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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(23): e38446, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stair-climbing (SC) is an essential daily life skill, and stair-climbing exercise (SCE) serves as a valuable method for promoting physical activity in older adults. This study aimed to compare the impact of SCEs with heel contact (HC) and heel off (HO) during SC on functional mobility and trunk muscle (TM) activation amplitudes in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In the pilot randomized controlled trial, participants were randomly allocated to either the HC group (n = 17; mean age 75.9 ± 6.3 years) or the HO group (n = 17; mean age 76.5 ± 4.6 years). The HC participants performed SCE with the heel of the ankle in contact with the ground, while the HO participants performed SCE with the heel of the ankle off the ground during SC. Both groups participated in progressive SCE for one hour per day, three days per week, over four consecutive weeks (totaling 12 sessions) at the community center. We measured timed stair-climbing (TSC), timed up and go (TUG), and electromyography (EMG) amplitudes of the TMs including rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transverse abdominus and internal oblique abdominals (TrA-IO), and erector spinae (ES) during SC before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Both groups showed a significant improvement in TSC and TUG after the intervention (P < .01, respectively), with no significant difference between the groups. There was no significant difference in the EMG activity of the TMs between the groups after the intervention. The amplitude of TMs significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P < .01, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both SCE methods could improve balance and SC ability in older adults while reducing the recruitment of TMs during SC. Both SCE strategies are effective in improving functional mobility and promoting appropriate posture control during SC in older adults.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Vida Independente , Subida de Escada , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Feminino , Subida de Escada/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tronco/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
4.
Turk J Med Sci ; 54(1): 175-184, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812624

RESUMO

Background/aim: Trunk control, which plays a key role in balance and mobility, decreases in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and many parameters such as sensory, motor, and musculoskeletal systems affect trunk control. The aim of this study was to compare trunk control, spinal mobility, and spinal posture in PwMS with healthy controls and investigate the relationship between trunk control with spinal posture and spinal mobility in PwMS. Materials and methods: The study was completed with 38 PwMS and 38 healthy controls with matched age and sex. Trunk control was evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). Spinal posture and mobility were evaluated in sagittal and frontal planes using an IDIAG M360 Spinal Mouse. Spinal posture was evaluated in upright, maximum flexion, extension, left and right lateral flexion positions, and spinal mobility was evaluated from upright to flexion, extension, right and left flexion positions in sagittal and frontal planes. Results: TIS scores, thoracic mobility angles (from upright to flexion and left lateral flexion), lumbar mobility angles (from upright to extension and right lateral flexion) and lumbar posture angle (maximum right lateral flexion) were lower, and thoracic posture angles (upright and maximum extension) were higher in PwMS than healthy controls (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found between other spinal postures and mobility values. In addition, there was only a negative relationship between thoracic spinal mobility from upright to extension and trunk control in PwMS (r = -0.349; p = 0.032). Conclusion: These findings indicate the importance of early detection of trunk disturbances in PwMS. Thus, even in the early stages of multiple sclerosis, detailed trunk assessment will guide the implementation of comprehensive exercise programs.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Postura , Tronco , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles
5.
J Sports Sci ; 42(7): 599-610, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734986

RESUMO

Unanticipated trunk perturbation is commonly observed when anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur during direction-changing manoeuvres. This study aimed to quantify the effect of mid-flight medial-lateral external trunk perturbation directions/locations on ACL loading variables during sidestep cuttings. Thirty-two recreational athletes performed sidestep cuttings under combinations of three perturbation directions (no-perturbation, ipsilateral-perturbation, and contralateral-perturbation relative to the cutting leg) and two perturbation locations (upper-trunk versus lower-trunk). The pushing perturbation was created by customised devices releasing a slam ball to contact participants near maximum jump height prior to cutting. Perturbation generally resulted in greater peak vertical ground reaction force and slower cutting velocity. Upper-trunk contralateral perturbation showed the greatest lateral trunk bending away from the travel direction, greatest peak knee flexion and abduction angles, and greatest peak internal knee adduction moments compared to other conditions. Such increased ACL loading variables were likely due to the increased lateral trunk bending and whole-body horizontal velocity away from the cutting direction caused by the contralateral perturbation act at the upper trunk. The findings may help understand the mechanisms of indirect contact ACL injuries and develop effective cutting techniques for ACL injury prevention.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Tronco , Humanos , Tronco/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Adulto
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(5): 848-851, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of core muscle strengthening exercises with and without routine physical therapy on trunk balance in chronic stroke patients. METHODS: The randomised controlled trial was conducted at Mubarak Medical Complex, Sargodha, Pakistan, from October 28, 2021, to April 28, 2022, and comprised patients of either gender with chronic stroke aged 40-60 years. The subjects were randomised using the lottery method into group A that was managed with routine physical therapy, and group B which was further managed with core strengthening exercises. The intervention comprised 4 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Outcome was measured using Trunk Impairment Scale and Time Up and Go test. Data was collected at baseline, week 4 and post-intervention. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Of the 80 individuals screened, 74(92.5%) were included. There were 37(50%) patients in group A; 30(81%) males and 7(19%) females with mean age 56.73±2.37 years. The remaining 37(50%) patients were in group B; 27(73%) males and 10(27%) females with mean age 55.65±2.88 years. Trunk balance and functional mobility improved significantly post-intervention in both groups (p<0.05), but group B values were significantly better compared to group A values (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Core muscle strengthening exercises combined with routine physical therapy were found to be more effective compared to routine physical therapy alone in chronic stroke patients for improving trunk balance and functional mobility. Registration Number: IRCT20211116053070N1.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Equilíbrio Postural , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto , Treinamento Resistido/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Paquistão , Tronco/fisiopatologia
7.
Narra J ; 4(1): e303, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798840

RESUMO

Trunk muscles maintain steady effort with adequate strength and endurance. When the muscle performance is subpar, it might cause lower back discomfort. No reference for trunk strength and endurance has been established previously. The aim of this study was to determine the normative reference values for dynamometric and non-dynamometric tests in people with various body fat percentages. Two hundred sixty-four participants aged 19-40 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Siri equation was used to calculate the individuals body fat proportions, which were divided into normal, high, and very high body fat for men and women. The Modified Sorenson's and the Back-Leg-Chest Dynamometric tests were utilized to measure muscular performance. The means of strength in females with normal, high, and very high body fat percentages were 27.39, 25.75, and 25.37 N/m2, respectively. The males in the same category had the means of 56.48, 51.79, and 60.17 N/m2, respectively. The highest mean of endurance in females was in those with normal body fat percentage (42.28), so did males (71.02). Our findings suggest that males had higher trunk muscle strength and endurance than females, and normal-body-fat individuals had the greatest endurance regardless of gender.


Assuntos
Força Muscular , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Tecido Adiposo , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Tronco/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sports Sci ; 42(7): 611-620, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752925

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of rolling resistance is important for wheelchair propulsion analyses. However, the commonly used drag and deceleration tests are reported to underestimate rolling resistance up to 6% due to the (neglected) influence of trunk motion. The first aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of using trunk and wheelchair kinematics to predict the intra-cyclical load distribution, more particularly front wheel loading, during hand-rim wheelchair propulsion. Secondly, the study compared the accuracy of rolling resistance determined from the predicted load distribution with the accuracy of drag test-based rolling resistance. Twenty-five able-bodied participants performed hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on a large motor-driven treadmill. During the treadmill sessions, front wheel load was assessed with load pins to determine the load distribution between the front and rear wheels. Accordingly, a machine learning model was trained to predict front wheel load from kinematic data. Based on two inertial sensors (attached to the trunk and wheelchair) and the machine learning model, front wheel load was predicted with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 3.8% (or 1.8 kg). Rolling resistance determined from the predicted load distribution (MAE: 0.9%, mean error (ME): 0.1%) was more accurate than drag test-based rolling resistance (MAE: 2.5%, ME: -1.3%).


Assuntos
Tronco , Cadeiras de Rodas , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Tronco/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Desenho de Equipamento , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos
9.
Appl Ergon ; 119: 104311, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763088

RESUMO

To optimise soldier protection within body armour systems, knowledge of the boundaries of essential thoraco-abdominal organs is necessary to inform coverage requirements. However, existing methods of organ boundary identification are costly and time consuming, limiting widespread adoption for use on soldier populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel method of using 3D organ models to identify essential organ boundaries from low dose planar X-rays and 3D external surface scans of the human torso. The results revealed that, while possible to reconstruct 3D organs using template 3D organ models placed over X-ray images, the boundary data (relating to the size and position of each organ) obtained from the reconstructed organs differed significantly from MRI organ data. The magnitude of difference varied between organs. The most accurate anatomical boundaries were the left, right, and inferior boundaries of the heart, and lateral boundaries for the liver and spleen. Visual inspection of the data demonstrated that 11 of 18 organ models were successfully integrated within the 3D space of the participant's surface scan. These results suggest that, if this method is further refined and evaluated, it has potential to be used as a tool for estimating body armour coverage requirements.


Assuntos
Abdome , Antropometria , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fígado , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Antropometria/métodos , Masculino , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/anatomia & histologia , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Baço/anatomia & histologia , Roupa de Proteção , Tronco/diagnóstico por imagem , Militares , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem , Feminino
11.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(12)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759675

RESUMO

Objective.The objective of this work is to: (1) demonstrate fluorine-19 (19F) MRI on a 3T clinical system with a large field of view (FOV) multi-channel torso coil (2) demonstrate an example parameter selection optimization for a19F agent to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-efficiency for spoiled gradient echo (SPGR), balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), and phase-cycled bSSFP (bSSFP-C), and (3) validate detection feasibility inex vivotissues.Approach.Measurements were conducted on a 3.0T Discovery MR750w MRI (GE Healthcare, USA) with an 8-channel1H/19F torso coil (MRI Tools, Germany). Numerical simulations were conducted for perfluoropolyether to determine the theoretical parameters to maximize SNR-efficiency for the sequences. Theoretical parameters were experimentally verified, and the sensitivity of the sequences was compared with a 10 min acquisition time with a 3.125 × 3.125 × 3 mm3in-plane resolution. Feasibility of a bSSFP-C was also demonstrated in phantom andex vivotissues.Main Results. Flip angles (FAs) of 12 and 64° maximized the signal for SPGR and bSSFP, and validation of optimal FA and receiver bandwidth showed close agreement with numerical simulations. Sensitivities of 2.47, 5.81, and 4.44ms-0.5mM-1 and empirical detection limits of 20.3, 1.5, and 6.2 mM were achieved for SPGR, bSSFP, and bSSFP-C, respectively. bSSFP and bSSFP-C achieved 1.8-fold greater sensitivity over SPGR (p< 0.01).Significance.bSSFP-C was able to improve sensitivity relative to simple SPGR and reduce both bSSFP banding effects and imaging time. The sequence was used to demonstrate the feasibility of19F MRI at clinical FOVs and field strengths withinex-vivotissues.


Assuntos
Estudos de Viabilidade , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Tronco , Humanos , Tronco/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagens de Fantasmas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética de Flúor-19/instrumentação , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética de Flúor-19/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação
12.
Hum Mov Sci ; 95: 103223, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692198

RESUMO

Older adults have a decreased trunk movement control which is linked to their higher fall risk. While motor/cognitive dual-tasking deteriorates balance and walking in older adults, there is limited understanding on how trunk kinematics and kinetics are affected by dual-tasking in scenarios where falls can occur. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the impacts of a challenging motor dual-task, specifically obstacle avoidance during walking, on trunk and lower-body kinematics and kinetics of older adults compared to young adults. The study captured three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data from 12 young adults and 10 older adults as they walked on a treadmill and stepped over an obstacle with both legs. The study analyzed trunk, hip, knee, and ankle angles and torques. Trunk torque was further broken down to trunk muscle torque, gravitational torque, and inertia torque. A linear mixed effects model was used to investigate the difference in each variable between the two groups. Older adults exhibited significantly increased trunk flexion angle and trunk extension muscle torque compared to young adults, with the trunk being the only segment/joint showing differences in both kinematics and kinetics. Trunk torque breakdown analysis revealed that larger trunk flexion led to a larger gravitational torque, which contributed to an increased compensatory trunk muscle torque. Moreover, older adults' less controlled trunk flexion during weight shifting from trail leg to the lead leg, necessitated a compensatory trunk deceleration during trail leg obstacle avoidance which was achieved by generating additional increase in trunk muscle torque. The study demonstrated that motor dual-tasking has the most negative effects on trunk control in older adults compared to young adults. This exposes older adults to a higher fall risk. Therefore, future work should focus on supporting trunk control during daily multi-tasking conditions where falls can occur.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Postural , Tronco , Caminhada , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Tronco/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Torque , Acidentes por Quedas , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia
13.
Med Probl Perform Art ; 39(2): 64-71, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ballet dancers are expected to use their bodies symmetrically during training, because dance movements are performed on both sides. However, there is a general belief that ballet training encourages the use of one side of the body more than the other. Frequent repetition of a particular exercise can lead to body asymmetries and musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the presence of lower limbs and trunk muscle strength asymmetries in ballet dancers and secondly to assess whether there is a difference between professional dancers and ballet students. METHODS: Ballet students (n=19) and professional ballet dancers (n=23) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the trunk (flexion, extension, lateral flexion), hip (flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, external and internal rotation), knee (flexion, extension) and ankle (flexion, extension) on isometric dynamometer. RESULTS: The results showed that the percentage of ballet dancers with contralateral muscle strength asymmetries >10% ranged from 22.5% (ballet students) to 31.6% (professional dancers). The percentage of ballet dancers deviating by >10% from the normative maximum torque agonist/antagonist ratio ranged from 56.5% to 100%. A statistically significant difference between ballet students and professional ballet dancers was found in the trunk flexion/extension ratio (t(40) = -3 .55; p = 0.001; d = 0.55). CONCLUSION: This study revealed strength asymmetries in the lower limbs and trunk in ballet dancers, both professionals and students. Further research is needed to develop appropriate complementary exercise to address and eliminate asymmetries in muscle strength in ballet dancers.


Assuntos
Dança , Contração Isométrica , Extremidade Inferior , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Humanos , Dança/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
14.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 150-154, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vojta method improves motor function by inducing a response by pressing the stimulus zones. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of the stimulus zones on trunk muscle thickness, trunk control, trunk angle, and gross motor function in children with spastic-type cerebral palsy. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted with 19 children with spastic-type cerebral palsy divided into two groups: Vojta method group (n = 10) and general physical therapy group (n = 9). Each group underwent a 6-week intervention, and assessments were conducted to evaluate abdominal muscle thickness, trunk control, trunk angle, and gross motor function. RESULTS: In the Vojta method group, the change rate in the thickness of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis increased significantly within the group (P < 0.05) and the difference (post-pre) of the transversus abdominis was higher (P < 0.05). The trunk angle increased significantly within the group when thoracic 7 and 11, lumbar 3, and sacrum 1 were supported (P < 0.05). There was a significant difference in trunk angle difference (post-pre) between groups when thoracic 11 and sacrum 1 were supported (P < 0.05). Segmental assessment of trunk control and gross motor function measure-88 scores were significantly increased within the group in all groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The stimulus zones of the Vojta method could improve trunk control in children with spastic-type cerebral palsy through intra-abdominal pressure and anti-gravity movement.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais , Paralisia Cerebral , Tronco , Humanos , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Projetos Piloto , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Músculos Abdominais/fisiopatologia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
15.
Radiat Oncol ; 19(1): 56, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncologic surgical resection is the standard of care for extremity and truncal soft tissue sarcoma (STS), often accompanied by the addition of pre- or postoperative radiation therapy (RT). Preoperative RT may decrease the risk of joint stiffness and fibrosis at the cost of higher rates of wound complications. Hypofractionated, preoperative RT has been shown to provide acceptable outcomes in prospective trials. Proton beam therapy (PBT) provides the means to decrease dose to surrounding organs at risk, such as the skin, bone, soft tissues, and adjacent joint(s), and has not yet been studied in patients with extremity and truncal sarcoma. METHODS: Our study titled "PROspective phase II trial of preoperative hypofractionated protoN therapy for extremity and Truncal soft tissue sarcOma (PRONTO)" is a non-randomized, prospective phase II trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of preoperative, hypofractionated PBT for patients with STS of the extremity and trunk planned for surgical resection. Adult patients with Eastern Cooperative Group Performance Status ≤ 2 with resectable extremity and truncal STS will be included, with the aim to accrue 40 patients. Treatment will consist of 30 Gy radiobiological equivalent of PBT in 5 fractions delivered every other day, followed by surgical resection 2-12 weeks later. The primary outcome is rate of major wound complications as defined according to the National Cancer Institute of Canada Sarcoma2 (NCIC-SR2) Multicenter Trial. Secondary objectives include rate of late grade ≥ 2 toxicity, local recurrence-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival at 1- and 2-years, functional outcomes, quality of life, and pathologic response. DISCUSSION: PRONTO represents the first trial evaluating the use of hypofractionated PBT for STS. We aim to prove the safety and efficacy of this approach and to compare our results to historical outcomes established by previous trials. Given the low number of proton centers and limited availability, the short course of PBT may provide the opportunity to treat patients who would otherwise be limited when treating with daily RT over several weeks. We hope that this trial will lead to increased referral patterns, offer benefits towards patient convenience and clinic workflow efficiency, and provide evidence supporting the use of PBT in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05917301 (registered 23/6/2023).


Assuntos
Extremidades , Terapia com Prótons , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Sarcoma , Humanos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Sarcoma/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Tronco
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301529, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743734

RESUMO

African elephants have a wide range of abilities using their trunk. As a muscular hydrostat, and thanks to the two finger-like processes at its tip, this proboscis can both precisely grasp and exert considerable force by wrapping. Yet few studies have attempted to quantify its distal grasping force. Thus, using a device equipped with force sensors and an automatic reward system, the trunk tip pinch force has been quantified in five captive female African savanna elephants. Results showed that the maximum pinch force of the trunk was 86.4 N, which may suggest that this part of the trunk is mainly dedicated to precision grasping. We also highlighted for the first time a difference in force between the two fingers of the trunk, with the dorsal finger predominantly stronger than the ventral finger. Finally, we showed that the position of the trunk, particularly the torsion, influences its force and distribution between the two trunk fingers. All these results are discussed in the light of the trunk's anatomy, and open up new avenues for evolutionary reflection and soft robot grippers.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Animais , Elefantes/fisiologia , Feminino , Tronco/fisiologia , Tronco/anatomia & histologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
17.
Percept Mot Skills ; 131(3): 687-706, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657202

RESUMO

Our purpose in this study was to determine the effects of a virtual reality intervention delivering specific motivational motor learning manipulations of either autonomy support (AS) or enhanced expectancies (EE) on frontal plane single-leg squatting kinematics. We allocated 45 participants (21 male, 24 female) demonstrating knee, hip, and trunk frontal plane mechanics associated with elevated anterior cruciate ligament injury risk to one of three groups (control, AS, or EE). Participants mimicked an avatar performing five sets of eight repetitions of exemplary single-leg squats. AS participants were given the added option of choosing the color of their avatar. EE participants received real-time biofeedback in the form of green highlights on the avatar that remained on as long as the participant maintained pre-determined 'safe' frontal plane mechanics. We measured peak frontal plane knee, hip, and trunk angles before (baseline) and immediately following (post) the intervention. The control group demonstrated greater increases in knee abduction angle (Δ = +2.3°) than did the AS (Δ = +0.1°) and EE groups (Δ = -0.4°) (p = .003; η2p = .28). All groups demonstrated increased peak hip adduction (p = .01, ηp2 = .18) (control Δ = +1.5°; AS Δ = +3.2°; EE Δ = +0.7°). Hip adduction worsened in all groups. AS and EE motivation strategies appeared to mitigate maladaptive frontal plane knee mechanics.


Assuntos
Motivação , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Motivação/fisiologia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiopatologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos
18.
PeerJ ; 12: e17188, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650644

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effects of different magnification systems on the angular deviations of the neck and trunk and the muscle activities of the upper back and neck during preclinical cavity preparation. Methods: This was an experimental laboratory study, with the angular deviations from the neutral positions of the neck and trunk and the activities of the bilateral upper back (the descending and ascending trapezius) and neck (sternocleidomastoid) muscles as the dependent variables. The independent variables were the different magnification systems used (Simple, Galilean, and Keplerian loupes, with direct vision as the control) and prepared teeth (teeth 16, 26, 36, and 46). A dental mannequin phantom head with artificial resin teeth was used, and Class I cavity preparations for composite resin were performed on teeth 16, 26, 36, and 46 using a 1012 round diamond bur at low speed. To analyze the angular deviations, the postures adopted during the procedure were recorded using a tripod-mounted camera positioned to provide a lateral view of the operator. A trained researcher measured the angular deviations using the software entitled "Software for Postural Assessment"-SAPO (version 0.69). Bilateral muscle activity was assessed using surface electromyography. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and after verifying the assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity, two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey and Games-Howell post-hoc tests were used to compare the data (α=0.05). Results: The angular deviation from the neutral position of the neck was found to be significantly higher during cavity preparations performed with the naked eye and the Simple loupe, irrespective of the prepared tooth. With regard to tooth location, the angular deviation of the neck was significantly greater during cavity preparation on teeth 16 and 26, and the angular deviation of the trunk was significantly greater during cavity preparation on tooth 26, regardless of the magnification system used. There were significant differences in right sternocleidomastoid muscle activity between the Simple, Galilean, and Keplerian loupes, with activity being the lowest for the Galilean loupe (p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in left sternocleidomastoid muscle activity between the loupes, regardless of the prepared tooth (p = 0.077). The activities of the bilateral descending trapezius and the right ascending trapezius muscles were significantly lower when the Galilean loupe was used (p < 0.010). Conclusion: These results suggest that the Galilean loupe resulted in lower muscle activity in the neck and back regions and that the Galilean and Keplerian loupes resulted in less angular deviations of the neck and trunk during cavity preparation.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia , Manequins , Músculos do Pescoço , Humanos , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Pescoço , Tronco/fisiologia , Masculino
19.
Neurol Res ; 46(7): 605-612, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591732

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the TRE in three directions including forward flexion, lateral flexion to the hemiparetic side, and rotation to the hemiparetic side in patients with stroke and to compare the errors with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. In addition, it was investigated which functional outcomes were explanatory for TRE in patients with stroke. METHODS: Forty-one patients with subacute/chronic stroke (age 59 ± 14.5 years) and 41 healthy subjects (age 57 ± 12.8 years) were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected. TREs were measured using an inclinometer. The Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Timed Up and Go Test, and 10-m walk test (10MWT) were also used to assess trunk control, motor impairment, upper extremity function, and lower extremity function, respectively, in patients with stroke. RESULTS: TRE scores in three directions were higher in patients with stroke than in healthy subjects (p < 0.001). TREs in three directions were significantly strongly correlated with all functional outcomes (ρ > 0.60, r < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis determined 10MWT, WMFT-Performance, TIS, and FMA-Upper Extremity as explanatory factors for TRE. CONCLUSION: The model presented in this study could help clinicians and researchers to predict the TRE in patients with stroke. Gait speed, upper extremity motor ability, upper extremity motor impairment, and trunk control should be considered for TRE after a stroke.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tronco , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Adulto , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos
20.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 25(4): 631-639, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578254

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Large passenger vehicles have consistently demonstrated an outsized injury risk to pedestrians they strike, particularly those with tall, blunt front ends. However, the specific injuries suffered by pedestrians in these crashes as well as the mechanics of those injuries remain unclear. The current study was conducted to explore how a variety of vehicle measurements affect pedestrian injury outcomes using crash reconstruction and detailed injury attribution. METHODS: We analyzed 121 pedestrian crashes together with a set of vehicle measurements for each crash: hood leading edge height, bumper lead angle, hood length, hood angle, and windshield angle. RESULTS: Consistent with past research, having a higher hood leading edge height increased pedestrian injury severity, especially among vehicles with blunt front ends. The poor crash outcomes associated with these vehicles stem from greater injury risk and severity to the torso and hip from these vehicles' front ends and a tendency for them to throw pedestrians forward after impact. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of vehicle height and a steep bumper lead angle may explain the elevated pedestrian crash severity typically observed among large vehicles.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Caminhada/lesões , Tronco , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
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