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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 244: 104192, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377873

RESUMO

Calorie content and hunger are two fundamental cues acting upon the processing of visually presented food items. However, whether and to which extent they affect visual awareness is still an open question. Here, high- and low-calorie food images administered to hungry or satiated participants were confronted in a breaking-Continuous Flash Suppression paradigm (Experiment 1), measuring the time required to access to visual awareness, and in a Binocular Rivalry paradigm (Experiment 2), quantifying the dominance time in visual awareness. Experiment 1 showed that high-calorie food accessed faster visual awareness, but mostly in satiated participants. Experiment 2 indicated that high-calorie food dominated longer visual awareness, regardless the degree of hunger. We argued that the unconscious advantage (Experiment 1) would represent a default state of the visual system towards highest-energy nutrients, yet the advantage is lost in hunger so to be tuned towards an increased need for any nutritional category. On the other hand, the conscious advantage of high-calorie food (Experiment 2) would represent a conscious perceptual and attentional bias towards highest energy-dense food useful for the actual detection of these stimuli in the environment.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Fome , Humanos , Ingestão de Energia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Saciação , Conscientização
2.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 159: 105603, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38402919

RESUMO

Addiction poses significant social, health, and criminal issues. Its moderate heritability and early-life impact, affecting reproductive success, poses an evolutionary paradox: why are humans predisposed to addictive behaviours? This paper reviews biological and psychological mechanisms of substance and behavioural addictions, exploring evolutionary explanations for the origin and function of relevant systems. Ancestrally, addiction-related systems promoted fitness through reward-seeking, and possibly self-medication. Today, psychoactive substances disrupt these systems, leading individuals to neglect essential life goals for immediate satisfaction. Behavioural addictions (e.g. video games, social media) often emulate ancestrally beneficial behaviours, making them appealing yet often irrelevant to contemporary success. Evolutionary insights have implications for how addiction is criminalised and stigmatised, propose novel avenues for interventions, anticipate new sources of addiction from emerging technologies such as AI. The emerging potential of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists targeting obesity suggest the satiation system may be a natural counter to overactivation of the reward system.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Saciação
3.
Curr Biol ; 34(4): R155-R157, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412828

RESUMO

Satiety-promoting neurons of the hindbrain have long been known for their role in meal termination. An innovative new study now reveals how different hindbrain cell types mediate appetite on distinct timescales.


Assuntos
Apetite , Ingestão de Alimentos , Apetite/fisiologia , Saciação , Rombencéfalo , Neurônios
4.
Appetite ; 196: 107254, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short sleep is consistently linked with childhood obesity, possibly via disrupting appetite hormones and increasing food responsiveness. Few studies have objectively examined this association in early childhood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of sleep quantity and quality with child appetitive traits and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in a higher-income cohort of 86 preschool-age children (age 4.0 ± 0.8 years; 42% female; 93% non-Hispanic white, Northern New England, US). METHODS: Children's sleep duration and quality were assessed via parent report (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, CSHQ) at baseline and 6-month follow-up and via accelerometry at baseline. Parents also completed the Child Eating Behaviors Questionnaire to assess the child's appetitive traits. EAH, an objective measure of overeating, was observed at baseline during an in-person visit. Associations between sleep measures and appetitive traits were examined with linear mixed-effect or linear regression models, as appropriate, adjusting for child age, sex, and household income. RESULTS: Shorter sleep duration per parent report was associated with less satiety responsiveness (standardized ß = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.26; p = 0.03). Further, satiety responsiveness was inversely related to EAH (Pearson's r = -0.35, p = 0.02). No associations were found between accelerometer-measured sleep parameters and appetitive traits, and no sleep measures were related to EAH. CONCLUSIONS: Shorter usual sleep, per the parent report, was cross-sectionally associated with reduced satiety responsiveness in this sample of higher-income preschoolers. Future studies should consider whether socioeconomic status may modify the impact of poor sleep on appetitive traits in early childhood.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Apetite , Hiperfagia , Saciação , Comportamento Alimentar , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índice de Massa Corporal
5.
Clin Obes ; 14(1): e12620, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37669768

RESUMO

Appetitive traits, including food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating, are associated with childhood body mass index. Change in appetitive traits from infancy to childhood and the direction of causality between appetitive traits and body mass index are unclear. The present study examined the developmental trajectory of appetitive traits and their bidirectional relations with body mass index, from infancy to early childhood. Mothers in the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study and follow-up (n = 162) reported child appetitive traits using the Baby and Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaires at ages 6 months and 3.5 years, respectively. Standardized body mass index (zBMI) was calculated from child anthropometrics. Cross-lagged panel models estimated bidirectional relations between appetitive traits and zBMI. Food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating increased from infancy to early childhood. In cross-lagged panel models, lower infant satiety responsiveness (B ± SE = -0.45 ± 0.19, p = .02) predicted greater child zBMI. Infant zBMI did not predict child appetitive traits (p-values >.36). From infancy to early childhood, appetitive traits may amplify. Appetitive traits, particularly satiety responsiveness, appear to influence body mass index during this period, suggesting early intervention targeting these traits may reduce childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite , Obesidade Pediátrica , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Índice de Massa Corporal , Saciação , Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Infantil
6.
Eat Behav ; 52: 101838, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048650

RESUMO

Structure-related feeding practices may promote intuitive child eating behaviors and foster responsiveness to internal cues of hunger and satiety. Caregivers' ability to engage in structure-related feeding practices likely depends on a complex ecology of factors, including household- and child-characteristics. This study examined associations between household chaos and structure-related feeding practices, and the moderating effect of child temperament. Data were from 275 caregiver-toddler dyads from central Ohio. Child temperament was reported by caregivers when children were 18 months of age, whereas household chaos and structure-related feeding practices were reported by caregivers when children were 36 months of age. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to assess the relationship between chaos and structure-related feeding practices. Interaction terms between household chaos and three dimensions of child temperament were tested to determine whether temperament moderated the relationship between chaos and structure-related feeding practices. Household chaos was not independently associated with structure-related feeding practices, but higher levels of child effortful control were associated with greater mealtime structure. There was a statistically significant interaction between household chaos and child temperamental surgency, such that greater levels of chaos were associated with less structured mealtimes, but only when children had low-surgency. Findings suggest household chaos and child temperament inform caregiver feeding practices, but the influence of chaos may depend on more proximal factors, like child temperament. Recommendations to improve caregiver-child feeding interactions should be sensitive to characteristics of the broader family home environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Temperamento , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Características da Família , Saciação , Fome , Comportamento Infantil
7.
Peptides ; 172: 171114, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926186

RESUMO

Small intestinal satiation pathways involve nutrient-induced stimulation of chemoreceptors leading to release of satiety hormones from intestinal enteroendocrine cells (ECCs). Whether adaptations in these pathways contribute to increased maternal food intake during pregnancy is unknown. To determine the expression of intestinal nutrient-sensors and satiety hormone transcripts and proteins across pregnancy in mice. Female C57BL/6J mice (10-12 weeks old) were randomized to mating and then tissue collection at early- (6.5 d), mid- (12.5 d) or late-pregnancy (17.5 d), or to an unmated age matched control group. Relative transcript expression of intestinal fatty acid, peptide and amino acid and carbohydrate chemoreceptors, as well as gut hormones was determined across pregnancy. The density of G-protein coupled receptor 93 (GPR93), free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) 4, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) immunopositive cells was then compared between non-pregnant and late-pregnant mice. Duodenal GPR93 expression was lower in late pregnant than non-pregnant mice (P < 0.05). Ileal FFAR1 expression was higher at mid- than at early- or late-pregnancy. Ileal FFAR2 expression was higher at mid-pregnancy than in early pregnancy. Although FFAR4 expression was consistently lower in late-pregnant than non-pregnant mice (P < 0.001), the density of FFAR4 immunopositive cells was higher in the jejunum of late-pregnant than non-pregnant mice. A subset of protein and fatty acid chemoreceptor transcripts undergo region-specific change during murine pregnancy, which could augment hormone release and contribute to increased food intake. Further investigations are needed to determine the functional relevance of these changes.


Assuntos
Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Saciação , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nutrientes , Saciação/fisiologia
8.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 36(1): e14695, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food intake is regulated by homeostatic and hedonic systems that interact in a complex neuro-hormonal network. Dysregulation in energy intake can lead to obesity (OB) or anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about the neurohormonal response patterns to food intake in normal weight (NW), OB, and AN. MATERIAL & METHODS: During an ad libitum nutrient drink (Ensure®) test (NDT), participants underwent three pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) MRI scans. The first scan was performed before starting the NDT after a > 12 h overnight fast (Hunger), the second after reaching maximal fullness (Satiation), and the third 30-min after satiation (postprandial fullness). We measured blood levels of ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) with every pCASL-MRI scan. Semiquantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps in mL/100 gr brain/min were calculated and normalized (nCBF) with the CBF in the frontoparietal white matter. The hypothalamus (HT), nucleus accumbens [NAc] and dorsal striatum [DS] were selected as regions of interest (ROIs). RESULTS: A total of 53 participants, 7 with AN, 17 with NW (body-mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 ), and 29 with OB (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ) completed the study. The NW group had a progressive decrease in all five ROIs during the three stages of food intake (hunger, satiation, and post-prandial fullness). In contrast, participants with OB showed a minimal change from hunger to postprandial fullness in all five ROIs. The AN group had a sustained nCBF in the HT and DS, from hunger to satiation, with a subsequent decrease in nCBF from satiation to postprandial fullness. All three groups had similar hormonal response patterns with a decrease in ghrelin, an increase in GLP-1 and PYY, and no change in CCK. CONCLUSION: Conditions of regulated (NW) and dysregulated (OB and AN) energy intake are associated with distinctive neurohormonal activity patterns in response to hunger, satiation, and postprandial fullness.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Fome , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Grelina , Saciação/fisiologia , Obesidade , Peptídeo YY , Colecistocinina , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
9.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 153(2): 275-281, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37917442

RESUMO

Imagine a bowl of soup that never emptied, no matter how many spoonfuls you ate-when and how would you know to stop eating? Satiation can play a role in regulating eating behavior, but research suggests visual cues may be just as important. In a seminal study by Wansink et al. (2005), researchers used self-refilling bowls to assess how visual cues of portion size would influence intake. The study found that participants who unknowingly ate from self-refilling bowls ate more soup than did participants eating from normal (not self-refilling) bowls. Despite consuming 73% more soup, however, participants in the self-refilling condition did not believe they had consumed more soup, nor did they perceive themselves as more satiated than did participants eating from normal bowls. Given recent concerns regarding the validity of research from the Wansink lab, we conducted a preregistered direct replication study of Wansink et al. (2005) with a more highly powered sample (N = 464 vs. 54 in the original study). We found that most results replicated, albeit with half the effect size (d = 0.45 instead of 0.84), with participants in the self-refilling bowl condition eating significantly more soup than those in the control condition. Like the original study, participants in the self-refilling condition did not believe they had consumed any more soup than participants in the control condition. These results suggest that eating can be strongly controlled by visual cues, which can even override satiation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar
10.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 36(2): e14660, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37638839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objectives of this review are to summarize the role of gastric motor functions in the development of satiation (defined broadly as postprandial fullness) and satiety (reduced appetite or postponing desire to eat after a meal) and their impact on weight change. The specific topics are the methods of measurement of gastric emptying and accommodation and their impact on food intake, satiation, and satiety. A second focus contrasts bariatric surgery to endoscopic gastroplasty that alter gastric emptying and incretin responses in markedly divergent manners. BACKGROUND: The hormone, GLP-1, retards gastric emptying and increases gastric accommodation through vagally-mediated effects. Indeed, these effects provide the basis for the association of altered gastric emptying in the appetite and weight loss responses to pharmacological interventions particularly by those acting on receptors of incretin agonists such as liraglutide and the dual agonists, tirzepatide and cotadutide, all of which retard gastric emptying. In fact, retardation of gastric emptying and gastrointestinal adverse effects have been shown to contribute in part to the weight loss in response to this class of pharmacological agents. SUMMARY: The motor functions of the stomach are relevant to postprandial fullness and to interventions aimed at weight loss in people with obesity.


Assuntos
Incretinas , Obesidade , Humanos , Incretinas/farmacologia , Peso Corporal , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Redução de Peso , Ingestão de Alimentos
11.
Appetite ; 193: 107157, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081543

RESUMO

A person's perception of how long a food will stave off hunger (expected satiety) and the ideal amount to consume (ideal portion size) are both influenced by food-to-mealtime norms. Here, we examine whether social norms can modulate this effect, in three experimental studies. In study 1 (n = 235) participants were exposed to a social norm suggesting most people enjoyed consuming pasta for breakfast. There was a main effect of food-to-mealtime congruence for expected satiety and ideal portion size (p < 0.001) - participants selected a smaller portion of pasta for breakfast (vs. lunch) - but there were no other main effects/interactions (p ≥ 0.15). Study 2 (n = 200) followed the same approach as study 1, but sought to examine whether the typical volume of food consumed at breakfast and lunch needed to be controlled. Again, there was a main effect of congruence (the same pattern) (p ≤ 0.02) but no other main effects/interactions (p ≥ 0.73). Study 3 (n = 208) followed the same approach as study 2, but the social-norm message was changed to suggest that most people who eat pasta for breakfast found it effectively reduced their hunger. Again, there was a main effect of congruence (the same pattern) (p < 0.001) but no other main effects/interaction (p ≥ 0.26). These studies provide further evidence for the food-to-mealtime effect, but do not provide any evidence that a single, simple social-norm statement can modulate expected satiety or ideal portion size, or interact with the food-to-mealtime effect.


Assuntos
Tamanho da Porção , Normas Sociais , Humanos , Ingestão de Energia , Saciação , Refeições
12.
Appetite ; 194: 107171, 2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113985

RESUMO

Little is known about how plant-based products influence satiation compared to corresponding meat-based products. As augmented reality (AR) intensifies sensory experiences, it was hypothesized to improve satiation. This study compared satiation between intake of meatballs and plant-based balls and plant-based balls intensified with AR for visual, olfactory, and haptic sensory properties. Intake order of the meatballs, plant-based balls, and augmented plant-based balls, eaten on separate days, was randomized. Satiation was measured from twenty-eight non-obese adults as ad libitum intake of the balls and extra snacks, and as subjective appetite sensations. Liking and wanting to eat the products were also investigated. There were no differences between the products in satiation. Before tasting the augmented plant-based balls were less liked than the meatballs (p = 0.002) or plant-based balls (p = 0.046), but after eating the first ball or eating the ad libitum number of balls the differences in liking disappeared. Wanting evaluations were similar for each product and decreased during eating (p < 0.001). A group of participants susceptible to AR was found (n = 11), described by decreased intake when augmentation was applied. Among the sub-group, wanting to eat the augmented balls was lower before tasting (p = 0.019) and after eating the first ball (p = 0.002) and appetite was less suppressed after eating the balls ad libitum (p = 0.01), when compared to non-susceptible participants. We conclude that meatballs and plant-based balls were equal in inducing satiation, and multisensory augmentation did not influence satiation. However, the augmentation decreased liking evaluations before tasting. Further studies are needed to explore differences between consumer groups in susceptibility to augmentation.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Saciação , Adulto , Humanos , Apetite , Percepção Gustatória , Carne , Ingestão de Energia
13.
Nutrients ; 15(23)2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38068820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aversive conditioning weakens the gratifying value of a comfort meal. The aim was to determine the effect of a cognitive intervention to reverse aversive conditioning and restore hedonic postprandial response. METHODS: This was a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel study that was conducted on 12 healthy women (n = 6 in each group). The reward value of a comfort meal was measured on different days: at initial exposure, after aversive conditioning (administration of the same meal with a masked fat overload on the previous day) and after a cognitive intervention (disclosing the aversive conditioning paradigm in the test group vs. no explanation in the control group). The primary outcome, digestive wellbeing, was determined using graded scales at regular intervals before and after ingestion. RESULTS: At initial exposure, the comfort meal produced a rewarding experience that was impaired using aversive conditioning; upon re-exposure to the original meal, the cognitive intervention increased meal wanting and liking; improved digestive wellbeing and mood; tended to reduce postprandial satiety, bloating/fullness; and abolished discomfort/pain, thereby restoring the hedonic value of the comfort meal. By contrast, sham intervention had no effects, and the postprandial sensations remained like the responses to the offending meal. CONCLUSION: In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that in healthy women, a mild, short-term acquired aversion to a comfort meal can be reversed using a cognitive intervention. CLINICALTRIALS: gov ID: NCT05897411.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Saciação , Humanos , Feminino , Método Simples-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Emoções , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 189(6): 619-626, 2023 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38035766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The effect of oral glucose-induced release of gastrointestinal hormones on satiety and appetite independently of prevailing plasma glucose excursions is unknown. The objective is to investigate the effect of oral glucose on appetite and satiety sensations as compared to isoglycemic IV glucose infusion (IIGI) in healthy volunteers. DESIGN: A crossover study involving two study days for each participant. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen healthy participants (6 women, mean age 55.1 [SD 14.2] years; mean body mass index 26.7 [SD 2.2] kg/m2). INTERVENTIONS: Each participant underwent a 3-h 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and, on a subsequent study day, an IIGI mimicking the glucose excursions from the OGTT. On both study days, appetite and satiety were indicated regularly on visual analog scale (VAS), and blood was drawn regularly for measurement of pancreatic and gut hormones. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Difference in appetite and satiety sensations during OGTT and IIGI. RESULTS: Circulating concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (P < .0001), glucagon-like peptide 1 (P < .0001), insulin (P < .0001), C-peptide (P < .0001), and neurotensin (P = .003) increased significantly during the OGTT as compared to the IIGI, whereas glucagon responses were similarly suppressed (P = .991). Visual analog scale-assessed ratings of hunger, satiety, fullness, thirst, well-being, and nausea, respectively, were similar during OGTT and IIGI whether assessed as mean 0-3-h values or area under the curves. For both groups, a similar, slow increase in appetite and decrease in satiation were observed. Area under the curve, for prospective food consumption (P = .049) and overall appetite score (P = .044) were slightly lower during OGTT compared to IIGI, whereas mean 0-3-h values were statistically similar for prospective food consumption (P = .053) and overall appetite score (P = .063). CONCLUSIONS: Despite eliciting robust responses of appetite-reducing and/or satiety-promoting gut hormones, we found that oral glucose administration has little or no effect on appetite and satiety as compared to an IIGI, not affecting the release of appetite-modulating hormones. TRIAL REGISTRY NO: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01492283 and NCT06064084.


Assuntos
Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Glucose , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Glucagon , Insulina , Saciação , Sensação
15.
Nature ; 624(7990): 130-137, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37993711

RESUMO

The termination of a meal is controlled by dedicated neural circuits in the caudal brainstem. A key challenge is to understand how these circuits transform the sensory signals generated during feeding into dynamic control of behaviour. The caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) is the first site in the brain where many meal-related signals are sensed and integrated1-4, but how the cNTS processes ingestive feedback during behaviour is unknown. Here we describe how prolactin-releasing hormone (PRLH) and GCG neurons, two principal cNTS cell types that promote non-aversive satiety, are regulated during ingestion. PRLH neurons showed sustained activation by visceral feedback when nutrients were infused into the stomach, but these sustained responses were substantially reduced during oral consumption. Instead, PRLH neurons shifted to a phasic activity pattern that was time-locked to ingestion and linked to the taste of food. Optogenetic manipulations revealed that PRLH neurons control the duration of seconds-timescale feeding bursts, revealing a mechanism by which orosensory signals feed back to restrain the pace of ingestion. By contrast, GCG neurons were activated by mechanical feedback from the gut, tracked the amount of food consumed and promoted satiety that lasted for tens of minutes. These findings reveal that sequential negative feedback signals from the mouth and gut engage distinct circuits in the caudal brainstem, which in turn control elements of feeding behaviour operating on short and long timescales.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite , Tronco Encefálico , Ingestão de Alimentos , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Alimentos , Saciação , Estômago , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Tronco Encefálico/citologia , Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Prolactina/metabolismo , Saciação/fisiologia , Núcleo Solitário/citologia , Núcleo Solitário/fisiologia , Estômago/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Animais , Camundongos
16.
J Neurochem ; 167(5): 648-667, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37855271

RESUMO

Chemogenetic activation of oxytocin receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (OxtrPBN neurons) acts as a satiation signal for water. In this research, we investigated the effect of activating OxtrPBN neurons on satiation for different types of fluids. Chemogenetic activation of OxtrPBN neurons in male and female transgenic OxtrCre mice robustly suppressed the rapid, initial (15-min) intake of several solutions after dehydration: water, sucrose, ethanol and saccharin, but only slightly decreased intake of Ensure®, a highly caloric solution (1 kcal/mL; containing 3.72 g protein, 3.27 g fat, 13.42 g carbohydrates, and 1.01 g dietary fibre per 100 mL). OxtrPBN neuron activation also suppressed cumulative, longer-term (2-h) intake of lower caloric, less palatable solutions, but not highly caloric, palatable solutions. These results suggest that OxtrPBN neurons predominantly control initial fluid-satiation responses after rehydration, but not longer-term intake of highly caloric, palatable solutions. The suppression of fluid intake was not because of anxiogenesis, but because OxtrPBN neuron activation decreased anxiety-like behaviour. To investigate the role of different PBN subdivisions on the intake of different solutions, we examined FOS as a proxy marker of PBN neuron activation. Different PBN subdivisions were activated by different solutions: the dorsolateral PBN similarly by all fluids; the external lateral PBN by caloric but not non-caloric solutions; and the central lateral PBN primarily by highly palatable solutions, suggesting PBN subdivisions regulate different aspects of fluid intake. To explore the possible mechanisms underlying the minimal suppression of Ensure® after OxtrPBN neuron activation, we demonstrated in in vitro slice recordings that the feeding-associated agouti-related peptide (AgRP) inhibited OxtrPBN neuron firing in a concentration-related manner, suggesting possible inhibition by feeding-related neurocircuitry of fluid satiation neurocircuitry. Overall, this research suggests that although palatable beverages like sucrose- and ethanol-containing beverages activate fluid satiation signals encoded by OxtrPBN neurons, these neurons can be inhibited by hunger-related signals (agouti-related peptide, AgRP), which may explain why these fluids are often consumed in excess of what is required for fluid satiation.


Assuntos
Núcleos Parabraquiais , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Núcleos Parabraquiais/metabolismo , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/farmacologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia
17.
Cell Rep ; 42(10): 113305, 2023 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864798

RESUMO

Oxytocin-expressing paraventricular hypothalamic neurons (PVNOT neurons) integrate afferent signals from the gut, including cholecystokinin (CCK), to adjust whole-body energy homeostasis. However, the molecular underpinnings by which PVNOT neurons orchestrate gut-to-brain feeding control remain unclear. Here, we show that mice undergoing selective ablation of PVNOT neurons fail to reduce food intake in response to CCK and develop hyperphagic obesity on a chow diet. Notably, exposing wild-type mice to a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) diet recapitulates this insensitivity toward CCK, which is linked to diet-induced transcriptional and electrophysiological aberrations specifically in PVNOT neurons. Restoring OT pathways in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice via chemogenetics or polypharmacology sufficiently re-establishes CCK's anorexigenic effects. Last, by single-cell profiling, we identify a specialized PVNOT neuronal subpopulation with increased κ-opioid signaling under an HFHS diet, which restrains their CCK-evoked activation. In sum, we document a (patho)mechanism by which PVNOT signaling uncouples a gut-brain satiation pathway under obesogenic conditions.


Assuntos
Ocitocina , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular , Camundongos , Animais , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Saciação , Colecistocinina/metabolismo
18.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 325(5): E581-E594, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37819196

RESUMO

Male mice lacking the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter Slc12a2 (Nkcc1) specifically in insulin-secreting ß-cells (Slc12a2ßKO) have reduced ß-cell mass and mild ß-cell secretory dysfunction associated with overweight, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and metabolic abnormalities. Here, we confirmed and extended previous results to female Slc12a2ßKO mice, which developed a similar metabolic syndrome-like phenotype as males, albeit milder. Notably, male and female Slc12a2ßKO mice developed overweight without consuming excess calories. Analysis of the feeding microstructure revealed that young lean Slc12a2ßKO male mice ate meals of higher caloric content and at a relatively lower frequency than normal mice, particularly during the night. In addition, overweight Slc12a2ßKO mice consumed significantly larger meals than lean mice. Therefore, the reduced satiation control of feeding precedes the onset of overweight and is worsened in older Slc12a2ßKO mice. However, the time spent between meals remained intact in lean and overweight Slc12a2ßKO mice, indicating conserved satiety responses to ad libitum feeding. Nevertheless, satiety was intensified during and after refeeding only in overweight males. In lean females, satiety responses to refeeding were delayed relative to age- and body weight-matched control mice but normalized in overweight mice. Since meal size did not change during refeeding, these data suggested that the satiety control of eating after fasting is impaired in lean Slc12a2ßKO mice before the onset of overweight and independently of their reduced satiation responses. Therefore, our results support the novel hypothesis that reduced satiation precedes the onset of overweight and the development of metabolic dysregulation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Obesity, defined as excess fat accumulation, increases the absolute risk for metabolic diseases. Although obesity is usually attributed to increased food intake, we demonstrate that body weight gain can be hastened without consuming excess calories. In fact, impaired meal termination control, i.e., satiation, is detectable before the development of overweight in an animal model that develops a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Síndrome Metabólica , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Sobrepeso/genética , Saciação , Obesidade/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Insulina/metabolismo
19.
Int J Eat Disord ; 56(12): 2343-2348, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37746867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly postprandial fullness, are frequently reported in eating disorders. Limited data exist evaluating how these symptoms change in response to outpatient psychological treatment. The current study sought to describe the course of postprandial fullness and early satiation across psychological treatment for adults with bulimia nervosa and related other specified feeding or eating disorders and to test if anxiety moderates treatment response. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was conducted on questionnaire data provided by 30 individuals (80% white, M(SD)age = 31.43(13.44) years; 90% female) throughout treatment and six-month follow-up in a pilot trial comparing mindfulness and acceptance-based treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa. Participants completed items from the Rome IV Diagnostic Questionnaire for Adult Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: Postprandial fullness and early satiation both significantly decreased over time (ds = 1.23-1.54; p's < .001). Baseline trait anxiety moderated this outcome, such that greater decreases were observed for those with higher baseline anxiety (p = .02). DISCUSSION: Results extend prior work in inpatient samples by providing preliminary data that postprandial fullness and early satiation decrease with outpatient psychological treatment for bulimia nervosa. Baseline anxiety moderated this effect for postprandial fullness. Future work should replicate findings in a larger sample and test anxiety as a mechanism underlying postprandial fullness in eating disorders. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE: The current study found that common gastrointestinal symptoms (postprandial fullness and early satiation) decrease over the course of outpatient psychotherapy for adults with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa. Postprandial fullness decreased more across time for those high in anxiety.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Dados Preliminares , Ansiedade/terapia , Saciação/fisiologia
20.
Public Health Nutr ; 26(11): 2619-2627, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37712383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Shifting from meat-centric to plant-rich diets may help to enable healthier and more sustainable food systems. Here we present the results of a 1-week intervention to promote plant-based eating in a meat-centric food context (i.e. canteen). DESIGN: The intervention included environmental restructuring strategies (e.g. promotional materials and menu redevelopment) and improvements to the offer of plant-based meals. The evaluation (sales data; pre-registered) spanned 3 weeks prior to the intervention (baseline), 1 week during the intervention (immediate/short-term impact) and 3 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Opinion surveys were also used to collect data with customers during the intervention. SETTING: Canteen unit of a university campus in Portugal (Lisbon metropolitan area). PARTICIPANTS: In addition to sales data (baseline: 7965 meals; immediate/short-term: 2635 meals; follow-up: 7135 meals), we used opinion surveys to assess customers' meal appraisals during the intervention (n = 370). RESULTS: The odds of a sold meal being vegetarian were 24 % higher in the intervention week compared with the pre-intervention period [OR = 1·24, 95 % CI (1·10, 1·40)] and 9 % higher in the post-intervention period compared with the pre-intervention period [OR = 1·09, (95 % CI (1·00, 1·19)]. Survey data showed that vegetarian meals compared favourably to meat and fish alternatives in liking, sustainability and satiety. CONCLUSIONS: A short-term, theory-driven, operationally feasible intervention was effective in promoting increased plant-based meal choices in a collective meal context. Nevertheless, these changes were not entirely sustained over time. Future studies could test whether prolonged or more transformative interventions are necessary to unlock entrenched food practices more effectively in meat-centric collective meal contexts.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne , Humanos , Refeições , Universidades , Saciação
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