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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1400680, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813414

RESUMO

Objectives: Model prediction of radioactivity levels around nuclear facilities is a useful tool for assessing human health risks and environmental impacts. We aim to develop a model for forecasting radioactivity levels in the environment and food around the world's first AP 1000 nuclear power unit. Methods: In this work, we report a pilot study using time-series radioactivity monitoring data to establish Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models for predicting radioactivity levels. The models were screened by Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the model accuracy was evaluated by mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results: The optimal models, ARIMA (0, 0, 0) × (0, 1, 1)4, and ARIMA (4, 0, 1) were used to predict activity concentrations of 90Sr in food and cumulative ambient dose (CAD), respectively. From the first quarter (Q1) to the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2023, the predicted values of 90Sr in food and CAD were 0.067-0.77 Bq/kg, and 0.055-0.133 mSv, respectively. The model prediction results were in good agreement with the observation values, with MAPEs of 21.4 and 22.4%, respectively. From Q1 to Q4 of 2024, the predicted values of 90Sr in food and CAD were 0.067-0.77 Bq/kg and 0.067-0.129 mSv, respectively, which were comparable to values reported elsewhere. Conclusion: The ARIMA models developed in this study showed good short-term predictability, and can be used for dynamic analysis and prediction of radioactivity levels in environment and food around Sanmen Nuclear Power Plant.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Centrais Nucleares , Monitoramento de Radiação , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Radioatividade , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Previsões , Modelos Teóricos
2.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123681, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428789

RESUMO

This work reports comprehensive time-series datasets over the past 50 years for natural (210Po) and anthropogenic (134Cs and 137Cs) radionuclides in three fish species (cod, herring and plaice) from Danish marine areas covering the North Sea, Kattegat, and Baltic Sea. Impact from the global fallout of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, radioactive discharges from the European nuclear reprocessing plants and release from Chernobyl accident are clearly detected in the fish samples. While 210Po concentrations in each fish species demonstrated comparable levels across the three regions without notable temporal trends, significantly higher median 210Po concentration was observed in the lower trophic level fish, namely herring and plaice, compared to cod. In contrast, 137Cs concentrations in all three species steadily decrease over time after the Chernobyl-attributed peaks in late 1980s in the entire study area, whereas 137Cs always demonstrated higher concentrations in cod than herring and plaice. Our calculated concentration factors (CFs) for 137Cs in this work indicate that the mean CFs for 137Cs over the past 50 years are significantly different across the three species, following the order of cod < herring < plaice. Based on the time-series data, ecological half-lives (Teco) of 137Cs in fish from Danish marine areas were estimated to evaluate the long-term impact of anthropogenic radioactive contamination in different regions. Our results indicate no significant difference in Teco across different fish species, whereas the weighted mean Teco for fish in the Baltic Sea (29.3 ± 3.9 y) is significantly longer than those of the North Sea (9.8 ± 0.9 y) and Kattegat (11.7 ± 1.2 y), reflecting the strong 'memory effect' of the Baltic Sea due to its slow water renewal. However, the dose assessment demonstrates that the contribution of the natural radionuclide 210Po to ingestion dose from fish consumption is 1-2 order of magnitude higher compared to that of 137Cs.


Assuntos
Radioatividade , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Animais , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Mar do Norte , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Peixes , Dinamarca
3.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 208: 111297, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513476

RESUMO

Proton therapy has emerged as an advantageous modality for tumor radiotherapy due to its favorable physical and biological properties. However, this therapy generates induced radioactivity through nuclear reactions between the primary beam, secondary particles, and surrounding materials. This study focuses on systematically investigating the induced radioactivity in the gantry room during pencil beam scanning, utilizing both experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Results indicate that patients are the primary source of induced radioactivity, predominantly producing radionuclides such as 11C, 13N, and 15O. Long-term irradiation primarily generates radionuclides like 22Na, 24Na, and 54Mn etc. Additionally, this study estimates the individual doses received by medical workers in the gantry room, the irradiation dose for patient escorts, and the additional dose to patients from residual radiation. Finally, the study offers recommendations to minimize unnecessary irradiation doses to medical workers, patient escorts, and patients.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Radioatividade , Humanos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioisótopos , Método de Monte Carlo , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541314

RESUMO

This article reports the results of an investigation into the activity concentration of natural radionuclides in raw building materials for underground parking lots, together with the assessment of the radiation hazard for the public related to exposure to ionizing radiations. To this purpose, high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ-ray spectrometry was employed in order to quantify the average specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K natural radioisotopes. With the aim to assess any possible radiological health risk for the population, the absorbed γ-dose rate (D), the annual effective dose equivalent outdoor (AEDEout) and indoor (AEDEin), the activity concentration index (I), and the alpha index (Iα) were also estimated, resulting in values that were lower than the maximum recommended ones for humans. Finally, the extent of the correlations existing between the observed radioactivity and radiological parameters and of these parameters with the analyzed samples was quantified through statistical analyses, including Pearson's correlation, a principal component analysis (PCA), and a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). As a result, three clusters of the investigated samples were recognized based on their chemical composition and mineralogical nature. Noteworthily, this paper covers a certain gap in science since its topic does not appear in literature in this form. Thus, the authors underline the importance of this work to global knowledge in the environmental research and public health fields.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Humanos , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Radioisótopos/análise , Saúde Radiológica , Espectrometria gama , Materiais de Construção/análise , Tório/análise , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171567, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460702

RESUMO

In nature, plants are simultaneously exposed to different abiotic (e.g., heat, drought, and salinity) and biotic (e.g., bacteria, fungi, and insects) stresses. Climate change and anthropogenic pressure are expected to intensify the frequency of stress factors. Although plants are well equipped with unique and common defense systems protecting against stressors, they may compromise their growth and development for survival in such challenging environments. Ionizing radiation is a peculiar stress factor capable of causing clustered damage. Radionuclides are both naturally present on the planet and produced by human activities. Natural and artificial radioactivity affects plants on molecular, biochemical, cellular, physiological, populational, and transgenerational levels. Moreover, the fitness of pests, pathogens, and symbionts is concomitantly challenged in radiologically contaminated areas. Plant responses to artificial acute ionizing radiation exposure and laboratory-simulated or field chronic exposure are often discordant. Acute or chronic ionizing radiation exposure may occasionally prime the defense system of plants to better tolerate the biotic stress or could often exhaust their metabolic reserves, making plants more susceptible to pests and pathogens. Currently, these alternatives are only marginally explored. Our review summarizes the available literature on the responses of host plants, biotic factors, and their interaction to ionizing radiation exposure. Such systematic analysis contributes to improved risk assessment in radiologically contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Plantas , Radioatividade , Animais , Humanos , Radiação Ionizante , Estresse Fisiológico , Insetos
6.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 207: 111266, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461629

RESUMO

Brazil is the fourth largest cement consumer in the world and the largest producer in Latin America, around 1.3% of global production. The main inputs in the manufacture of cement are limestone and clay. Few studies have been carried out in the country on the risk of these materials used in civil construction. Therefore, the objective of this present work is to evaluate the radiological danger that they can present to society. Gamma spectrometry analysis on 16 samples of different brands of cement used as construction material in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) was performed in this study, using an HPGe detector and the Genie 2000 data acquisition software. Samples were set to count for an accumulation time of 14,400 s (4 h) and all measurements were corrected to eliminate background and backscattering. Activity concentrations are determined for 226Ra was from (41.2 ± 1.6 to 174.9 ± 3.9) Bq kg-1, 232Th was from (15.7 ± 0.5 to 43.1 ± 0.7) Bq kg-1 and 40K was from (82.6 ± 7.2 to 254 ± 17) Bq kg-1. To assess radiological health risks: mean values of Radium Activity Equivalent 150.0 ± 3.4 Bq kg-1, Annual Gonadal Dose Equivalent 468 ± 11 µSv year-1 and Lifetime Excess Cancer Risk (ELCR) 2.42 ± 0.06 were calculated. Total Absorbed Dose Rates ranged from 72.2 ± 1.7 to 225.1 ± 5.2 nGy h-1. The damage to collective health was also estimated from the annual effective dose rates with an estimated total cost of damage to health of US$ 130 million. Values are generally within global limits reported by UNSCEAR.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Tório/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Brasil , Materiais de Construção/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Espectrometria gama
7.
Radiol Phys Technol ; 17(2): 396-401, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517669

RESUMO

This study investigates the feasibility of estimating the radioactivity of radiopharmaceuticals using shielded syringes. The radioactivities of 99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-HMDP, 99mTc-ECD, 99mTc-MAG3, and 123I-IMP were measured using a dose calibrator. Correlation coefficients and regression equations were obtained from the radioactivity in the shielded and unshielded syringes. 99mTc-MDP was also measured for residual radioactivity after the administration. The correlation coefficients of 99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-HMDP, 99mTc-ECD, 99mTc-MAG3, and 123I-IMP were rs = 0.9998, rs = 0.9997, rs = 0.9999, rs = 0.9998, and rs = 0.9888, respectively. The regression equations were y = 0.0364x + 0.0913, y = 0.0349x + 0.0273, y = 0.0343x - 0.0018, y = 0.0522x + 0.1215, and y = 0.0383x + 0.0058, respectively. The correlation coefficient for the residual radioactivity of 99mTc-MDP was rs = 0.9887 and the regression equation was y = 0.1505x + 0.0853. The radioactivity of 99mTc- and 123I-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in shielded syringes was accurately measured. It was suggested that the measuring shielded syringes could provide an estimate of the actual radioactivity.


Assuntos
Estudos de Viabilidade , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Seringas , Tecnécio , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Tecnécio/química , Radioatividade , Calibragem
8.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 144(3): 291-297, 2024.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432939

RESUMO

Recently, radiotheranostics, which systematically combines diagnosis by nuclear medicine imaging and treatment by internal radiotherapy, constitutes a new modality in cancer treatment, with some clinical reports showing marked effects on cancer. We have been developing multifunctional chelates containing a target recognition unit, a radiation release unit, and a radioactivity pharmacokinetics control unit in the same molecule to develop efficient agents for cancer radiotheranostics based on chemical control of radioactivity pharmacokinetics. Using these compounds, we have achieved improved cancer accumulation and reduced renal accumulation in tumor-bearing mice, and have developed novel hybrid radiotheranostic agents that can be applied to simultaneously perform target-specific molecular imaging using γ-ray emitting radionuclides and internal radiotherapy using α-particle-emitting radionuclides. For example, 111In/225Ac-labeled PSMA-DA1, which targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for radiotheranostics, achieved clear in vivo imaging of PSMA in tumor-bearing mice and showed marked tumor growth inhibition. In addition to PSMA, this platform for radiotheranostics has also shown efficacy against various cancer target molecules, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX), which is highly expressed in hypoxic regions of cancer, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which is highly expressed in insulinomas. This review presents these recent results of our studies on radiotheranostics for cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Radioatividade , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Quelantes , Hipóxia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioisótopos
9.
Radiat Environ Biophys ; 63(1): 133-141, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411924

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb in various tobacco samples from Palestine and Jordan. Cigarette smoking is recognized as a significant contributor to the radiation dose received by individuals, primarily due to the elevated levels of 210Pb and 210Po found in tobacco. The analysis revealed that the average concentrations of 210Po in locally sourced tobacco and cigarette samples in Palestine are 16.8 ± 2.3 mBq/g and 18.5 ± 2.0 mBq/g, with a total average of 17.8 ± 7.4 mBq/g (15.5 mBq/cigarette). Similarly, the average concentrations of 210Pb in these samples are 18.5 ± 2.6 mBq/g and 20.3 ± 2.2 mBq/g, with a total average of 19.6 ± 8.1 mBq/g (17.0 mBq/cigarette). In Jordan, the average concentrations of 210Po in cigarette samples and narghile tobacco are 20.1 ± 2.4 mBq/g and 18.3 ± 4.1 mBq/g, with a total average value of 19.6 ± 9.9 mBq/g (18.0 mBq/cigarette), while the average concentrations of 210Pb are 22.2 ± 2.6 mBq/g and 20.2 ± 4.5 mBq/g, with a total average value of 21.6 ± 10.8 mBq/g (19.9 mBq/cigarette). The annual effective doses resulting from inhalation were calculated for smokers of these samples. The findings revealed that the levels of 210Po and 210Pb radioactivity in certain investigated samples exceeded the results of studies in many countries of the world. The associated effective doses per year from smoking for all brands products in Palestine range from 34.7 µSv/y to 186.5 µSv/y with an average of 109.5 µSv/y, while in Jordan 54.5 µSv/y to 289.1 µSv/y with an average of 130.9 µSv/y.


Assuntos
Polônio , Radioatividade , Produtos do Tabaco , Jordânia , Chumbo/análise , Radioisótopos de Chumbo/análise , Polônio/análise , Produtos do Tabaco/análise
10.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 60(2): 213-225, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372986

RESUMO

Terrestrial gamma radiation is one of the major outdoor radiation exposures to the general public that varies substantially based on the type and geological properties of the soil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distribution and assess the hazard parameters in the riverbank soil within various industrial zones in the densely populated Dhaka and Chattogram cities of Bangladesh. The mean activities of 226Ra (37 ± 3), 232Th (58 ± 4), and 40K (1129 ± 18) Bqkg-1 in the assessed soil samples were found to be slightly higher than the world average values 32, 35, and 420 Bqkg-1, respectively. The mean radium equivalent activity (207.49 Bqkg-1) and the external and internal hazard indices were within the recommended limits of 370 Bqkg-1 and <1, respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate (99.47 nGyhr-1), annual effective dose (0.12 mSva-1), ELCR (4.27 × 10-4), and gamma level index (1.58) exceeded the world average values 59 nGyhr-1, 0.07 mSva-1, 2.9 × 10-4, and 1 respectively. However, the studied areas are safe from a radiological viewpoint with no radiation health hazard to the people. The results of this study can be utilized to produce factual baseline data for future studies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Humanos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Tório/análise , Bangladesh , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Solo , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Espectrometria gama
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 921: 171012, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369157

RESUMO

The impacts of contaminants on wildlife are dose dependent, and thus being able to track or predict exposure following contamination events is important for monitoring ecosystem health. However, the ability to track exposure in free-ranging wildlife is often severely limited. Consequently, researchers have predominantly relied on simple methods for estimating contaminant exposures in wildlife with little regard for spatial contaminant heterogeneity or an animal's use of diverse habitats. We evaluated the influence sampling scale (i.e., how finely contaminant distribution and organism's spatial use of the landscape is mapped) has on (1) realism and (2) conservativeness of exposure estimates. To do this, we monitored the actual exposure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Fukushima, Japan to radioactive contamination using GPS-coupled contaminant monitors placed on individual animals. We compared empirical exposures to estimates generated by combining varying amounts of information about an individual boar's location and/or movement, with the distribution of contamination on the landscape. We found that the most realistic exposure estimates were produced when finer-scale contaminant distribution surveys (e.g., airborne surveys) were combined with more accurate estimates of an individual's space use (e.g., home ranges or core areas). Importantly, estimates of exposure based on single point surveys at a trap site (a simple method commonly used in the literature), did not correlate with actual exposure rates, suggesting dose-effects studies using this method may result in spurious conclusions. These results suggest that researchers seeking realistic estimates of exposure, such as in dose-effect studies, should ensure they have adequately accounted for fine-scale contaminant distribution patterns and areas of higher use by study organisms. However, conservative estimates of exposure (i.e., intentionally over-predicting exposure as is done in initial tiers of ecological risk analyses) were not as scale sensitive and could be achieved with a single known location and coarse contaminant distribution maps.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Radioatividade , Animais , Suínos , Ecossistema , Medição de Risco , Japão , Sus scrofa
12.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 10(3)2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377599

RESUMO

Objective.This study aims to investigate the biological effectiveness of Spread-Out Bragg-Peak (SOBP) proton beams with initial kinetic energies 50-250 MeV at different depths in water using TOPAS Monte Carlo code.Approach.The study modelled SOBP proton beams using TOPAS time feature. Various LET-based models and Repair-Misrepair-Fixation model were employed to calculate Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for V79 cell lines at different on-axis depths based on TOPAS. Microdosimetric Kinetic Model and biological weighting function-based models, which utilize microdosimetric distributions, were also used to estimate the RBE. A phase-space-based method was adopted for calculating microdosimetric distributions.Main results.The trend of variation of RBE with depth is similar in all the RBE models, but the absolute RBE values vary based on the calculation models. RBE sharply increases at the distal edge of SOBP proton beams. In the entrance region of all the proton beams, RBE values at 4 Gy i.e. RBE(4 Gy) resulting from different models are in the range of 1.04-1.07, comparable to clinically used generic RBE of 1.1. Moving from the proximal to distal end of the SOBP, RBE(4 Gy) is in the range of 1.15-1.33, 1.13-1.21, 1.11-1.17, 1.13-1.18 and 1.17-1.21, respectively for 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 MeV SOBP beams, whereas at the distal dose fall-off region, these values are 1.68, 1.53, 1.44, 1.42 and 1.40, respectively.Significance.The study emphasises application of depth-, dose- and energy- dependent RBE values in clinical application of proton beams.


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Radioatividade , Prótons , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Biológicos
13.
Water Res ; 252: 121228, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309060

RESUMO

Persistent concerns regarding environmental hazards arise from the difficulty in disposing of radioactive plant-based wastes originating from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) in Japan in 2011. In this study, three anaerobic digestion (AD) strategies were proposed: Sole anaerobic wet fermentation, and wet fermentations with either alkaline-heat or ultrasonic pre-treatment, which were employed for long-term anaerobic treatment of a genuine radioactive grass stemming from the FNPP accident. The objectives of this work are to investigate the effects of pre-treatments on biomass conversion efficiency and to gain insight into the leaching behavior of radiocaesium (Rad-Cs) within AD processes. Experimental results indicate that by introducing alkaline-heat and ultrasonic pre-treatments to AD systems, the removal efficiencies of total solids (TS) from the raw grass increased by 60.8 % and 42.5 %, respectively, compared to sole wet fermentation. Pre-treatments have been shown to enhance the stability of AD systems, both in terms of enhancing methane production and mitigating pH fluctuations triggered by the accumulation of organic acids. Remarkably, even though the Rad-Cs leaching rate was highest when the AD system was fed with the alkaline-heat pre-treated grass, it remained unsatisfactory at only 5.77 %. We inadvertently isolated a soil-like component from the raw grass, and analyzed both its proportion in the raw grass and the radioactivity intensity. The results indicate that although the soil constituted only 9.51 % TS of the raw grass, it accounted for a significant 81.35 % of the total radioactivity. The soil, which has a pronounced affinity for ionic Cs, being mixed into the raw grass, was identified as the primary factor limiting the leaching efficiency of Rad-Cs throughout both the pre-treatment and wet fermentation phases.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Poaceae , Fermentação , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Japão , Solo
14.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 26(3): 555-581, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305448

RESUMO

To study the geogenic processes of naturally occurring radioactive materials' (NORMs') distribution, a transboundary Himalayan river (Punarbhaba) is chosen due to its trivial anthropogenic impacts. In explaining the genesis of radionuclides, transition elements (Sc, Ti, V, and Fe), rare-earth-elements (REEs: La, Eu, Ce, Yb, Sm, and Lu), Ta, Hf, Th, and U were analysed in 30 riverbed sediments collected from the Bangladeshi portion of the river. Elemental abundances and NORMs' activity were measured by neutron activation analysis and HPGe-gamma-spectrometry, respectively. Averagen=30 radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra (68.4 Bq kg-1), 232Th (85.7 Bq kg-1), and 40K (918 Bq kg-1) were 2.0-2.3-fold higher, which show elevated results compared to the corresponding world mean values. Additionally, mean-REE abundances were 1.02-1.38-times higher than those of crustal origin. Elevated (relative to earth-crust) ratios of Th/U (=3.95 ± 1.84) and 232Th/40K and statistical demonstrations invoke Th-dominant heavy minerals, indicating the role of kaolinite clay mineral abundance/granitic presence. However, Th/Yb, La/V, Hf/Sc, and Th/Sc ratios reveal the presence of felsic abundances, hydrodynamic sorting, and recycling of sedimentary minerals. Geo-environmental indices demonstrated the enrichment of chemical elements in heavy minerals, whereas radiological indices presented ionizing radiation concerns, e.g., the average absorbed-gamma-dose rate (123.1 nGy h-1) was 2.24-fold higher compared to the threshold value which might cause chronic health impacts depending on the degree of exposure. The mean excess lifetime cancer risk value for carcinogen exposure was 5.29 × 10-4 S v-1, which is ∼2-times greater than the suggested threshold. Therefore, plausible extraction of heavy minerals and using residues as building materials can alleviate the two-reconciling problems: (1) radiological risk management and (2) fluvial navigability.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Minerais/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
15.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(2): 66, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329628

RESUMO

The radiation arising from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) is the foremost contributor to the collective dose received by the global population. The present study aims to measure the natural background radiation level and the associated gamma radiation dose in air in the Beldih apatite mine region of Purulia district, India. This study is primarily focused on the determination of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the sub-surface soil of the study area. The measurements were carried out using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer with a relative efficiency of 80%. To achieve uniformity in exposure estimations, radium equivalent activity has been calculated. Additionally, the internal hazard index, external hazard index, radioactivity level index and gamma dose rates have been evaluated to estimate the radiation hazard levels in the study area. The comparison of obtained concentrations and hazard indices with global data (UNSCEAR. (2008). Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation. United nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation (report to the general assembly, with Annexes).) suggests that this region lies in a relatively high background radiation zone.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Tório/análise , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Solo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(2): 192, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263472

RESUMO

Miners, factory workers, traders, end-users, and foodstuff consumers all run the risk of encountering health hazards derived from the presence of elevated levels of radiation in fertilizers, as these groups often come into direct or indirect contact with fertilizers as well as raw materials throughout various linked processes such as mineral extractions, fertilizer production, agricultural practices. A total of 30 samples of various kinds of fertilizer produced in different factories in Dhaka megacity were analyzed to quantify the concentrations of primordial radionuclides using HPGe detector. Among the analyzed samples, average (range) concentration of 40K was found to be 9920 ± 1091 (8700 ± 957-11,500 ± 1265), 9100 ± 1001 (8600 ± 946-9600 ± 1056), 2565 ± 282 (2540 ± 279-2590 ± 285), and 3560 ± 392 (2620 ± 288-4500 ± 495) Bq/kg in the samples of Muriate of Potash Fertilizer, Sulphate of Potash Fertilizer, Humic Acid Fertilizer, and NPKS Fertilizer, respectively. Elevated concentration of 226Ra was found in Triple Super Phosphate Fertilizer with a mean (range) of 335 ± 37 (290 ± 32-380 ± 42) Bq/kg. The higher activity of 40K can be linked to the greater levels of elemental potassium in phosphate fertilizer. Elevated concentrations of radionuclides may also result from variations in chemical processes as well as the local geology of the mining areas where the raw materials were extracted for fertilizer production. Numerous fertilizer brands surpass prescribed limits for various hazardous parameters, presenting significant health risks to factory workers, farmers, and consumers of agricultural products. This study provides baseline information on the radioactivity of fertilizers, which could be used to develop mitigation methods, establish national fertilizer usage limits, justify regulatory frameworks, and raise public awareness of fertilizer overuse. The findings of the study could potentially help to explore the impact of fertilizer on the food chain.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Radioatividade , Humanos , Bangladesh , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fosfatos , Radioisótopos
17.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(8)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252970

RESUMO

Objective. Ionization chambers, mostly used for beam calibration and for reference dosimetry, can show high recombination effects in pulsed high dose rate proton beams. The aims of this paper are: first, to characterize the linearity response of newly designed asymmetrical beam monitor chambers (ABMC) in a 100-226 MeV pulsed high dose rate per pulse scanned proton beam; and secondly, to calibrate the ABMC with a PPC05 (IBA Dosimetry) plane parallel ionization chamber and compare to calibration with a home-made Faraday cup (FC).Approach. The ABMC response linearity was evaluated with both the FC and a PTW 60019 microDiamond detector. Regarding ionometry-based ABMC calibration, recombination factors were evaluated theoretically, then numerically, and finally experimentally measured in water for a plane parallel ionization chamber PPC05 (IBA Dosimetry) throughkssaturation curves. Finally, ABMC calibration was also achieved with FC and compared to the ionometry method for 7 energies.Main results. Linearity measurements showed that recombination losses in the new ABMC design were well taken into account for the whole range of the machine dose rates. The two-voltage-method was not suitable for recombination correction, but Jaffé's plots analysis was needed, emphasizing the current IAEA TRS-398 reference protocol limitations. Concerning ABMC calibration, FC based absorbed dose estimation and PPC05-based absorbed dose estimation differ by less than 6.3% for the investigated energies.Significance.So far, no update on reference dosimetry protocols is available to estimate the absorbed dose in ionization chambers for clinical high dose rate per pulse pulsed scanned proton beams. This work proposes a validation of the new ABMC design, a method to take into account the recombination effect for ionometry-based ABMC calibration and a comparison with FC dose estimation in this type of proton beams.


Assuntos
Prótons , Radioatividade , Ciclotrons , Calibragem , Radiometria/métodos , Água
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(5): 8254-8273, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175520

RESUMO

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs: 232Th, 226Ra, 40K) can reach our respiratory system by breathing of road dust which can cause severe health risks. Targeting the pioneering consideration of health risks from the NORMs in road dust, this work reveals the radioactivity abundances of NORMs in road dust from a megacity (Dhaka) of a developing country (Bangladesh). Bulk chemical compositions of U, Th, and K obtained from neutron activation analysis were converted to the equivalent radioactivities. Radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in road dust ranged from 60-106, 110-159, and 488-709 Bq kg-1 with an average of 84.4 ± 13.1, 126 ± 11, and 549 ± 48 Bq kg-1, respectively. Estimated 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K radioactivities were, respectively, 1.7-3.0-, 3.7-5.3-, and 1.2-1.8-folds greater than the affiliated world average values. Mechanistic pathway of NORMs' enrichment and fractionation relative to the major origin (pedosphere) were evaluated concerning the water logging, relative solubility-controlled leaching and translocation, climatic conditions, and aerodynamic fractionations (dry and wet atmospheric depositions). Computation of customary radiological risk indices invokes health risks. Noticing the ingress of NOMR-holding dust into the human respiratory system along with the associated ionizing radiations, the computed radiological indices represent only the least probable health hazards. Nevertheless, in real situations, α-particles from the radioactive decay products of 232Th and 238U can create acute radiation damages of respiratory system. Policymakers should emphasize on limiting the dust particle evolution, and public awareness is required to alleviate the health risks.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Humanos , Poeira/análise , Bangladesh , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Tório/análise
19.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 200(5): 429-436, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221673

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the sand samples and the health hazards associated with them utilizing a NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 24.8 ± 10.1, 39.8 ± 16.4 and 531.3 ± 52.8 Bq kg-1, respectively. The calculated radiological hazard parameters, including radium equivalent activity, absorbed gamma dose and effective dose rate, were found to be 122.7 ± 34.0 Bq kg-1, 57.7 ± 14.9 nGy h-1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 mSv y-1, respectively. Notably, these results were observed to be below the recommended thresholds. Other measured hazard indices were also lower than the prescribed values. From a radiological perspective, the present study concludes that the sand samples do not pose any threat to human health when utilized as a building material.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Humanos , Tório/análise , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Areia , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Nepal , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
20.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 200(4): 387-395, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186062

RESUMO

Human beings are constantly exposed to the radiations coming from the environment. This work assesses the radiological hazards of natural radioactivity in soil samples taken at four locations around the phosphate area in south Tunisia. Concentrations of primordial radionuclides were measured by gamma spectrometer using an HPGe detector. The overall mean values of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th concentrations were 264, 27 and 13 Bq kg-1, respectively. From the radioactivity measurements, radiation hazard indices specified by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation such as radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed dose rates ($ {\dot{\text D}} $) and annual effective dose (AED) to the population for outdoor environment were determined. The mean values for the abovementioned parameters were 64 Bq kg-1, 33 nGy h-1 and 40 µSv y-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Rádio (Elemento) , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Tório/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Solo , Fosfatos , Tunísia , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
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