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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2807: 209-227, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743231

RESUMO

The post-transcriptional processing and chemical modification of HIV RNA are understudied aspects of HIV virology, primarily due to the limited ability to accurately map and quantify RNA modifications. Modification-specific antibodies or modification-sensitive endonucleases coupled with short-read RNA sequencing technologies have allowed for low-resolution or limited mapping of important regulatory modifications of HIV RNA such as N6-methyladenosine (m6A). However, a high-resolution map of where these sites occur on HIV transcripts is needed for detailed mechanistic understanding. This has recently become possible with new sequencing technologies. Here, we describe the direct RNA sequencing of HIV transcripts using an Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencer and the use of this technique to map m6A at near single nucleotide resolution. This technology also provides the ability to identify splice variants with long RNA reads and thus, can provide high-resolution RNA modification maps that distinguish between overlapping splice variants. The protocols outlined here for m6A also provide a powerful paradigm for studying any other RNA modifications that can be detected on the nanopore platform.


Assuntos
Adenosina , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Viral , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , RNA Viral/genética , Metilação , Humanos , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , HIV-1/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV/genética
2.
J Immunol Res ; 2024: 6343757, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715844

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the influence of coinfection with HCV and HIV on hepatic fibrosis. A coculture system was set up to actively replicate both viruses, incorporating CD4 T lymphocytes (Jurkat), hepatic stellate cells (LX-2), and hepatocytes (Huh7.5). LX-2 cells' susceptibility to HIV infection was assessed through measurements of HIV receptor expression, exposure to cell-free virus, and cell-to-cell contact with HIV-infected Jurkat cells. The study evaluated profibrotic parameters, including programed cell death, ROS imbalance, cytokines (IL-6, TGF-ß, and TNF-α), and extracellular matrix components (collagen, α-SMA, and MMP-9). The impact of HCV infection on LX-2/HIV-Jurkat was examined using soluble factors released from HCV-infected hepatocytes. Despite LX-2 cells being nonsusceptible to direct HIV infection, bystander effects were observed, leading to increased oxidative stress and dysregulated profibrotic cytokine release. Coculture with HIV-infected Jurkat cells intensified hepatic fibrosis, redox imbalance, expression of profibrotic cytokines, and extracellular matrix production. Conversely, HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells exhibited elevated profibrotic gene transcriptions but without measurable effects on the LX-2/HIV-Jurkat coculture. This study highlights how HIV-infected lymphocytes worsen hepatic fibrosis during HCV/HIV coinfection. They increase oxidative stress, profibrotic cytokine levels, and extracellular matrix production in hepatic stellate cells through direct contact and soluble factors. These insights offer valuable potential therapies for coinfected individuals.


Assuntos
Efeito Espectador , Técnicas de Cocultura , Coinfecção , Citocinas , Infecções por HIV , Hepacivirus , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Hepatite C , Cirrose Hepática , Humanos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/imunologia , Células Jurkat , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/virologia , HIV/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Comunicação Celular , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8473, 2024 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605149

RESUMO

Nearly half of the deaths among hospitalized human immuno deficiency virus-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era have been attributed to liver disease. This may range from an asymptomatic mild increase of liver enzymes to cirrhosis and liver failure. Different works of literature elucidated both retroviral infection and the adverse effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy as a cause of hepatotoxicity. Individual adaptations to medications and environmental exposures, shaped by cultural norms and genetic predispositions, could potentially modulate the risk and progression of liver disease in this population. Therefore, this study aims to assess the predictors of severe hepatotoxicity in retroviral-infected adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens within the Ilubabor Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adult retroviral-infected patients in five selected anti-retro virus therapy clinics from May1 to July 30/2022. A systematic sampling technique was used to select 457 study participants and Binary logistic regression statistical data analysis was used, P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of severe hepatotoxicity was 21.44% in the study population. CD+4 count < 200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.04-5.22, P = 0.01), human immunodeficiency virus co-infection with tuberculosis (AOR = 2.82, 95% CI 1.01-8.29, P = 0.03) and human immuno deficiency virus co-infection with hepatitis-B/hepatitis C virus (AOR = 5.02, 95% CI 1.82-16.41) were predictors of severe hepatotoxicity. The magnitude of severe hepatotoxicity was high among adult retroviral-infected patients on highly active anti-retroviral drug regimens. Co-infection of human immuno deficiency virus with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, tuberculosis and CD4+T-cell count below 200 cells/mm3 were predictors of severe hepatotoxicity. Therefore, HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy require close attention and regular monitoring of their liver function.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Coinfecção , Doenças do Sistema Digestório , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Hepatopatias , Tuberculose , Adulto , Humanos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , HIV , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Hepacivirus , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4
4.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 42(2): 369-389, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641395

RESUMO

Emergency departments (ED) provide care to populations with high rates of communicable diseases, like HIV, hepatitis C virus, and syphilis. For many patients, the ED is their sole entry point into the healthcare system and they do not routinely access screening and prevention services elsewhere. As such, the ED can serve an important public health role through communicable disease identification, treatment, and prevention. In this article, we examine national recommendations, peer-reviewed literature, and expert consensus to provide cutting edge strategies for implementing communicable infectious disease screening and prevention programs into routine ED care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sífilis , Humanos , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/prevenção & controle
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1335693, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628844

RESUMO

Introduction: We aimed to investigate the overlapping epidemiologies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis in sexual networks of men who have sex with men (MSM), and to explore to what extent the epidemiology of one sexually transmitted infection (STI) relates to or differs from that of another STI. Methods: An individual-based Monte Carlo simulation model was employed to simulate the concurrent transmission of STIs within diverse sexual networks of MSM. The model simulated sexual partnering, birth, death, and STI transmission within each specific sexual network. The model parameters were chosen based on the current knowledge and understanding of the natural history, transmission, and epidemiology of each considered STI. Associations were measured using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (SRCC) and maximal information coefficient (MIC). Results: A total of 500 sexual networks were simulated by varying the mean and variance of the number of partners for both short-term and all partnerships, degree correlation, and clustering coefficient. HSV-2 had the highest current infection prevalence across the simulations, followed by HIV, chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea. Threshold and saturation effects emerged in the relationship between STIs across the simulated networks, and all STIs demonstrated moderate to strong associations. The strongest current infection prevalence association was between HIV and gonorrhea, with an SRCC of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.80-0.87) and an MIC of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74-0.88). The weakest association was between HSV-2 and syphilis, with an SRCC of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.48-0.59) and an MIC of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.49-0.65). Gonorrhea exhibited the strongest associations with the other STIs while syphilis had the weakest associations. Across the simulated networks, proportions of the population with zero, one, two, three, four, and five concurrent STI infections were 48.6, 37.7, 11.1, 2.4, 0.3, and < 0.1%, respectively. For lifetime exposure to these infections, these proportions were 13.6, 21.0, 22.9, 24.3, 13.4, and 4.8%, respectively. Conclusion: STI epidemiologies demonstrate substantial overlap and associations, alongside nuanced differences that shape a unique pattern for each STI. Gonorrhea exhibits an "intermediate STI epidemiology," reflected by the highest average correlation coefficient with other STIs.


Assuntos
Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Masculino , Humanos , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Homossexualidade Masculina , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
6.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 36(2): 1-5, Abr. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-231795

RESUMO

Objetivos. La prevalencia del uso de drogas de abuso es difícil de establecer en mujeres, debido a los estigmas asociados a ello. El objetivo principal fue analizar las posibles diferencias de las intoxicaciones agudas (IA) según el sexo en una muestra de pacientes atendidos en dos servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH). El objetivo secundario fue identificar las variables asociadas a las intoxicaciones graves, definidas de forma arbitraria como las que requerían una atención intensiva médica de más de 12 horas y posterior ingreso hospitalario. Métodos. Estudio retrospectivo en dos SUH que incluyeron pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos por IA por drogas de abuso, en el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de julio 2020 y el 31 de julio 2023. Se recogieron variables epidemiológicas, clínicas y de laboratorio. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1.032 pacientes, un 18,5% (191) mujeres. La edad media fue de 35 (DE 10) años, con elevada prevalencia de enfermedad mental aguda (32,2%) e infección por VIH (35,7%). El principal motivo de consumo fue lúdico (90,9%). Las principales drogas de abuso fueron cocaína, alcohol y metanfetaminas. El análisis multivariado mostró que únicamente la edad (OR: 1,03, IC 95%: 1,01-1,05, p = 0,003), el VIH (OR: 2,10, IC 95%: 1,29-3,41, p = 0,003), el consumo de benzodiacepinas (OR: 3,48, IC 95%: 2,14-5,66, p < 0,0001), y la ideación autolítica (OR: 1,82, IC 95%: 1,25-3,79, p = 0,004), se asociaron a gravedad de la intoxicación. Conclusiones. Las IA por drogas de abuso en mujeres presentan algunas diferencias en relación a las de los hombres, ya que son más jóvenes y asocian consumo de alcohol con mayor frecuencia. Las campañas de prevención y políticas sanitarias sobre el uso de sustancias deberían tener en cuenta las diferencias en el consumo según el sexo para adaptarlas a la población a las que vayan dirigidas. (AU)


Background. The prevalence of street drug abuse is difficult to establish in women because of stigma associated withthe practice. The main objective of this study was to analyze possible differences between men and women in a sample of patients attended for emergencies due to acute poisonings. The secondary aim was to identify variables associated with severe poisonings defined arbitrarily as requiring intensive care for more than 12 hours after hospital admission. Methods. Retrospective study in 2 hospital EDs. We included patients over the age of 18 years attended for street drug poisonings between July 1, 2020, and July 31, 2023. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory variables were analyzed. Results. A total of 1032 patients were studied; 191 (18.5%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 35 years, and the prevalences of acute mental illness and HIV infection were high at 32.2% and 35.7%, respectively. Drug use was recreational in most cases (90.9%). Cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamines were the substances most often used. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with the seriousness of poisoning were age, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.03 (95% CI, 1.01-1.05; P = .003); HIV (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.29-3.41; P = .003); use of benzodiazepines (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.14-5.66; P < .0001); and suicidal ideations (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.25-3.79; P = .004). Conclusions. Differences in poisoning characteristics in women were found, probably related to the younger ages of men in the sample and their higher frequency of alcohol consumption. Public health policies and campaigns to prevent drug abuse should take gender differences into consideration in order to adapt messages to the target populations. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Intoxicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Transtornos Mentais , HIV , Cocaína , Etanol , Metanfetamina , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 60(4): 200-206, abr.2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232041

RESUMO

Background: HIV can infect bronchial epithelial cells rendering individuals susceptible to lung damage. Our objective was to determine the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on pulmonary function tests. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis after conducting a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Virtual Health Library databases from inception to December 31st, 2022. We employed the inverse variance method with a random effects model to calculate the effect estimate as the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We calculated the heterogeneity with the I2 statistic and performed a meta-regression analysis by age, sex, smoking, CD4 T-cells count and antiretroviral therapy. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis according to the studies’ publication date, and excluding the study with the greatest weight in the effect. The PROSPERO registry number was CRD42023401105. Results: The meta-analysis included 20 studies, with 7621 living with HIV and 7410 control participants. The pooled MD (95%CI) for the predicted percentage of FEV1, FVC and DLCO were −3.12 (−5.17, −1.06); p=0.003, −1.51 (−3.04, 0.02); p=0.05, and −5.26 (−6.64, −3.87); p<0.001, respectively. The pooled MD for FEV1/FVC was −0.01 (−0.02, −0.01); p=0.002. In all cases, there was a considerable heterogeneity. The meta-regression analysis showed that among studies heterogeneity was not explained by patient age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count or antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Pulmonary function tests are impaired in people living with HIV, independently of age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count, and geographical region. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , HIV , Células Epiteliais Alveolares , Brônquios , Pulmão , Heterogeneidade Genética , Tabagismo , Contagem de Células
8.
J Int Med Res ; 52(4): 3000605241245011, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606735

RESUMO

Non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers (NADCs) are malignancies in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) and are not primarily due to the host's immunodeficiency. There is renewed clinical interest in long-term morbidities in PLWHIV as well as malignancies that occur in this population. We herein describe a 36-year-old woman with a 2-year history of an anal wound and right breast mass. She had been diagnosed with HIV infection prior to the development of these lesions. Clinical and laboratory evaluations led to diagnoses of breast and anal cancers. Chemotherapy and antiretroviral therapy were begun, but the patient discontinued these treatments early and was lost to follow-up. NADCs will continue to be a major clinical issue as the global population ages. This presentation of two NADCs (breast and anal cancers) in a PLWHIV further highlights the burden of multiple malignancies on the depleted health of HIV-infected patients. Early identification and treatment of HIV upon patients' presentation to cancer care sites and screening for NADCs at HIV/AIDS care sites are recommended for improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Neoplasias do Ânus , Carcinoma , Infecções por HIV , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , HIV , Neoplasias do Ânus/complicações , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 396, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) co-morbidity continues to be a serious worldwide health issue, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies on the quality of life (QOL) of TB/HIV co-infected patients guide stakeholders on the delivery of patient-centred healthcare. This study evaluated QOL of TB/HIV co-infected individuals and its contributing factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among TB/HIV co-infected patients, receiving treatment at clinics in the Northern Region of Ghana. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 213 patients from 32 clinics. We gathered information on patients' QOL using the World Health Organization QOL-HIV BREF assessment tool. At a 5% level of significance, multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out to find correlates of QOL among the patients. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was (38.99 ± 14.00) years with most, 33.3% (71/213) aged 30-39 years. Males constituted 54.9% (117/213). About 30.0% (64/213) of the patients reported a good QOL. Being employed (aOR = 5.23, 95% CI: 1.87 - 14.60), and adhering to treatment (aOR = 6.36, 95% CI: 1.51 - 26.65) were significantly associated with a good QOL. Being depressed (aOR = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.29), stigmatized (aOR = 0.31, 95% CI : 0.11 - 0.84), and not exercising (aOR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.12 - 0.67) were negatively associated with a good QOL. CONCLUSION: Less than one-third of TB/HIV co-infected patients in the region have good QOL. To guarantee good QOL, modifiable predictors such as patients' physical activity and medication adherence should be targeted by the National AIDS and TB Control Programs.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , HIV , Qualidade de Vida , Gana/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 544-548, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591294

RESUMO

In the past two decades, Pakistan has faced multiple human immunodeficiency virus outbreaks, with Larkana appearing to be the hub of such outbreaks. While the previous Larkana outbreaks happened in high-risk populations, the alarming outbreak in 2019 occurred in a low-risk paediatric population, raising several concerning questions. Human immunodeficiency virus infections spilling into the general population is indicative of a steady increase in the number of cases, and the failure of control strategies to stem the concentrated epidemic from evolving. Although several causative factors have been identified from previous outbreaks, the one that occurred in 2019 may have been influenced by an additional, hitherto unexplored factor; child sexual abuse. The current narrative review was planned to summarise human immunodeficiency virus risk factors and causes identified in previous Larkana epidemics, to explore potential reasons for the outbreaks in children, and to discuss possible steps needed for stemming human immunodeficiency virus outbreaks in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV , Criança , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301887, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts to eliminate mother-to-child-transmission of HIV (MTCT), many children continue to become infected. We determined the prevalence of HIV among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and that of their mothers, at admission to Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit, Mulago Hospital, Uganda. We also assessed child factors associated with HIV-infection, and explored factors leading to HIV-infection among a subset of the mother-child dyads that tested positive. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation within the REDMOTHIV (Reduce mortality in HIV) clinical trial that investigated strategies to reduce mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children admitted with SAM at the Nutrition Unit. From June 2021 to December 2022, we consecutively tested children aged 1 month to 5 years with SAM for HIV, and the mothers who were available, using rapid antibody testing upon admission to the unit. HIV-antibody positive children under 18 months of age had a confirmatory HIV-DNA PCR test done. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with mothers of HIV positive dyads, to explore the individual, relationship, social and structural factors associated with MTCT, until data saturation. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression in STATAv14, while a content thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data. RESULTS: Of 797 children tested, 463(58.1%) were male and 630(79.1%) were ≤18months of age; 76 (9.5%) tested positive. Of 709 mothers, median (IQR) age 26 (22, 30) years, 188(26.5%) were HIV positive. Sixty six of the 188 mother-infant pairs with HIV exposure tested positive for HIV, an MTCT rate of 35.1% (66/188). Child age >18 months was marginally associated with HIV-infection (crude OR = 1.87,95% CI: 1.11-3.12, p-value = 0.02; adjusted OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 0.96, 3.09, p-value = 0.068). The IDIs from 16 mothers revealed associated factors with HIV transmission at multiple levels. Individual level factors: inadequate information regarding prevention of MTCT(PMTCT), limited perception of HIV risk, and fear of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Relationship level factors: lack of family support and unfaithfulness (infidelity) among sexual partners. Health facility level factors: negative attitude of health workers and missed opportunities for HIV testing. Community level factors: poverty and health service disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: In this era of universal antiretroviral therapy for PMTCT, a 10% HIV prevalence among severely malnourished children is substantially high. To eliminate vertical HIV transmission, more efforts are needed to address challenges mothers living with HIV face intrinsically and within their families, communities and at health facilities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Desnutrição Aguda Grave , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , HIV , Mães , Uganda/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Pandemias , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia
12.
Indian J Tuberc ; 71(2): 147-152, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modelling studies have indicated that approximately 20% of all tuberculosis (TB) cases may suffer from diabetes mellitus (DM). DM increases the risk of developing active TB disease by 2-3 times. People living with HIV (PLHIV) are more likely to develop TB disease, and TB is a leading cause of hospitalization and death among PLHIV. Despite the substantial burden of DM and HIV in India, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of DM and HIV among active cases of TB, and its impact on the treatment outcome for TB. This study evaluated the burden of HIV and DM in TB cases from Odisha during 2019, and its impact on the TB treatment outcome. METHODS: The study utilized data on TB patients of Odisha during 2019, from the NIKSHAY portal, the health management information system (HMIS) of TB in India. This is a retrospective observational registry-based cohort study, which evaluated a linkage between socio-demographic predictors, clinical diagnostic and treatment predictors, time of treatment predictors, and co-morbidity with TB. Data were retrieved electronically in Microsoft-Excel and analysis was done using STATA 16 (StataCorp. 2019, College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC). RESULTS: Data for 47,831 TB cases of Odisha as study population was extracted from the Nikshay application for the year 2019. The highest prevalence (31.1%, 14,863/47,831) of TB was observed among young participants aged 15-30 years, whereas the prevalence was least among children <14 years (4.4%, 2124/47,831). Males had a higher prevalence of TB (66.7%, 31,878/47,831). Of the 47,831 TB cases included in the study, 7.6% (3659/47,831) had diabetes mellitus (DM), along with TB. 1.2% (571/47,831) had HIV along with TB, while only 0.08% (37/47,831) had both DM and HIV along with TB. 88.2% (3148/3569) of cases with DM and TB had a favorable outcome, compared to 82.3% (449/541) of cases with HIV and TB. People with TB who did not have DM had a significantly higher favorable outcome (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5-1.8) compared to those with TB and DM. Similarly, TB cases who did not have HIV infection had a significantly higher favorable outcome (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0) compared to those with TB and HIV. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that presence of DM and/or HIV in TB patients had an impact on the TB treatment outcome. There is a crucial need to prevent comorbidities such as DM and HIV from occurring and to prioritize early diagnosis and management of these conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8296, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594292

RESUMO

Late presentation to medical care of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is linked to poor outcomes and increased morbidity and mortality. Missed opportunities for a prompt diagnosis are frequently reported among late presenters. We aimed to estimate the proportion of late presenters and missed opportunities in diagnosis among newly diagnosed HIV-positive subjects presenting to a specialty clinic in Lebanon. This is a retrospective chart review of all newly diagnosed adult HIV-positive subjects presenting to clinic from 2012 to 2022. Demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were collected at initial HIV diagnosis or presentation to medical care. We defined late presentation as having a CD4 count < 350 or AIDS-defining event regardless of CD4 count. Advanced disease is defined as having a CD4 count below 200 cells/µL or the presence of an AIDS-defining illness, regardless of the CD4 count. A missed opportunity was defined as the presence of an indicator condition (IC) that suggests infection with HIV/AIDS during 3 years preceding the actual HIV diagnosis and not followed by a recommendation for HIV testing. The proportions for demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics are calculated by excluding cases with missing information from the denominator. Our cohort included 150 subjects (92.7% males; 63.6% men who have sex with men (MSM); 33.3% heterosexuals; median age 30.5 years at diagnosis). 77 (51.3%) were late presenters and 53 (35.3% of all subjects, 68.8% of late presenters) had advanced HIV on presentation. Up to 76.5% of late presenters had a presentation with an HIV-related condition at a healthcare provider without getting HIV test within the previous 3 years. The most frequent ICs were weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy, constitutional symptoms, and chronic idiopathic diarrhea. Overall mortality rate was 4% (6/150 individuals). All-cause mortality among those who presented with AIDS was 15.4% (6/39 subjects). In our setting, late presentations and missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis are common. In the Middle East, AIDS mortality remains high with a large gap in HIV testing. To effectively influence policies, comprehensive analyses should focus on estimating the preventable health and financial burdens of late HIV presentations. Another concern pertains to healthcare providers' attitudes and competencies.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , HIV , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Líbano/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Contagem de Linfócito CD4
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(Suppl 1): 979, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can use either oral-fluid or blood-based tests. Studies have shown strong preferences for self-testing compared to facility-based services. Despite availability of low-cost blood-based HIVST options, to date, HIVST implementation in sub-Saharan Africa has largely been oral-fluid-based. We investigated whether users preferred blood-based (i.e. using blood sample derived from a finger prick) or oral fluid-based HIVST in rural and urban Malawi. METHODS: At clinics providing HIV testing services (n = 2 urban; n = 2 rural), participants completed a semi-structured questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data before choosing to test using oral-fluid-based HVST, blood-based HIVST or provider-delivered testing. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire afterwards, followed by a confirmatory test using the national algorithm then appropriate referral. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with preference for oral-fluid or blood-based HIVST. RESULTS: July to October 2018, N = 691 participants enrolled in this study. Given the choice, 98.4% (680/691) selected HIVST over provider-delivered testing. Of 680 opting for HIVST, 416 (61.2%) chose oral-fluid-based HIVST, 264 (38.8%) chose blood-based HIVST and 99.1% (674/680) reported their results appropriately. Self-testers who opted for blood-based HIVST were more likely to be male (50.3% men vs. 29.6% women, p < 0.001), attending an urban facility (43% urban vs. 34.6% rural, p = 0.025) and regular salary-earners (49.5% regular vs. 36.8% non-regular, p = 0.012). After adjustment, only sex was found to be associated with choice of self-test (adjusted OR 0.43 (95%CI: 0.3-0.61); p-value < 0.001). Among 264 reporting blood-based HIVST results, 11 (4.2%) were HIV-positive. Blood-based HIVST had sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 71.5-100%) and specificity of 99.6% (95% CI: 97.6-100%), with 20 (7.6%) invalid results. Among 416 reporting oral-fluid-based HIVST results 18 (4.3%) were HIV-positive. Oral-fluid-based HIVST had sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI: 65.3-98.6%) and specificity of 98.7% (95% CI: 97.1-99.6%), with no invalid results. CONCLUSIONS: Offering both blood-based and oral-fluid-based HIVST resulted in high uptake when compared directly with provider-delivered testing. Both types of self-testing achieved high accuracy among users provided with a pre-test demonstration beforehand. Policymakers and donors need to adequately plan and budget for the sensitisation and support needed to optimise the introduction of new quality-assured blood-based HIVST products.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Autoteste , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , HIV , Estudos Transversais , Malaui , Autocuidado , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Teste de HIV , Inquéritos e Questionários , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 383, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been able to improve the immune system function and survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, Patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are more likely to develop end-stage liver disease (ESLD) than those infected with HBV alone. Consequently, liver transplantation is often required for these patients. This study evaluates the outcomes of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) of HIV-HBV coinfected patients in China. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on all HIV-HBV coinfected patients that underwent OLT from April 1, 2019 to December 31, 2021 and their outcomes were compared to all HBV monoinfected patients undergoing OLT during the same period. Patient outcomes were determined, including cumulative survival, viral load, CD4 T-cell count and postoperative complications. RESULTS: The median follow-up of HIV recipients was 36 months after OLT (interquartile range 12-39 months). Almost all patients had stable CD4 T-cell count (> 200 copies/ul), undetectable HBV DNA levels, and undetectable HIV RNA load during follow-up. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year posttransplant survival rates were 85.7% for the HIV group (unchanged from 1 to 3 years) versus 82.2%, 81.2%, and 78.8% for the non-HIV group. Cumulative survival among HIV-HBV coinfected recipients was not significantly different from the HBV monoinfected recipients (log-rank test P = 0.692). The percentage of deaths attributed to infection was comparable between the HIV and non-HIV groups (14.3% vs. 9.32%, P = 0.665). Post OLT, there was no significant difference in acute rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, bacteremia, pulmonary infection, acute kidney injury, de novo tumor and vascular and biliary complications. CONCLUSIONS: Liver transplantation in patients with HIV-HBV coinfection yields excellent outcomes in terms of intermediate- or long-term survival rate and low incidence of postoperative complications in China. These findings suggest that OLT is safe and feasible for HIV-HBV coinfected patients with ESLD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2300067631), registered 11 January 2023.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Doença Hepática Terminal , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 22(1): 45, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589894

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally, there are 37.7 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). So far, there is no study done in Gambia which assessed comprehensive HIV knowledge and its associated factors. Therefore, this study aims to assess comprehensive HIV knowledge and its associated factors among reproductive-age women in Gambia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of comprehensive HIV knowledge and its associated factors among reproductive-age women in Gambia. METHODS: The study used the Gambian Demographic and Health Survey, which was conducted from 21 November 2019 to 30 March 2020 in Gambia. The survey employed a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique to recruit study participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV comprehensive knowledge. Statistical significance was declared at a P value of less than 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of comprehensive HIV knowledge was 27.1% (25.1-36.2%). Older age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.20 (95% CI 1.16-1.26)], using contraceptive [AOR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.01-1.31)], higher education [AOR of 4.73 (95% CI 3.86-5.81)], rich wealth quintile [AOR of 1.61 (95% CI 1.37-1.87)], media exposure [AOR of 1.76 (95% CI 1.39-2.23)], ever tested for HIV [AOR of 1.55 (95% CI 1.42-1.74)], visited health facility within the last 12 months [AOR of 1.26 (95% CI 1.12-1.41)] and decision-making autonomy [AOR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.27-1.60)] were positively associated with comprehensive HIV knowledge. However, being married [AOR of 0.72 (95% CI 0.62-0.82)] was negatively associated with comprehensive HIV knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of comprehensive HIV knowledge was low in Gambia. Educational interventions that focused mainly on awareness creation about HIV/AIDS should be designed especially for married women and lower socio-economic status. An effort has to be made to address those disparities at the national level.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV , Humanos , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Casamento , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 23: 23259582241228743, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with human immune deficiency virus (PLHIV) grapple with distinct challenges, including HIV stigma which affects their antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence self-efficacy. This study investigates the interaction of HIV stigma and perceived social support on ART adherence self-efficacy among adult PLHIV in South Africa. METHODS: This study utilized a cross-sectional design that involved 201 participants selected using time location sampling at a tertiary health facility in Durban. RESULTS: HIV stigma was significantly and negatively associated with self-efficacy (ß = -7.860, t = -4.654, p = .001), with variations across different stigma levels (ß = -5.844, t = -4.003, p = .001). Social support was significantly and positively associated with self-efficacy at lower HIV stigma levels (ß = 7.440, t = 3.887, p = .001), in contrast to higher levels (ß = -2.825, t = 1.400, p = .163). CONCLUSION: Social support significantly influences ART adherence self-efficacy, particularly at lower levels of HIV stigma, but the effect of support weakens as stigma intensifies.


The relationship between perceived social support and antiretroviral therapy adherence self-efficacy among adult PLHIV in South Africa: The influence of HIV stigma.People living with HIV face unique challenges, such as HIV stigma, which impact their ability to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study examined how HIV stigma and perceived social support affect the ART adherence self-efficacy of adults living with HIV in South Africa. This survey involved 201 participants who were selected by using time location sampling at a health facility in Durban, South Africa. The study found that HIV stigma had a significant and negative impact on self-efficacy (ß = −7.860, t = −4.654, p = .001), with variations depending on the level of stigma (ß = −5.844, t = −4.003, p = .001). On the other hand, social support had a significant and positive impact on self-efficacy at lower levels of HIV stigma (ß = 7.440, t = 3.887, p = .001), but this effect weakened at higher levels of stigma (ß = −2.825, t = 1.400, p = .163). Social support plays an important role in influencing self-efficacy, especially when HIV stigma is lower. However, the significant impact of social support diminishes as HIV stigma becomes more intense.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Autoeficácia , Estigma Social , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Apoio Social , Adesão à Medicação
18.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581190

RESUMO

AIM: This matched case-control study aimed to provide epidemiologic evidence of increased burden of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function decline among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a history of heavy alcohol consumption. METHODS: Cases were participants with HIV (PWH; n = 75, 33%), and controls were participants without HIV (PWoH; n = 150, 67%). PWH were matched to PWoH by age and sex in the ratio of 1:2. Eligible participants responded to the respiratory health National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey questionnaire [prolonged coughs (≥3 months), bringing up of phlegm (≥3 months), and a history of wheezing or whistling in the chest (past year)]. The effects of both alcohol and HIV on participants' pulmonary function were determined using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: History of heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent among PWH (40%) compared to PWoH (27%). PWH who had a history of heavy alcohol consumption had a higher prevalence of coughing most days (45% vs. 4%, P = .0010), bringing up phlegm most days (31% vs. 0%, P = .0012), and wheezing or whistling in the chest (40% vs. 20%, P = .058) compared to participants who did not heavily consume alcohol. Furthermore, a history of heavy alcohol consumption was associated with decreased forced expiratory volume (ml) in 1 s/forced vital capacity among PWH (ß = - 0.098 95% C.I. -0.16, -0.04, P = .03) after adjusting for having smoked at least 100 cigarettes in life. CONCLUSION: A history of heavy alcohol use increased respiratory symptoms and suppressed pulmonary function among people living with HIV. This study provides epidemiological evidence of the respiratory symptom burden of people living with HIV who have a history of heavy alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Sons Respiratórios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7961, 2024 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575653

RESUMO

The economic impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) goes beyond individual levels and it has a significant influence on communities and nations worldwide. Studying the transmission patterns in HIV dynamics is crucial for understanding the tracking behavior and informing policymakers about the possible control of this viral infection. Various approaches have been adopted to explore how the virus interacts with the immune system. Models involving differential equations with delays have become prevalent across various scientific and technical domains over the past few decades. In this study, we present a novel mathematical model comprising a system of delay differential equations to describe the dynamics of intramural HIV infection. The model characterizes three distinct cell sub-populations and the HIV virus. By incorporating time delay between the viral entry into target cells and the subsequent production of new virions, our model provides a comprehensive understanding of the infection process. Our study focuses on investigating the stability of two crucial equilibrium states the infection-free and endemic equilibriums. To analyze the infection-free equilibrium, we utilize the LaSalle invariance principle. Further, we prove that if reproduction is less than unity, the disease free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable. To ensure numerical accuracy and preservation of essential properties from the continuous mathematical model, we use a spectral scheme having a higher-order accuracy. This scheme effectively captures the underlying dynamics and enables efficient numerical simulations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Número Básico de Reprodução , Simulação por Computador
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1364002, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38660490

RESUMO

The role of the oral microbiota in the overall health and in systemic diseases has gained more importance in the recent years, mainly due to the systemic effects that are mediated by the chronic inflammation caused by oral diseases, such as periodontitis, through the microbial communities of the mouth. The chronic infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts at the tissue level (e.g. gut, genital tract, brain) to create reservoirs; the modulation of the gut microbiota by HIV infection is a good example of these interactions. The purpose of the present review is to assess the state of knowledge on the oral microbiota (microbiome, mycobiome and virome) of HIV-infected patients in comparison to that of HIV-negative individuals and to discuss the reciprocal influence of HIV infection and oral microbiota in patients with periodontitis on the potential establishment of a viral gingival reservoir. The influence of different clinical and biological parameters are reviewed including age, immune and viral status, potent antiretroviral therapies, smoking, infection of the airway and viral coinfections, all factors that can modulate the oral microbiota during HIV infection. The analysis of the literature proposed in this review indicates that the comparisons of the available studies are difficult due to their great heterogeneity. However, some important findings emerge: (i) the oral microbiota is less influenced than that of the gut during HIV infection, although some recurrent changes in the microbiome are identified in many studies; (ii) severe immunosuppression is correlated with altered microbiota and potent antiretroviral therapies correct partially these modifications; (iii) periodontitis constitutes a major factor of dysbiosis, which is exacerbated in HIV-infected patients; its pathogenesis can be described as a reciprocal reinforcement of the two conditions, where the local dysbiosis present in the periodontal pocket leads to inflammation, bacterial translocation and destruction of the supporting tissues, which in turn enhances an inflammatory environment that perpetuates the periodontitis cycle. With the objective of curing viral reservoirs of HIV-infected patients in the future years, it appears important to develop further researches aimed at defining whether the inflamed gingiva can serve of viral reservoir in HIV-infected patients with periodontitis.


Assuntos
Gengiva , Infecções por HIV , Microbiota , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengiva/virologia , Boca/microbiologia , Boca/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/virologia , Viroma , Disbiose/microbiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , HIV
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