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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3945, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730238

RESUMO

Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) inhibit bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding to the polypeptide exit tunnel (PET) near the peptidyl transferase center. Api137, an optimized derivative of honeybee PrAMP apidaecin, inhibits protein expression by trapping release factors (RFs), which interact with stop codons on ribosomes to terminate translation. This study uses cryo-EM, functional assays and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to show that Api137 additionally occupies a second binding site near the exit of the PET and can repress translation independently of RF-trapping. Api88, a C-terminally amidated (-CONH2) analog of Api137 (-COOH), binds to the same sites, occupies a third binding pocket and interferes with the translation process presumably without RF-trapping. In conclusion, apidaecin-derived PrAMPs inhibit bacterial ribosomes by multimodal mechanisms caused by minor structural changes and thus represent a promising pool for drug development efforts.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ribossomos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/química , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/genética , Ligação Proteica , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/química , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3715, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698041

RESUMO

Phages play an essential role in controlling bacterial populations. Those infecting Pelagibacterales (SAR11), the dominant bacteria in surface oceans, have been studied in silico and by cultivation attempts. However, little is known about the quantity of phage-infected cells in the environment. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques, we here show pelagiphage-infected SAR11 cells across multiple global ecosystems and present evidence for tight community control of pelagiphages on the SAR11 hosts in a case study. Up to 19% of SAR11 cells were phage-infected during a phytoplankton bloom, coinciding with a ~90% reduction in SAR11 cell abundance within 5 days. Frequently, a fraction of the infected SAR11 cells were devoid of detectable ribosomes, which appear to be a yet undescribed possible stage during pelagiphage infection. We dubbed such cells zombies and propose, among other possible explanations, a mechanism in which ribosomal RNA is used as a resource for the synthesis of new phage genomes. On a global scale, we detected phage-infected SAR11 and zombie cells in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Our findings illuminate the important impact of pelagiphages on SAR11 populations and unveil the presence of ribosome-deprived zombie cells as part of the infection cycle.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Ribossomos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/virologia , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Alphaproteobacteria/genética , Alphaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Água do Mar/virologia , Oceanos e Mares
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3992, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734767

RESUMO

Visual proteomics attempts to build atlases of the molecular content of cells but the automated annotation of cryo electron tomograms remains challenging. Template matching (TM) and methods based on machine learning detect structural signatures of macromolecules. However, their applicability remains limited in terms of both the abundance and size of the molecular targets. Here we show that the performance of TM is greatly improved by using template-specific search parameter optimization and by including higher-resolution information. We establish a TM pipeline with systematically tuned parameters for the automated, objective and comprehensive identification of structures with confidence 10 to 100-fold above the noise level. We demonstrate high-fidelity and high-confidence localizations of nuclear pore complexes, vaults, ribosomes, proteasomes, fatty acid synthases, lipid membranes and microtubules, and individual subunits inside crowded eukaryotic cells. We provide software tools for the generic implementation of our method that is broadly applicable towards realizing visual proteomics.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Proteômica , Ribossomos , Software , Tomografia com Microscopia Eletrônica/métodos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Ribossomos/ultraestrutura , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/ultraestrutura , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/química , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos , Poro Nuclear/ultraestrutura , Poro Nuclear/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732249

RESUMO

Alterations in cell fate are often attributed to (epigenetic) regulation of gene expression. An emerging paradigm focuses on specialized ribosomes within a cell. However, little evidence exists for the dynamic regulation of ribosome composition and function. Here, we stimulated a chondrocytic cell line with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß2) and mapped changes in ribosome function, composition and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) epitranscriptomics. 35S Met/Cys incorporation was used to evaluate ribosome activity. Dual luciferase reporter assays were used to assess ribosomal modus. Ribosomal RNA expression and processing were determined by RT-qPCR, while RiboMethSeq and HydraPsiSeq were used to determine rRNA modification profiles. Label-free protein quantification of total cell lysates, isolated ribosomes and secreted proteins was done by LC-MS/MS. A three-day TGF-ß2 stimulation induced total protein synthesis in SW1353 chondrocytic cells and human articular chondrocytes. Specifically, TGF-ß2 induced cap-mediated protein synthesis, while IRES-mediated translation was not (P53 IRES) or little affected (CrPv IGR and HCV IRES). Three rRNA post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs) were affected by TGF-ß2 stimulation (18S-Gm1447 downregulated, 18S-ψ1177 and 28S-ψ4598 upregulated). Proteomic analysis of isolated ribosomes revealed increased interaction with eIF2 and tRNA ligases and decreased association of eIF4A3 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNP)s. In addition, thirteen core ribosomal proteins were more present in ribosomes from TGF-ß2 stimulated cells, albeit with a modest fold change. A prolonged stimulation of chondrocytic cells with TGF-ß2 induced ribosome activity and changed the mode of translation. These functional changes could be coupled to alterations in accessory proteins in the ribosomal proteome.


Assuntos
Condrócitos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Ribossômico , Ribossomos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2 , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/farmacologia , Sítios Internos de Entrada Ribossomal , Linhagem Celular
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3963, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729943

RESUMO

Translation initiation in bacteria is frequently regulated by various structures in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Previously, we demonstrated that G-quadruplex (G4) formation in non-template DNA enhances transcription. In this study, we aim to explore how G4 formation in mRNA (RG4) at 5'UTR impacts translation using a T7-based in vitro translation system and in E. coli. We show that RG4 strongly promotes translation efficiency in a size-dependent manner. Additionally, inserting a hairpin upstream of the RG4 further enhances translation efficiency, reaching up to a 12-fold increase. We find that the RG4-dependent effect is not due to increased ribosome affinity, ribosome binding site accessibility, or mRNA stability. We propose a physical barrier model in which bulky structures in 5'UTR biases ribosome movement toward the downstream start codon, thereby increasing the translation output. This study provides biophysical insights into the regulatory role of 5'UTR structures in in vitro and bacterial translation, highlighting their potential applications in tuning gene expression.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Escherichia coli , Quadruplex G , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro , Ribossomos , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Estabilidade de RNA , Sítios de Ligação
6.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731549

RESUMO

Targeting translation factor proteins holds promise for developing innovative anti-tuberculosis drugs. During protein translation, many factors cause ribosomes to stall at messenger RNA (mRNA). To maintain protein homeostasis, bacteria have evolved various ribosome rescue mechanisms, including the predominant trans-translation process, to release stalled ribosomes and remove aberrant mRNAs. The rescue systems require the participation of translation elongation factor proteins (EFs) and are essential for bacterial physiology and reproduction. However, they disappear during eukaryotic evolution, which makes the essential proteins and translation elongation factors promising antimicrobial drug targets. Here, we review the structural and molecular mechanisms of the translation elongation factors EF-Tu, EF-Ts, and EF-G, which play essential roles in the normal translation and ribosome rescue mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We also briefly describe the structure-based, computer-assisted study of anti-tuberculosis drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/química , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732179

RESUMO

The evolution of the translation system is a fundamental issue in the quest for the origin of life. A feasible evolutionary scenario necessitates the autonomous emergence of a protoribosome capable of catalyzing the synthesis of the initial peptides. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC) region in the modern ribosomal large subunit is believed to retain a vestige of such a prebiotic non-coded protoribosome, which would have self-assembled from random RNA chains, catalyzed peptide bond formation between arbitrary amino acids, and produced short peptides. Recently, three research groups experimentally demonstrated that several distinct dimeric constructs of protoribosome analogues, derived predicated on the approximate 2-fold rotational symmetry inherent in the PTC region, possess the ability to spontaneously fold, dimerize, and catalyze the formation of peptide bonds and of short peptides. These dimers are examined, aiming at retrieving information concerned with the characteristics of a prebiotic protoribosome. The analysis suggests preconditions for the laboratory re-creation of credible protoribosome analogues, including the preference of a heterodimer protoribosome, contradicting the common belief in the precedence of homodimers. Additionally, it derives a dynamic process which possibly played a role in the spontaneous production of the first bio-catalyzed peptides in the prebiotic world.


Assuntos
Ribossomos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/química , Peptídeos/química , Origem da Vida , Peptidil Transferases/metabolismo , Peptidil Transferases/química , Biossíntese de Proteínas
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(18): 12857-12863, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676654

RESUMO

The ribosome brings 3'-aminoacyl-tRNA and 3'-peptidyl-tRNAs together to enable peptidyl transfer by binding them in two major ways. First, their anticodon loops are bound to mRNA, itself anchored at the ribosomal subunit interface, by contiguous anticodon:codon pairing augmented by interactions with the decoding center of the small ribosomal subunit. Second, their acceptor stems are bound by the peptidyl transferase center, which aligns the 3'-aminoacyl- and 3'-peptidyl-termini for optimal interaction of the nucleophilic amino group and electrophilic ester carbonyl group. Reasoning that intrinsic codon:anticodon binding might have been a major contributor to bringing tRNA 3'-termini into proximity at an early stage of ribosomal peptide synthesis, we wondered if primordial amino acids might have been assigned to those codons that bind the corresponding anticodon loops most tightly. By measuring the binding of anticodon stem loops to short oligonucleotides, we determined that family-box codon:anticodon pairings are typically tighter than split-box codon:anticodon pairings. Furthermore, we find that two family-box anticodon stem loops can tightly bind a pair of contiguous codons simultaneously, whereas two split-box anticodon stem loops cannot. The amino acids assigned to family boxes correspond to those accessible by what has been termed cyanosulfidic chemistry, supporting the contention that these limited amino acids might have been the first used in primordial coded peptide synthesis.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Anticódon , Códon , Anticódon/química , Anticódon/genética , Aminoácidos/química , Códon/química , Códon/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/química , Sítios de Ligação , Modelos Moleculares
9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(4)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668610

RESUMO

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a group of proteins with rRNA N-glycosylase activity that irreversibly inhibit protein synthesis and consequently cause cell death. Recently, an RIP called ledodin has been found in shiitake; it is cytotoxic, strongly inhibits protein synthesis, and shows rRNA N-glycosylase activity. In this work, we isolated and characterized a 50 kDa cytotoxic protein from shiitake that we named edodin. Edodin inhibits protein synthesis in a mammalian cell-free system, but not in insect-, yeast-, and bacteria-derived systems. It exhibits rRNA N-glycosylase and DNA-nicking activities, which relate it to plant RIPs. It was also shown to be toxic to HeLa and COLO 320 cells. Its structure is not related to other RIPs found in plants, bacteria, or fungi, but, instead, it presents the characteristic structure of the fold type I of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes. Homologous sequences have been found in other fungi of the class Agaricomycetes; thus, edodin could be a new type of toxin present in many fungi, some of them edible, which makes them of great interest in health, both for their involvement in food safety and for their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Ribossomos , Cogumelos Shiitake , Humanos , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Células HeLa , Animais , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/química , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos/química , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/toxicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
10.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38682900

RESUMO

The chromatin-associated protein WD Repeat Domain 5 (WDR5) is a promising target for cancer drug discovery, with most efforts blocking an arginine-binding cavity on the protein called the 'WIN' site that tethers WDR5 to chromatin. WIN site inhibitors (WINi) are active against multiple cancer cell types in vitro, the most notable of which are those derived from MLL-rearranged (MLLr) leukemias. Peptidomimetic WINi were originally proposed to inhibit MLLr cells via dysregulation of genes connected to hematopoietic stem cell expansion. Our discovery and interrogation of small-molecule WINi, however, revealed that they act in MLLr cell lines to suppress ribosome protein gene (RPG) transcription, induce nucleolar stress, and activate p53. Because there is no precedent for an anticancer strategy that specifically targets RPG expression, we took an integrated multi-omics approach to further interrogate the mechanism of action of WINi in human MLLr cancer cells. We show that WINi induce depletion of the stock of ribosomes, accompanied by a broad yet modest translational choke and changes in alternative mRNA splicing that inactivate the p53 antagonist MDM4. We also show that WINi are synergistic with agents including venetoclax and BET-bromodomain inhibitors. Together, these studies reinforce the concept that WINi are a novel type of ribosome-directed anticancer therapy and provide a resource to support their clinical implementation in MLLr leukemias and other malignancies.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide , Proteínas Nucleares , Ribossomos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Humanos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/metabolismo , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Peptidomiméticos/farmacologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2711, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565864

RESUMO

Regulatory arrest peptides interact with specific residues on bacterial ribosomes and arrest their own translation. Here, we analyse over 30,000 bacterial genome sequences to identify additional Sec/YidC-related arrest peptides, followed by in vivo and in vitro analyses. We find that Sec/YidC-related arrest peptides show patchy, but widespread, phylogenetic distribution throughout the bacterial domain. Several of the identified peptides contain distinct conserved sequences near the C-termini, but are still able to efficiently stall bacterial ribosomes in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we identify many arrest peptides that share an R-A-P-P-like sequence, suggesting that this sequence might serve as a common evolutionary seed to overcome ribosomal structural differences across species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Filogenia , Peptídeos/química , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo
12.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3122, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600073

RESUMO

In chloroplasts, insertion of proteins with multiple transmembrane domains (TMDs) into thylakoid membranes usually occurs in a co-translational manner. Here, we have characterized a thylakoid protein designated FPB1 (Facilitator of PsbB biogenesis1) which together with a previously reported factor PAM68 (Photosynthesis Affected Mutant68) is involved in assisting the biogenesis of CP47, a subunit of the Photosystem II (PSII) core. Analysis by ribosome profiling reveals increased ribosome stalling when the last TMD segment of CP47 emerges from the ribosomal tunnel in fpb1 and pam68. FPB1 interacts with PAM68 and both proteins coimmunoprecipitate with SecY/E and Alb3 as well as with some ribosomal components. Thus, our data indicate that, in coordination with the SecY/E translocon and the Alb3 integrase, FPB1 synergistically cooperates with PAM68 to facilitate the co-translational integration of the last two CP47 TMDs and the large loop between them into thylakoids and the PSII core complex.


Assuntos
Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Tilacoides , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Tilacoides/metabolismo
13.
Neurobiol Dis ; 195: 106488, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565397

RESUMO

Given their highly polarized morphology and functional singularity, neurons require precise spatial and temporal control of protein synthesis. Alterations in protein translation have been implicated in the development and progression of a wide range of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). In this study we examined the architecture of polysomes in their native brain context in striatal tissue from the zQ175 knock-in mouse model of HD. We performed 3D electron tomography of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted striatal tissue from HD models and corresponding controls at different ages. Electron tomography results revealed progressive remodelling towards a more compacted polysomal architecture in the mouse model, an effect that coincided with the emergence and progression of HD related symptoms. The aberrant polysomal architecture is compatible with ribosome stalling phenomena. In fact, we also detected in the zQ175 model an increase in the striatal expression of the stalling relief factor EIF5A2 and an increase in the accumulation of eIF5A1, eIF5A2 and hypusinated eIF5A1, the active form of eIF5A1. Polysomal sedimentation gradients showed differences in the relative accumulation of 40S ribosomal subunits and in polysomal distribution in striatal samples of the zQ175 model. These findings indicate that changes in the architecture of the protein synthesis machinery may underlie translational alterations associated with HD, opening new avenues for understanding the progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença de Huntington , Polirribossomos , Ribossomos , Animais , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Doença de Huntington/genética , Camundongos , Polirribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Progressão da Doença , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética
14.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(6): 2130-2148, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38617541

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with limited effective therapeutic options readily available. We have previously demonstrated that lovastatin, an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug, selectively inhibits the stemness properties of TNBC. However, the intracellular targets of lovastatin in TNBC remain largely unknown. Here, we unexpectedly uncovered ribosome biogenesis as the predominant pathway targeted by lovastatin in TNBC. Lovastatin induced the translocation of ribosome biogenesis-related proteins including nucleophosmin (NPM), nucleolar and coiled-body phosphoprotein 1 (NOLC1), and the ribosomal protein RPL3. Lovastatin also suppressed the transcript levels of rRNAs and increased the nuclear protein level and transcriptional activity of p53, a master mediator of nucleolar stress. A prognostic model generated from 10 ribosome biogenesis-related genes showed outstanding performance in predicting the survival of TNBC patients. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S27 (MRPS27), the top-ranked risky model gene, was highly expressed and correlated with tumor stage and lymph node involvement in TNBC. Mechanistically, MRPS27 knockdown inhibited the stemness properties and the malignant phenotypes of TNBC. Overexpression of MRPS27 attenuated the stemness-inhibitory effect of lovastatin in TNBC cells. Our findings reveal that dysregulated ribosome biogenesis is a targetable vulnerability and targeting MRPS27 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for TNBC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Lovastatina/farmacologia , Lovastatina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares , Ribossomos/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais
15.
Biomolecules ; 14(4)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38672495

RESUMO

Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) represent a significant potential for novel therapeutic applications because of their bioactive properties, stability, and specificity. RiPPs are synthesized on ribosomes, followed by intricate post-translational modifications (PTMs), crucial for their diverse structures and functions. PTMs, such as cyclization, methylation, and proteolysis, play crucial roles in enhancing RiPP stability and bioactivity. Advances in synthetic biology and bioinformatics have significantly advanced the field, introducing new methods for RiPP production and engineering. These methods encompass strategies for heterologous expression, genetic refactoring, and exploiting the substrate tolerance of tailoring enzymes to create novel RiPP analogs with improved or entirely new functions. Furthermore, the introduction and implementation of cutting-edge screening methods, including mRNA display, surface display, and two-hybrid systems, have expedited the identification of RiPPs with significant pharmaceutical potential. This comprehensive review not only discusses the current advancements in RiPP research but also the promising opportunities that leveraging these bioactive peptides for therapeutic applications presents, illustrating the synergy between traditional biochemistry and contemporary synthetic biology and genetic engineering approaches.


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ribossomos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Animais , Biologia Sintética/métodos
16.
Cell Rep ; 43(4): 114098, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625793

RESUMO

Developing an effective mRNA therapeutic often requires maximizing protein output per delivered mRNA molecule. We previously found that coding sequence (CDS) design can substantially affect protein output, with mRNA variants containing more optimal codons and higher secondary structure yielding the highest protein outputs due to their slow rates of mRNA decay. Here, we demonstrate that CDS-dependent differences in translation initiation and elongation rates lead to differences in translation- and deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay rates, thus explaining the effect of CDS on mRNA half-life. Surprisingly, the most stable and highest-expressing mRNAs in our test set have modest initiation/elongation rates and ribosome loads, leading to minimal translation-dependent mRNA decay. These findings are of potential interest for optimization of protein output from therapeutic mRNAs, which may be achieved by attenuating rather than maximizing ribosome load.


Assuntos
Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro , Ribossomos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Humanos
17.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(6)2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599770

RESUMO

Translational regulation by non-coding RNAs is a mechanism commonly used by cells to fine-tune gene expression. A fragment derived from an archaeal valine tRNA (Val-tRF) has been previously identified to bind the small subunit of the ribosome and inhibit translation in Haloferax volcanii Here, we present three cryo-electron microscopy structures of Val-tRF bound to the small subunit of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ribosomes at resolutions between 4.02 and 4.53 Å. Within these complexes, Val-tRF was observed to bind to conserved RNA-interacting sites, including the ribosomal decoding center. The binding of Val-tRF destabilizes helices h24, h44, and h45 and the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence of 16S rRNA. The binding position of this molecule partially overlaps with the translation initiation factor aIF1A and occludes the mRNA P-site codon. Moreover, we found that the binding of Val-tRF is associated with steric hindrance of the H69 base of 23S rRNA in the large ribosome subunit, thereby preventing 70S assembly. Our data exemplify how tRNA-derived fragments bind to ribosomes and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying translation inhibition by Val-tRFs.


Assuntos
RNA de Transferência , Ribossomos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ribossomos/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/química , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Valina/análise , Valina/metabolismo
18.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(14): 3368-3382, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560890

RESUMO

The spatial arrangement of ribosomes and chromosome in Escherichia coli's cytoplasm challenges conventional wisdom. Contrary to the notion of ribosomes acting as inert crowders to the chromosome in the cytoplasm, here we propose a nuanced view by integrating a wide array of experimental data sets into a polymer-based computer model. A set of data-informed computer simulations determines that a delicate balance of attractive and repulsive interactions between ribosomes and the chromosome is required in order to reproduce experimentally obtained linear densities and brings forth the view that ribosomes are not mere inert crowders in the cytoplasm. The model finds that the ribosomes represent themselves as a poor solvent for the chromosome with a 50 nm mesh size, consistent with previous experimental analysis. Our multidimensional analysis of ribosome distribution, both free (30S and 50S) and bound (70S polysome), uncovers a relatively less pronounced segregation pattern than previously thought. Notably, we identify a ribosome-rich central region within the innermost core of the nucleoid. Moreover, our exploration of the chromosome mesh size and the conformation of bound ribosomes suggests that these ribosomes maintain elongated shapes, enabling them to navigate through the chromosome mesh and access the central core. This dynamic localization challenges the static segregation model and underscores the pivotal role of ribosome-chromosome interactions in cellular media.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Ribossomos , Escherichia coli/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Cromossomos
19.
Structure ; 32(4): 377-379, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579678

RESUMO

Eiler et al. used cryo-electron microscopy to determine a 2.49 Å resolution structure of Giardia lamblia 80S ribosome bound to tRNA, mRNA, and the anti-protozoal drug emetine. The structure reveals some critical aspects of translation in G. lamblia, including the lack of ribosomal protein RACK1, and how emetine blocks translation by interacting with both the ribosome and mRNA.


Assuntos
Giardia lamblia , Giardia lamblia/química , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Emetina/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2957, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580646

RESUMO

Nonsense mutations - the underlying cause of approximately 11% of all genetic diseases - prematurely terminate protein synthesis by mutating a sense codon to a premature stop or termination codon (PTC). An emerging therapeutic strategy to suppress nonsense defects is to engineer sense-codon decoding tRNAs to readthrough and restore translation at PTCs. However, the readthrough efficiency of the engineered suppressor tRNAs (sup-tRNAs) largely varies in a tissue- and sequence context-dependent manner and has not yet yielded optimal clinical efficacy for many nonsense mutations. Here, we systematically analyze the suppression efficacy at various pathogenic nonsense mutations. We discover that the translation velocity of the sequence upstream of PTCs modulates the sup-tRNA readthrough efficacy. The PTCs most refractory to suppression are embedded in a sequence context translated with an abrupt reversal of the translation speed leading to ribosomal collisions. Moreover, modeling translation velocity using Ribo-seq data can accurately predict the suppression efficacy at PTCs. These results reveal previously unknown molecular signatures contributing to genotype-phenotype relationships and treatment-response heterogeneity, and provide the framework for the development of personalized tRNA-based gene therapies.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , RNA de Transferência , Códon sem Sentido/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Códon/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Terapia Genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Códon de Terminação
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