crown servant contexts. Several members of the faculty are qualified psychologists, while others have related academic and professional backgrounds. The academic and applied discipline of psychology is the fundamental thread that runs through the various courses and projects delivered by the Department. This paper provides a brief overview of the activities undertaken by the Department, with a specific focus on the psychology components of the academic and applied activities. Although mainly serving in academic teaching roles, this paper illustrates the work of the psychologists outside the classroom, such as via field exercises and deployments overseas. It also touches on the importance of the outreach undertaken by the psychologists in the Department, which supports their ongoing research.


Assuntos
Militares , Psicologia Militar , Humanos , Psicologia , Psicologia Militar/educação , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração , Reino Unido
17.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 94-97, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679182

RESUMO

Military personnel can experience psychosexual difficulties for a variety of reasons. Problems can arise because of psychological trauma, physical injury, consequences arising from pharmacological and surgical complications and social or emotional concerns relating to intrapersonal and interpersonal relationship dynamics. Such individuals might seek to minimise or avoid resolving their pertinent difficulties, while others can experience cultural, personal or organisational barriers to accessing professional help. This paper offers an overview of the development of a national specialist psychosexual therapy service (PST), commenting specifically on the service delivery for male military personnel. It will also consider factors which may support progress in treatment and reflect upon the importance of considering psychosexual functioning in relationships as part of the broader service-life context, which is especially relevant to military personnel.


Assuntos
Medicina Militar , Psicologia Militar , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/terapia , Genitália Masculina/lesões , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Militar/métodos , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Militares , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Psicologia Militar/métodos , Psicologia Militar/organização & administração , Reino Unido
18.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 116-119, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504454

RESUMO

This article will focus on a study by the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) which investigated the risk propensity and health behaviours of UK army personnel deployed to Iraq in 2007 as part of Op TELIC. The study addressed the concept of impulsive sensation seeking and how this interacted with health behaviours associated with alcohol, smoking, driving and sex at predeployment, during deployment and postdeployment, as well as perceptions of risk and psychological well-being. There is also a description of other deployment-related risk and health research and analysis undertaken by Dstl as part of a wider discussion on the nature of both risk and health on deployed operations.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Militares/psicologia , Psicologia Militar , Assunção de Riscos , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Risco , Reino Unido
20.
J R Army Med Corps ; 165(2): 124-127, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446506

RESUMO

Psychologists first became prominent within the Armed Forces largely as a result of their contributions to military systems, operations and personnel during the First and Second World Wars. In the early years of the 20th century, as psychology was becoming a profession in its own right, its association with the military arose within the emerging concept of 'shell shock' during World War I and supporting selection activities in World War II. There are approximately 25 occupational psychologists currently employed within the Ministry of Defence (MoD), operating across all branches of the MoD, within the department of the Chief of Defence Personnel, the UK Defence Academy and a small number at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The aim of this paper is to discuss the history and current application of occupational psychology within the UK MoD.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Psicologia Militar , Humanos , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Militares , Reino Unido
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