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1.
Croat Med J ; 64(5): 339-343, 2023 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37927188

RESUMO

Recurrent copy number variants in the chromosomal region 16p11.2 are among the most frequent genetic causes of neurodevelopmental disorders. The increasing prevalence of brain structural anomalies is also associated with 16p11.2 deletions and duplications. We report on a four-year-old boy with microcephaly, trigonocephaly, and dysmorphic features. The patient also exhibited motor delay and autism spectrum disorder. Microarray analysis showed a single-copy gain of a 1.187 kb segment in the 16p12.1p11.2 region and a two-copy gain of a 525 kb segment in the 16p11.2 region. Parental analysis revealed a 1.7 Mb duplication at the 16p12.1p11.2 (BP1-BP5 region) in the father and a 525 kb duplication in the 16p11.2 region (BP4-BP5) in the mother. The patient inherited the entire abnormality from each parent and, as a result, presented with partial trisomy of the 16p12.1p11.2 region and partial tetrasomy of the 16p11.2 region. The MLPA P343 Autism-1 Probemix was used to verify the copy number gains in the 16p11.2 region detected by chromosomal microarray analysis. Double duplications are very rare chromosomal rearrangements. The phenotype for distal 16p12.1p11.2 trisomy (BP1-BP3) and proximal 16p11.2 (BP4-BP5) tetrasomy is unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first patient described in the literature who inherited 16p11.2 duplications from both parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Masculino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Tetrassomia , Trissomia/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Fenótipo , Pais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética
3.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 40(9): 2233-2240, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37501006

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a rare type of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) diagnosed prenatally by the utility of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). METHODS: NIPT was performed in the first trimester. Conventional karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) were performed on the amniotic samples in the second trimester. Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) was used for the validation of fetal skin and the placental tissue after pregnancy termination. RESULTS: NIPT results showed increased signal from chromosome 12p. Subsequent prenatal diagnostic testing by karyotype revealed 47, XY, +i (12p), and CMA displayed four copies of 12p: 12p13.33-12p11.1(173786_34835641) × 4. The CNV-seq results of the fetal skin and the fetal side of placenta showed four copies of 12p13.33-p11 and an estimated chimeric duplication of 34.08 Mb (chimerism ratio: 10%) in 12 p13.33-p11, respectively. However, no abnormality was detected by CNV-seq at the maternal side of placenta. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a positive signal from chromosome 12p on NIPT should raise suspicion for PKS. With the wide application of NIPT, the true positive of incidental finding is expected to increase.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos , Teste Pré-Natal não Invasivo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Tetrassomia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Placenta , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética
4.
Leukemia ; 36(12): 2769-2783, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266323

RESUMO

Hyperdiploidy is the largest genetic entity B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. The diagnostic hallmark of its two variants that will be discussed in detail herein is a chromosome count between 52 and 67, respectively. The classical HD form consists of heterozygous di-, tri-, and tetrasomies, whereas the nonclassical one (usually viewed as "duplicated hyperhaploid") contains only disomies and tetrasomies. Despite their apparently different clinical behavior, we show that these two sub-forms can in principle be produced by the same chromosomal maldistribution mechanism. Moreover, their respective array, gene expression, and mutation patterns also indicate that they are biologically more similar than hitherto appreciated. Even though in-depth analyses of the genomic intricacies of classical HD leukemias are indispensable for the elucidation of the disease process, the ensuing results play at present surprisingly little role in treatment stratification, a fact that can be attributed to the overall good prognoses and low relapse rates of the concerned patients and, consequently, their excellent treatment outcome. Irrespective of this underutilization, however, the detailed genetic characterization of HD leukemias may, especially in planned treatment reduction trials, eventually become important for further treatment stratification, patient management, and the clinical elucidation of outcome data. It should therefore become an integral part of all upcoming treatment studies.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Tetrassomia , Criança , Humanos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Aneuploidia , Mutação , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 17(4): 94-104, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674998

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An intact DNA damage response is crucial to preventing cancer development, including in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Deficiencies in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway can lead to defective DNA damage responses, and this can occur through inherited germline mutations in HR pathway genes, such as CHEK2 and ATM. We now understand that germline mutations can be identified frequently (~ 5-10%) in patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, and among the most common of these are CHEK2 and ATM. We review the role that deleterious germline CHEK2 and ATM variants play in the development of hematopoietic malignancies, and how this influences clinical practice, including cancer screening, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and therapy choice. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent large cohorts of patients diagnosed with myeloid or lymphoid malignancies, deleterious germline loss of function variants in CHEK2 and ATM are among the most common identified. Germline CHEK2 variants predispose to a range of myeloid malignancies, most prominently myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes (odds ratio range: 2.1-12.3), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (odds ratio 14.83). Deleterious germline ATM variants have been shown to predispose to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (odds ratio range: 1.7-10.1), although additional studies are needed to demonstrate the risk they confer for myeloid malignancies. Early studies suggest there may also be associations between deleterious germline CHEK2 and ATM variants and development of clonal hematopoiesis. Identifying CHEK2 and ATM variants is crucial for the optimal management of patients and families affected by hematopoietic malignancies. OPENING CLINICAL CASE: "A 45 year-old woman presents to your clinic with a history of triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed five years ago, treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. About six months ago, she developed cervical lymphadenopathy, and a biopsy demonstrated small lymphocytic leukemia. Peripheral blood shows a small population of lymphocytes with a chronic lymphocytic leukemia immunophenotype, and FISH demonstrates a complex karyotype: gain of one to two copies of IGH and FGFR3; gain of two copies of CDKN2C at 1p32.3; gain of two copies of CKS1B at 1q21; tetrasomy for chromosome 3; trisomy and tetrasomy for chromosome 7; tetrasomy for chromosome 9; tetrasomy for chromosome 12; gain of one to two copies of ATM at 11q22.3; deletion of chromosome 13 deletion positive; gain of one to two copies of TP53 at 17p13.1). Given her history of two cancers, you arrange for germline genetic testing using DNA from cultured skin fibroblasts, which demonstrates pathogenic variants in ATM [c.1898 + 2 T > G] and CHEK2 [p.T367Metfs]. Her family history is significant for multiple cancers. (Fig. 1)." Fig. 1 Representative pedigree from a patient with germline pathogenic ATM and CHEK2 variants who was affected by early onset breast cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Arrow indicates proband. Colors indicate cancer type/disease: purple, breast cancer; blue, lymphoma; brown, melanoma; yellow, colon cancer; and green, autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Tetrassomia
7.
Cancer Genet ; 262-263: 111-117, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219054

RESUMO

Here, we report a case of Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with three way complex translocation involving chromosomes 4, 15, and 17. Although chromosome 4 is most commonly associated chromosome in three way translocation, present case is the first report with four novel co-existent findings of new break point region on chromosome 4, new cyclic mechanism with simultaneous breaks, presence of a co-existent tetrasomy 8 and FLT3 ITD positivity.; Comprehensive assessment highlight the utility of combining morphology, immunophenotyping, karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and molecular studies for better characterization, optimal management of APL with a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism and prognosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/complicações , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Prognóstico , Tetrassomia , Translocação Genética/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
8.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(1): 150-152, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present prenatal diagnosis and cytogenetic characterization of a unique pattern of partial tetrasomy 18 mosaicism. CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 25 weeks of gestation due to anomalies detected in obstetric ultrasound. It revealed a de novo supernumerary partial isochromosome 18 in 11 of 37 metaphases of cultured amniocytes. The karyotype was 47,XX,+idic(18) (q12.3)[11]/46,XX[26]. Elective cesarean section was performed at 33 weeks of gestational age due to anhydramnios. A female symmetric small for gestational age baby with dysmorphic features and an Apgar score of 9/10/10 was born. She had a good clinical outcome during hospitalization. Postnatal peripheral blood karyotype was normal. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in a sample of the oral mucosa confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. At three months of corrected age she had a normal psychomotor development. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mosaic partial tetrasomy 18 including segments of the long arm. This newborn's relatively mild phenotype highlights the challenges of prenatal genetic counselling in mosaic cases with fetal anomalies.


Assuntos
Amniocentese/métodos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mosaicismo , Tetrassomia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Cesárea , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Tetrassomia/genética , Trissomia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21145, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707142

RESUMO

Haematopoietic malignancies are frequently characterized by karyotypic abnormalities. The development of targeted drugs has been pioneered with compounds against gene products of fusion genes caused by chromosomal translocations. While polysomies are equally frequent as translocations, for many of them we are lacking therapeutic approaches aimed at synthetic lethality. Here, we report two new cell lines, named MBU-7 and MBU-8, that differ in complete trisomy of chromosome18, a partial trisomy of chromosome 7 and a tetrasomy of the p-arm of chromosome 8, but otherwise share the same mutational pattern and complex karyotype. Both cell lines are divergent clones of U-937 cells and have the morphology and immunoprofile of monocytic cells. The distinct karyotypic differences between MBU-7 and MBU-8 are associated with a difference in the specific response to nucleoside analogues. Taken together, we propose the MBU-7 and MBU-8 cell lines described here as suitable in vitro models for screening and testing vulnerabilities that are associated with the disease-relevant polysomies of chromosome 7, 8 and 18.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Tetrassomia , Trissomia
10.
FEBS Open Bio ; 11(11): 2912-2920, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614293

RESUMO

The nucleosome, a basic unit of chromatin found in all eukaryotes, is thought to be assembled through the orchestrated activity of several histone chaperones and chromatin assembly factors in a stepwise manner, proceeding from tetrasome assembly, to H2A/H2B deposition, and finally to formation of the mature nucleosome. In this study, we demonstrate chaperone-mediated assembly of both tetrasomes and nucleosomes on the well-defined Widom 601 positioning sequence using a co-expression/reconstitution wheat germ cell-free system. The purified tetrasomes and nucleosomes were positioned around the center of a given sequence. The heights and diameters were measured by atomic force microscopy. Together with the reported unmodified native histones produced by the wheat germ cell-free platform, our method is expected to be useful for downstream applications in the field of chromatin research.


Assuntos
Chaperonas de Histonas/fisiologia , Nucleossomos/genética , Tetrassomia/genética , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Drosophila , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Chaperonas de Histonas/genética , Chaperonas de Histonas/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/fisiologia
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(11): 3507-3509, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472202

RESUMO

Tetrasomy 21 is a rare occurrence. Only 14 cases have been reported in the literature, 8 of which are partial tetrasomy cases and 6 which are complete tetrasomy cases. Of the incidences, no proband with true complete tetrasomy 21 has survived the neonatal period. We report complete mosaic tetrasomy 21 in a female infant with the typical Down syndrome phenotype, including Hirschsprung's disease and atrioventricular (AV) canal defect. This is in contrast to cases of partial tetrasomy 21, which often have an atypical trisomy 21 presentation and multiple nonspecific traits, including short stature, microcephaly, and developmental delays. This case demonstrates the difference in clinical presentation between the partial and complete subtype of tetrasomy 21 and provides the first postnatal clinical picture of an infant with true mosaic complete tetrasomy 21.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Down/genética , Tetrassomia/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Aneuploidia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Down/patologia , Feminino , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/genética , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/patologia , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/patologia , Mosaicismo , Fenótipo , Tetrassomia/patologia
12.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(1): 169-172, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present tetrasomy of 11q13.4-q14.3 due to an intrachromosomal triplication associated with paternal isodisomy of uniparental disomy (iso-UPD) for 11q14.3-qter and multiple abnormalities. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old primigravid woman was found to have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the fetus since 28 weeks of gestation, and a 2056-g baby was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation with fetal distress. The baby postnatally manifested hypotonia, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism of micrognathia, retrognathia and low-set ears, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, tricuspid regurgitation and corpus callosum dysgenesis. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array comparative genomic hybridization analysis on the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood revealed the result of arr 11q13.4q14.3 (71,567,724-89,547,851) × 4, arr 11q14.3q25 (89,466,484-134,942,626) hmz [GRCh37 (hg19)] with a 17.980-Mb triplication of 11q13.4-q14.3 encompassing the genes of GRM5 and MAP6, and loss of heterozygosity for a 45.476-Mb region of 11q14.3-qter consistent with iso-UPD for 11q14.3-qter. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed paternal iso-UPD for 11q14.3-qter. Cytogenetic analysis of the blood revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,trp(11) (q13.4q14.3). The parental karyotypes were normal. When follow-ups at age 2 years, the neonate manifested physical and psychomotor developmental delay and intellectual disability. CONCLUSION: Tetrasomy 11q13.4-q14.3 may present the phenotype of IUGR, developmental delay, corpus callosum dysgenesis, microcephaly, congenital heart defects and facial dysmorphism.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Herança Paterna/genética , Tetrassomia/genética , Trissomia/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Análise Citogenética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Gravidez
13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(7): e23288, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terminal duplication on chromosome 15q is a rare chromosomal variation. Affected individuals show similar features such as growth dysplasia or the development of frontal bossing, body deformities, facial abnormalities, and genitourinary or cardiovascular disorders. However, it is not yet clear whether such 15q repeats lead to identifiable patterns of clinical abnormalities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the prenatal diagnostic results and clinical manifestations of a fetus with 15q duplication and to summarize the literature. METHODS: The case was a fetus at 28 weeks of gestation. The risk of Down syndrome from second-trimester screening was 1/140. Prenatal ultrasound and amniocentesis were performed, and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was used for genetic analysis. RESULTS: The fetus had abnormal clinical features, including intracardiac echogenic focus in the left ventricle, an aberrant right subclavian artery, and growth delay. The fetal chromosomal karyotype was 46,XX,15q?,12q?,21pstk+, and CMA revealed a 10.163 Mb duplication at 15q24.3-q25.3. The couple chose to terminate the pregnancy after careful consideration. CONCLUSIONS: The combination and rational application of cytogenetics technology and molecular genetics technology such as CMA will open up the field of clinical application and provide useful genetic counseling for parents of fetuses carrying such chromosomal duplications.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Tetrassomia/genética , Amniocentese/métodos , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Artéria Subclávia/anormalidades , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
15.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(1): 103634, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to review the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of tetrasomy 5p from the fetal period until adulthood including prenatal diagnostic evaluations. BACKGROUND: Tetrasomy 5p is a rare chromosomal abnormality. Of the 14 reports, most document mosaic tetrasomy 5p resulting from a supernumerary marker chromosome or isochromosome. There is a wide range of phenotypic manifestations with severity related to more proximal breakpoints and the degree of mosaicism. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review using Scopus, PubMed Central® and Ovid MEDLINE® from inception through July 1, 2018 for all articles describing tetrasomy 5p. All articles describing the syndrome of tetrasomy 5p were included. RESULTS: Of the 15 included cases, 13 exhibited mosaic tetrasomy and two had complete tetrasomy identified by amniocentesis. The most common features include seizures (8/11 live births, 73%), hypotonia (7/11 live births, 64%), developmental delay (7/9 cases that reached childhood, 78%), abnormal external ears (6/11 live births, 55%), short stature (6/11 live births, 55%), ventriculomegaly (5/11 live births, 45.5%) and congenital heart defect (6/15 cases, 40%). The clinical phenotype ranged in severity from mild with no defining characteristics to severe with seizures, developmental delay, and multiple congenital anomalies, resulting in early death. Of these 15 cases, only 6 were diagnosed prenatally by prenatal genetic testing (40%) with prenatal ultrasound identifying abnormalities in 4/6 (67%). Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) was diagnosed in six additional cases due to discordance between CVS and amniocentesis results. Four of the five live births returned for evaluation and each showed normal development. CONCLUSIONS: Fourteen out of 15 (93%) cases of tetrasomy 5p were associated with an abnormal phenotype. Once a diagnosis is made prenatally, a detailed anatomy ultrasound and fetal echocardiogram must be performed to further characterize any structural abnormalities of the fetus and potentially estimate the clinical severity. Caution should be exercised when prenatal diagnosis of mosaic tetrasomy 5p is found by chorionic villus sampling. CVS alone is insufficient to diagnose tetrasomy 5p and needs to be confirmed with amniocentesis. Our review seeks to inform clinicians on the current literature regarding tetrasomy 5p so that they may better counsel patients when this syndrome is diagnosed.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Mosaicismo , Tetrassomia/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adulto , Amniocentese/métodos , Criança , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Isocromossomos/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Tetrassomia/genética , Tetrassomia/patologia
16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(4): 103824, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830537

RESUMO

Complete or partial tetrasomy 21 has been reported only in rare cases. We report a Japanese female patient with tetrasomy 21 due to an extra chromosome derived from chromosome 21 (Chr21). The patient had severe psychomotor retardation without Down syndrome (DS) phenotype; she showed short stature, microcephaly, round face, cleft lip and palate, and other dysmorphic features. The chromosome analyses for the patient detected an extra dicentric Chr21 consisting of two partial Chr21 copies fused together within their long arms. Her karyotype was revealed to be 47,XX,+dic(21;21). Allelic ratios of heterozygous SNPs observed in the patient indicated the maternal origin of the extra Chr21. Copy number and structural variant analyses using whole genome sequencing data indicated that the distal breakpoint of the dicentric Chr21 was located within 21q21.3 and that the extra Chr21 did not simply consist of inverted duplications of the pter→q21.3 region, but likely contained multiple partial deletions, duplications, and inversions within it. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results were consistent with the karyotype and genomic analyses. The patient's lack of DS phenotype turned out to be due to the normal copy number of the DS critical region (21q22.13-22.3). A possible molecular mechanism leading to the complex genomic rearrangements in the tetrasomic region consists mainly of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles with an unequal crossing-over event.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Tetrassomia , Criança , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Microcefalia/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(11): e00895, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrasomy 21 is a very rare aneuploidy which could clinically resemble a Down syndrome. It was most often described in its partial form than complete. We report the prenatal, pathological and genetic characteristics of a fetus with mosaic complete tetrasomy 21. This is the second well-documented description of a complete tetrasomy 21 in the literature. METHODS: Prenatal and fetal pathological examinations, cytogenetic and molecular analyses were performed to characterize fetal features with tetrasomy 21. RESULTS: Prenatal ultrasound examination revealed an isolated complete atrioventricular septal defect with normal karyotype on amniotic fluid. After termination of pregnancy, clinical examination of the fetus evoked trisomy 21 or Down syndrome. Chromosomal microarray analysis and FISH on lung tissue showed a mosaicism with four copies of chromosome 21 (tetrasomy 21). CONCLUSION: Our observation and the review of the literature reported the possibility of very weak mosaicism and disease-causing confined tissue-specific mosaicism in fetus or alive patients with chromosome 21 aneuploidy, mainly Down syndrome. In case of clinical diagnosis suggestive of Down syndrome, attention must be paid to the risk of false-negative test due to chromosomal mosaicism (very weak percentage, different tissue distribution). To overcome this risk, it is necessary to privilege the diagnostic techniques without culture step and to increase the number of cells and tissues analyzed, if possible. This study highlights the limits of microarray as the unique diagnostic approach in case of weak mosaic and French cytogenetics guidelines recommend to check anomalies seen in microarray by another technique on the same tissue.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Mosaicismo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Tetrassomia , Adulto , Amniocentese , Feminino , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/genética , Humanos , Gravidez
18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00939, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare sporadic disorder caused by tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12. The main clinical manifestations are global developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented and/or hyperpigmented lesions, and multiple congenital anomalies. PKS is associated with tissue mosaicism, which is difficult to diagnose through peripheral blood sample by conventional cytogenetic methods and fluorescence in situ hybridization. METHODS: Here, we report five patients with PKS. We delineate their clinical phenotypes and we compare them with previously published cases. We used array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) with DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples. The five patients have also been tested by conventional cytogenetics techniques. RESULTS: Four out of five patients showed tetrasomy 12p by aCGH. Three of the four patients have typical i(12p) and one of the four demonstrated atypical tetrasomy 12p. The percentage of mosaicism was as low as 20%. Our cohort exhibited the typical PKS phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of aCGH for the diagnosis of PKS from DNA extracted from lymphocytes. Thus, for patients suspected of PKS, we recommend performing aCGH on lymphocytes at an early age before  proceeding to skin biopsy. aCGH on peripheral blood samples is sensitive in detecting low level of mosaicism and it is less invasive method than skin biopsy. We reviewed also the literature concerning the previously published PKS patients diagnosed by aCGH.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Fenótipo , Tetrassomia
19.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(4): 199-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315112

RESUMO

Here, we report a molecular characterization of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) derived from the most proximal region of 13q present in a fetus with coarctation of the aorta at ultrasound examination during prenatal diagnosis. Cultured umbilical cord blood cells showed a de novo extra ring-shaped sSMC in 76% of the cells using a standard banding technique. SNP array revealed a tetrasomy of about 28.4 Mb in the long arm of chromosome 13 from band 13q11 to 13q14.11 in the fetus's cells. Metaphase/interphase FISH using specific probes located at 13q11, 13q12.11, and 13q14.11, respectively, demonstrated that the supernumerary ring chromosome was derived from an inverted duplication of the region 13q11q14.11 with a conventional centromere. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an inverted duplication of the most proximal region 13q11q14.11 in a ring chromosome is characterized. The findings we presented here deepen our understanding of the clinical consequences of tetrasomy in this region and may be of help for further studies of critical regions in chromosome 13.


Assuntos
Coartação Aórtica/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Doenças Fetais/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Cromossomos em Anel , Tetrassomia/genética , Adulto , Centrômero/genética , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez
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