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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10994, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744832

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a novel pricing model for delivery insurance in a food delivery company in Latin America, with the aim of reducing the high costs associated with the premium paid to the insurer. To achieve this goal, a thorough analysis was conducted to estimate the probability of losses based on delivery routes, transportation modes, and delivery drivers' profiles. A large amount of data was collected and used as a database, and various statistical models and machine learning techniques were employed to construct a comprehensive risk profile and perform risk classification. Based on the risk classification and the estimated probability associated with it, a new pricing model for delivery insurance was developed using advanced mathematical algorithms and machine learning techniques. This new pricing model took into account the pattern of loss occurrence and high and low-risk behaviors, resulting in a significant reduction of insurance costs for both the contracting company and the insurer. The proposed pricing model also allowed for greater flexibility in insurance contracting, making it more accessible and appealing to delivery drivers. The use of estimated loss probabilities and a risk score for the pricing of delivery insurance proved to be a highly effective and efficient alternative for reducing the high costs associated with insurance, while also improving the profitability and competitiveness of the food delivery company in Latin America.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , América Latina , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Seguro/economia , Modelos Econômicos
2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 164, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroidism (HP) is a rare endocrine disease commonly caused by the removal or damage of parathyroid glands during surgery and resulting in transient (tHP) or chronic (cHP) disease. cHP is associated with multiple complications and comorbid conditions; however, the economic burden has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs associated with post-surgical cHP, using tHP as a reference. METHODS: This analysis of a US claims database included patients with both an insurance claim for HP and thyroid/neck surgery between October 2014 and December 2019. cHP was defined as an HP claim ≥ 6 months following surgery and tHP was defined as only one HP claim < 6 months following surgery. The cHP index date was the first HP diagnosis claim following their qualifying surgery claim, whereas the tHP index date was the last HP diagnosis claim following the qualifying surgery claim. Patients were continuously enrolled at least 1 year pre- and post-index. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, all-cause HCRU, and costs were descriptively analyzed. Total all-cause costs were calculated as the sum of payments for hospitalizations, emergency department, office/clinic visits, and pharmacy. RESULTS: A total of 1,406 cHP and 773 tHP patients met inclusion criteria. The average age (52.1 years cHP, 53.5 years tHP) and representation of females (83.2% cHP, 81.2% tHP) were similar for both groups. Neck dissection surgery was more prevalent in cHP patients (23.6%) than tHP patients (5.3%). During the 1-2 year follow-up period, cHP patients had a higher prevalence of inpatient admissions (17.4%), and emergency visits (26.0%) than the reference group -tHP patients (14.4% and 21.4% respectively). Among those with a hospitalization, the average number of hospitalizations was 1.5-fold higher for cHP patients. cHP patients also saw more specialists, including endocrinologists (28.7% cHP, 15.8% tHP), cardiologists (16.7% cHP, 9.7% tHP), and nephrologists (4.6% cHP, 3.3% tHP). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the increased healthcare burden of cHP on the healthcare system in contrast to patients with tHP. Effective treatment options are needed to minimize the additional resources utilized by patients whose HP becomes chronic.


Assuntos
Hipoparatireoidismo , Seguro , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Financeiro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atenção à Saúde , Hipoparatireoidismo/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
3.
Popul Health Manag ; 27(2): 105-113, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574325

RESUMO

Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children, disproportionately affects families with lower incomes, and is a leading reason for acute care visits and hospitalizations. This retrospective cohort study used the Massachusetts All Payer Claims Database (2014-2018) to examine differences in acute care utilization and quality of care for asthma between Medicaid- and privately insured children in Massachusetts. Outcomes included acute care use (emergency department [ED] or hospitalization), ED visits with asthma, routine asthma visits, and filled prescriptions for asthma medications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for differences in demographics, ZIP codes, health status, and asthma severity. Overall, 10.0% of Medicaid-insured children and 5.6% of privately insured were classified as having asthma. Among 317,596 child-year observations for children with asthma, 64.4% were insured by Medicaid. Medicaid-insured children had higher rates of any acute care use (50.4% vs. 30.0%) and ED visits with an asthma diagnosis (27.2% vs. 13.3%) compared to privately insured children. Only 65.4% of Medicaid enrollees had at least one routine asthma visit compared to 74.3% of privately insured children. Most children received at least one asthma medication (88.6% Medicaid vs. 83.3% privately insured), but a higher percentage of Medicaid-insured children received at least one rescue medication (84.0% vs. 73.7%), and a lower percentage of Medicaid-insured (46.1% vs. 49.2%) received a controller medication. These results suggest that opportunities for improvement in childhood asthma persist, particularly for children insured by Medicaid.


Assuntos
Asma , Seguro , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Medicaid , Estudos Retrospectivos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Seguro Saúde
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(867): 666-671, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563542

RESUMO

Healthcare costs are a sensitive issue in Switzerland, in particular because of the financial burden of insurance premiums on households. The amount of resources allocated and their significant and regular increase seem to be out of control. But what do these costs really represent? How do we fuel our "machine" and what is the combustion mechanism behind it? At a time when debates are often very much focused on individual interests, this article attempts to answer these questions and to examine the sustainability of a health policy that focuses above all on illness and the cost of care.


Les coûts de la santé sont un sujet sensible en Suisse, notamment du fait du poids financier des primes d'assurance qui pèse sur les ménages. Le montant des ressources allouées et leur augmentation significative et régulière semble non maîtrisable. Mais que représentent réellement ces coûts ? Comment alimente-t-on notre « machine ¼ et quelle est la mécanique de combustion qui se cache derrière ? À l'heure où les débats sont souvent très orientés autour des intérêts de chacun, cet article tente de répondre à ces questions et interroge la durabilité d'une politique de santé focalisée avant tout sur la maladie et le coût des soins.


Assuntos
Bulimia , Seguro , Humanos , Suíça , Atenção à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Seguro Saúde , Gastos em Saúde
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297340, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578741

RESUMO

Hierarchical diagnosis and treatment (HDT) is an important exploration direction to alleviate the rising pressure of health expenses and medical insurance fund expenditure in China, and to maintain and protect the public health in this country. In recent years, the construction of compact county medical communities (CCMC) has become the primary approach for implementing the HDT. Utilizing the quasi-natural experiment of the pilot project of CCMC in Sichuan Province in 2019, coupled with county-level data extracted from the ' Sichuan Provincial Health Statistics Yearbook ' spanning the years 2008 to 2021, this research evaluates the effect of the pilot project of CCMC on promoting HDT under the medical insurance package payment model. The results show that the pilot project of CCMC has significantly increased the number of consultations per capita of medical and health institutions in pilot counties by 0.434 times, of which the number of consultations per capita of primary medical institutions has increased by 0.340 times; the number of hospitalizations per capita in public hospitals and primary medical institutions in pilot counties increased significantly, and the surgery rate of inpatients in public hospitals increased by 5% compared to before the pilot. There was no significant impact on the allocation of medical facilities and human resources in the pilot counties. Therefore, the construction of CCMC under the medical insurance package payment mode has promoted the realization of the county-level HDT. These findings provide valuable insights for healthcare policy, especially in developing and implementing effective strategies for HDT in county-level medical institutions.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Seguro , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , China
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 199: 107519, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic deaths are increasing globally, and preventable driving behaviours are a significant cause of these deaths. In-vehicle telematics has been seen as technology that can improve driving behaviour. The technology has been adopted by many insurance companies to track the behaviours of their consumers. This systematic review presents a summary of the ways that in-vehicle telematics has been modelled and analysed. METHODOLOGY: Electronic searches were conducted on Scopus and Web of Science. Studies were only included if they had a sample size of 10 or more participants, collected their data over at least multiple days, and were published during or after 2010. 45 relevant papers were included in the review. 27 of these articles received a rating of "good" in the quality assessment. RESULTS: We found a divide in the literature regarding the use of in-vehicle telematics. Some articles were interested in the utility of in-vehicle telematics for insurance purposes, while others were interested in determining the influence that in-vehicle telematics has on driving behaviour. Machine learning analyses were the most common forms of analysis seen throughout the review, being especially common in articles with insurance-based outcomes. Acceleration, braking, and speed were the most common variables identified in the review. CONCLUSION: We recommend that future studies provide the demographical information of their sample so that the influence of in-vehicle telematics on the driving behaviours of different groups can be understood. It is also recommended that future studies use multi-level models to account for the hierarchical structure of the telematics data. This hierarchical structure refers to the individual trips for each driver.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Telemetria , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Seguro , Tecnologia
8.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 42(2): 223-232, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493435

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is widely used for the treatment of prostate cancer. ADT is associated with reduced bone density leading to an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to quantify fracture risk in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer in real-world practice in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the Japanese Medical Data Vision (MDV) database. Men initiating ADT for treatment of prostate cancer between April 2010 and March 2021 were identified and matched to a cohort of prostate cancer patients not taking ADT using a propensity score. Fracture rates were estimated by a cumulative incidence function and compared between cohorts using a Cox cause-specific hazard model. Information was extracted on demographics, comorbidities and bone densitometry. RESULTS: 30,561 men with PC starting ADT were matched to 30,561 men with prostate cancer not treated with ADT. Following ADT initiation, <5% of men underwent bone densitometry. Prescription of ADT was associated with an increased fracture risk compared to not taking ADT (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.63 [95% CI 1.52-1.75]). CONCLUSION: ADT is associated with a 1.6-fold increase in the risk of osteoporotic fracture in men with prostate cancer. Densitometry in this population is infrequent and monitoring urgently needs to be improved in order to implement effective fracture prevention.


Assuntos
Seguro , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Fraturas por Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/complicações , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações
9.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 17, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potential differences in buprenorphine treatment outcomes across various treatment settings are poorly characterized in multi-state administrative data. We thus evaluated the association of opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment setting and insurance type with risk of buprenorphine discontinuation among commercial insurance and Medicaid enrollees initiated on buprenorphine. METHODS: In this observational, retrospective cohort study using the Merative MarketScan databases (2006-2016), we analyzed buprenorphine retention in 58,200 US adults with OUD. Predictor variables included insurance status (Medicaid vs commercial) and treatment setting, operationalized as substance use disorder (SUD) specialty treatment facility versus outpatient primary care physicians (PCPs) versus outpatient psychiatry, ascertained by linking physician visit codes to buprenorphine prescriptions. Treatment setting was inferred based on timing of prescriber visit claims preceding prescription fills. We estimated time to buprenorphine discontinuation using multivariable cox regression. RESULTS: Among enrollees with OUD receiving buprenorphine, 26,168 (45.0%) had prescriptions from SUD facilities without outpatient buprenorphine treatment, with the remaining treated by outpatient PCPs (n = 23,899, 41.1%) and psychiatrists (n = 8133, 13.9%). Overall, 50.6% and 73.3% discontinued treatment at 180 and 365 days respectively. Buprenorphine discontinuation was higher among enrollees receiving prescriptions from SUD facilities (aHR = 1.03[1.01-1.06]) and PCPs (aHR = 1.07[1.05-1.10]). Medicaid enrollees had lower buprenorphine retention than those with commercial insurance, particularly those receiving buprenorphine from SUD facilities and PCPs (aHR = 1.24[1.20-1.29] and aHR = 1.39[1.34-1.45] respectively, relative to comparator group of commercial insurance enrollees receiving buprenorphine from outpatient psychiatry). CONCLUSION: Buprenorphine discontinuation is high across outpatient PCP, psychiatry, and SUD treatment facility settings, with potentially lower treatment retention among Medicaid enrollees receiving care from SUD facilities and PCPs.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Seguro , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico
10.
Am J Manag Care ; 30(3): e65-e72, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the national prevalence and cost of inappropriate MRI in patients with wrist pain prior to and following American College of Radiology (ACR) guideline publication. STUDY DESIGN: We used administrative claims from the IBM MarketScan Research Databases to evaluate the appropriateness of wrist MRI in a national cohort of patients with commercial insurance or Medicare Advantage. METHODS: Adult patients with a diagnosis of wrist pain between 2016 and 2019 were included and followed for 1 year. We made assessments of appropriateness based on ACR guidelines for specific wrist pain etiologies. We tabulated the total costs and out-of-pocket expenses associated with inappropriate MRI studies using weighted mean payments for facility and professional fees. We performed segmented logistic regression on interrupted time series data to identify predictors of receiving inappropriate imaging and the impact of guideline publication on MRI use. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 867,119 individuals. Of these, 40,164 individuals (4.6%) had MRI, of whom 52.6% received an inappropriate study. Inappropriate studies accounted for $44,493,234 in total payments and $8,307,540 in out-of-pocket expenses. The interrupted time series found an approximately 1% monthly decrease in the odds of receiving an inappropriate study after guideline dissemination. CONCLUSIONS: MRI as a diagnostic tool for wrist pain is often inappropriate and expensive. Our findings support interventions to increase guideline adherence, such as integrated clinical decision support tools.


Assuntos
Seguro , Punho , Idoso , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Medicare , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1323359, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371234

RESUMO

An important way to reduce urban-rural disparity lies in encouraging migrant workers to return to their hometowns for entrepreneurship. This paper examines the effect of the Integrated Medical Insurance System on the return-to-hometown entrepreneurship among migrant workers. Using microdata from the China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) spanning from 2013 to 2019, we find that the Integrated Medical Insurance System (IMIS) significantly increases the likelihood of migrant workers returning to their hometowns for entrepreneurship by 0.44%. This result remains stable after a series of robustness checks. Heterogeneity results indicate that this "pullback effect" is more pronounced for those who are male and with lower educational levels, higher income, larger social networks, and lower risk preferences. Finally, the interaction between the Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation policy (MEI) and IMIS can create a more significant combined effect in promoting the return of migrant workers to their hometowns for entrepreneurial activities.


Assuntos
Seguro , Migrantes , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Empreendedorismo , Renda , China
13.
Epilepsy Res ; 201: 107313, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417192

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a severe chronic neurological disease affecting 60 million people worldwide. Primary treatment is with anti-seizure medicines (ASMs), but many patients continue to experience seizures. We used retrospective insurance claims data on 280,587 patients with uncontrolled epilepsy (UE), defined as status epilepticus, need for a rescue medicine, or admission or emergency visit for an epilepsy code. We conducted a computational risk ratio analysis between pairs of ASMs using a causal inference method, in order to match 1034 clinical factors and simulate randomization. Data was extracted from the MarketScan insurance claims Research Database records from 2011 to 2015. The cohort consisted of individuals over 18 years old with a diagnosis of epilepsy who took one of eight ASMs and had more than a year of history prior to the filling of the drug prescription. Seven ASM exposures were analyzed: topiramate, phenytoin, levetiracetam, gabapentin, lamotrigine, valproate, and carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine (treated as the same exposure). We calculated the risk ratio of UE between pairs of ASM after controlling for bias with inverse propensity weighting applied to 1034 factors, such as demographics, confounding illnesses, non-epileptic conditions treated by ASMs, etc. All ASMs exhibited a significant reduction in the prevalence of UE, but three drugs showed pair-wise differences compared to other ASMs. Topiramate consistently was associated with a lower risk of UE, with a mean risk ratio range of 0.68-0.93 (average 0.82, CI: 0.56-1.08). Phenytoin and levetiracetam were consistently associated with a higher risk of UE with mean risk ratio ranges of 1.11 to 1.47 (average 1.13, CI 0.98-1.65) and 1.15 to 1.43 (average 1.2, CI 0.72-1.69), respectively. Large-scale retrospective insurance claims data - combined with causal inference analysis - provides an opportunity to compare the effect of treatments in real-world data in populations 1,000-fold larger than those in typical randomized trials. Our causal analysis identified the clinically unexpected finding of topiramate as being associated with a lower risk of UE; and phenytoin and levetiracetam as associated with a higher risk of UE (compared to other studied drugs, not to baseline). However, we note that our data set for this study only used insurance claims events, which does not comprise actual seizure frequencies, nor a clear picture of side effects. Our results do not advocate for any change in practice but demonstrate that conclusions from large databases may differ from and supplement those of randomized trials and clinical practice and therefore may guide further investigation.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Seguro , Humanos , Adolescente , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente
14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 33: e5, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314538

RESUMO

AIMS: Prior research, largely focused on US male veterans, indicates an increased risk of cardiovascular disease among individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from other settings and populations are scarce. The objective of this study is to examine PTSD as a risk factor for incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in South Africa. METHODS: We analysed reimbursement claims (2011-2020) of a cohort of South African medical insurance scheme beneficiaries aged 18 years or older. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for associations between PTSD and MACEs using Cox proportional hazard models and calculated the effect of PTSD on MACEs using longitudinal targeted maximum likelihood estimation. RESULTS: We followed 1,009,113 beneficiaries over a median of 3.0 years (IQR 1.1-6.0). During follow-up, 12,662 (1.3%) persons were diagnosed with PTSD and 39,255 (3.9%) had a MACE. After adjustment for sex, HIV status, age, population group, substance use disorders, psychotic disorders, major depressive disorder, sleep disorders and the use of antipsychotic medication, PTSD was associated with a 16% increase in the risk of MACEs (aHR 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.28). The risk ratio for the effect of PTSD on MACEs decreased from 1.59 (95% CI 1.49-1.68) after 1 year of follow-up to 1.14 (95% CI 1.11-1.16) after 8 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our study provides empirical support for an increased risk of MACEs in males and females with PTSD from a general population sample in South Africa. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring cardiovascular risk among individuals diagnosed with PTSD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Seguro , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia
15.
Oecologia ; 204(2): 279-288, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366067

RESUMO

In temperate lakes, eutrophication and warm temperatures can promote cyanobacteria blooms that reduce water quality and impair food-chain support. Although parasitic chytrids of phytoplankton might compete with zooplankton, they also indirectly support zooplankton populations through the "mycoloop", which helps move energy and essential dietary molecules from inedible phytoplankton to zooplankton. Here, we consider how the mycoloop might fit into the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) framework. BEF considers how more diverse communities can benefit ecosystem functions like zooplankton production. Chytrids are themselves part of pelagic food webs and they directly contribute to zooplankton diets through spore production and by increasing host edibility. The additional way that chytrids might support BEF is if they engage in "kill-the-winner" dynamics. In contrast to grazers, which result in "eat-the-edible" dynamics, kill-the-winner dynamics can occur for host-specific infectious diseases that control the abundance of dominant (in this case inedible) hosts and thus limit the competitive exclusion of poorer (in this case edible) competitors. Thus, if phytoplankton diversity provides functions, and chytrids support algal diversity, chytrids could indirectly favour edible phytoplankton. All three mechanisms are linked to diversity and therefore provide some "insurance" for zooplankton production against the impacts of eutrophication and warming. In our perspective piece, we explore evidence for the chytrid insurance hypothesis, identify exceptions and knowledge gaps, and outline future research directions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Seguro , Animais , Zooplâncton , Fitoplâncton , Biodiversidade , Dinâmica Populacional
16.
AIDS ; 38(4): 610-612, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416555

RESUMO

In a cross-sectional analysis of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization by commercially insured patients from 2019 to 2021, most prescriptions were for branded formulations of PrEP despite the availability of a generic version. Accounting for the modest relative clinical benefit of branded TAF/FTC (tenofovir alafenamide fumarate/emtricitabine) PrEP over generic TDF/FTC (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine) PrEP, use of generic TDF/FTC PrEP would have reduced commercial insurers' spending by 33%.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Seguro , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Adenina , Emtricitabina , Tenofovir
17.
Thorac Cancer ; 15(9): 693-701, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related pain is one of the common priority symptoms in advanced lung cancer patients at the end-of-life (EOL). Alleviating pain is undoubtedly a critical component of palliative care in lung cancer. Our study was initiated to examined trends in opioid prescription-level outcomes as potential indicators of undertreated pain in China. METHODS: This study used data on 1330 patients diagnosed with lung cancer of urban city medical insurance in China who died between 2014 and 2017. Opioid prescription-level outcomes were determined by annual trends of the proportion of patients filling an opioid prescription, the total dose of opioids filled by decedents, and morphine milligram equivalents per day (MMED) at the EOL (defined as the 60 days before death). We further analyzed monthly changes in the number of opioid prescriptions filled, MMED, and mean daily dose of opioids per prescription (MDDP) of the last 60 days of life by year at death and age, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 959 patients with exact dates of death were included, with 432 cases (45.06%; 95% CI: 44.36%-45.77%) receiving at least one opioid prescription at the EOL. The declining trends were shown in the proportion of patients filling any opioid prescription, the total dose of opioids filled by decedents and MMED, with an annual decrease of 0.341% (p = 0.01), 104.23 mg (p = 0.011) and 2.84 mg (p = 0.014), respectively. Within the 31-60 days to the 0-30 days of life, the MMED declined 6.08 mg (95% CI: -7.14 to -5.03; p = 0.000351), while the number of opioid prescriptions rose 0.66 (95% CI: 0.160-1.16; p = 0.025). Like the MMED, the MDDP fell 4.11 mg (95% CI: -5.86 to -2.37; p = 0.005) within the last month before death compared to the previous month. CONCLUSION: Terminal lung cancer populations in urban China have experienced reduced access to opioids at the EOL. The clinicians did not prescribe a satisfactory dose of opioids per prescription, while the patients suffered increasing pain in the last 30 days of life. Sufficient opioid analgesic administration should be advocated for lung cancer patients during the EOL period.


Assuntos
Seguro , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Subtratamento , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Morfina
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3239, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331964

RESUMO

In most of the United States, insurance companies may use gender to determine car insurance rates. In addition, several studies have shown that women over the age of 25 generally pay more than men for car insurance. Then, we investigate whether the distributions of claims for women and men differ in location, scale and shape by means of the GAMLSS regression framework, using microdata provided by U.S. and Australian insurance companies, to use this evidence to support policy makers' decisions. We also develop a parametric-bootstrap test to investigate the tail behavior of the distributions. When covariates are not considered, the distribution of claims does not appear to differ by gender. When covariates are included, the regressions provide mixed evidence for the location parameter. However, for female claimants, the spread of the distribution is lower. Our research suggests that, at least for the contexts analyzed, there is no clear statistical reason for charging higher rates to women. While providing evidence to support unisex insurance pricing policies, given the limitations represented by the use of country-specific data, this paper aims to promote further research on this topic with different datasets to corroborate our findings and draw more general conclusions.


Assuntos
Seguro , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Austrália , Custos e Análise de Custo , Políticas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397706

RESUMO

Evidence for acute or long-term coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is relatively limited. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 infection on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the Japanese population. Eligible study participants were 13,365 employees and their dependents who answered questionnaires at baseline and 18 months later and who had at least 6 months of continuous enrolment before and after baseline. Of the 711 study participants who developed COVID-19 infection, 29.0% reported a decline in HRQoL, whereas 25.2% of uninfected participants reported a decline. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the association between COVID-19 infection and declines in HRQoL in the age categories of less than 30 years, 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60 years or higher were 0.54 (0.15-1.92), 1.70 (1.03-2.81), 1.14 (0.82-1.57), 1.05 (0.77-1.42), and 0.87 (0.46-1.64), respectively. This study demonstrates a differential association between COVID-19 infection and declines in HRQoL by age group. A 1.7-fold increase in the odds of negative changes in HRQoL was observed in only those in their 30s. Further studies are needed to elucidate differences in the impact of COVID-19 infection on HRQoL between younger people such as those in their 30s and the older population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Seguro , Humanos , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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