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1.
Epilepsy Behav ; 154: 109784, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare and characterize the safety profiles of new antiseizure medications (ASMs) using a nationwide pharmacovigilance database from a long-term perspective in Korea. METHODS: We reviewed adverse event reports from the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System database between January 2013 and December 2022 for descriptive analysis of six new ASMs (lacosamide, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, and zonisamide). We investigated the frequency and characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) based on the MedDRA terminology, system organ classes, and modified WHO classification. RESULTS: We identified 5,733 reported cases of ADRs. The commonly reported ADRs associated with total ASMs were rash/urticaria (1,822, 31.8 %), dizziness (409, 7.1 %), somnolence/drowsiness (311, 5.4 %), and hepatotoxic effects (273, 4.8 %). Type B (idiosyncratic) effects (2,932; 51.1 %) were more commonly reported than Type A (related to known drug mechanisms) effects (2,613; 45.6 %). Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders and type B effects were most commonly reported for lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine, whereas nervous system disorders and type A effects were most commonly reported for lacosamide, topiramate, and zonisamide. The pediatric group (<18 years) exhibited skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders and type B effects relatively more frequently than the adult and older adult groups. CONCLUSION: Hypersensitivity skin reactions and type B effects remained significant ADRs in the new ASMs; however, type A effects were more commonly reported in some ASMs. The pediatric group showed a higher rate of type B effects. Overall, new ASMs should also be used with caution.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Anticonvulsivantes , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacovigilância , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Criança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Lactente , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Topiramato/efeitos adversos , Oxcarbazepina/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Lacosamida/efeitos adversos , Zonisamida/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Levetiracetam/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico
2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 245, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarco-osteoporosis is a skeletal muscle disease associated with aging and complex pathological factors. At present, there are few studies on the analysis of its related factors, and a nomogram to estimate the risk of sarco-osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly patients is not available. METHODS: A total of 386 patients admitted to our hospital from October 2021 to October 2022 were collected, and the general demographic data and clinical data of the patients were collected.386 subjects were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into training set and validation set at a ratio of 7:3. In the training set, the Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator(LASSO)regression technique was used to select the optimal predictive features, and multivariate logistic regression was used to screen the factors associated with sarco-osteoporosis, and a nomogram was constructed using meaningful variables from multivariate analysis. The performance of the nomograms was assessed and validated by Area Under Curve (AUC) and calibration curves. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristic of individuals in training set and validation set, six variables with non-zero coefficients were screened based on LASSO regression in the training set. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the related factors for sarco-osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly inpatients included age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.03 ∼ 1.14), regular exercise (OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.15 ∼ 0.56), albumin (OR = 0.9, 95%CI 0.82 ∼ 0.98), height (OR = 0.93, 95%CI 0.88 ∼ 0.99) and lean mass index (OR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.52 ∼ 0.85), and a nomogram was constructed based on the above factors. AUC of nomogram were 0.868(95%CI 0.825 ∼ 0.912) in the training set and 0.737(95%CI 0.646 ∼ 0.828) in the validation set. Calibration curve analysis showed that the predicted probability of sarco-osteoporosis had high consistency with the actual probability, and the absolute error of the training set and verification set was 0.018 and 0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our research showed that the occurrence of sarco-osteoporosis was associated with age, regular exercise, albumin, height and lean mass index, and we have developed a nomogram that can be effectively used in the preliminary and in-depth risk prediction of sarco-osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Osteoporose , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envelhecimento , Albuminas , Nomogramas , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zonisamida
3.
Seizure ; 117: 198-201, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460459

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the risk of teratogenesis occurring in relation to intrauterine exposure to infrequently used antiseizure medications in Australia. METHODS: Analysis of data contained in the Raoul Wallenberg Australian Pregnancy Register of Antiepileptic Drugs. RESULTS: There was statistically significant evidence that zonisamide, but not any other of nine infrequently used antiseizure medications in Australia, was associated with a risk of teratogenesis related to the maternal dose of the drug taken in at least the earlier half of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The teratogenesis associated with zonisamide, like that associated with topiramate and possibly acetazolamide, may be an expression of a class effect shared among sulphonamide-derived carbonic anhydrase inhibitors that possess anti-seizure activity.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Zonisamida , Humanos , Zonisamida/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gravidez , Austrália , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4708, 2024 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409373

RESUMO

The progression of neuroinflammation after anti-parkinsonian therapy on the Parkinson's disease (PD) brain and in vivo evidence of the therapy purporting neuroprotection remain unclear. To elucidate this, we examined changes in microglial activation, nigrostriatal degeneration, and clinical symptoms longitudinally after dopamine replacement therapy in early, optimally-controlled PD patients with and without zonisamide treatment using positron emission tomography (PET). We enrolled sixteen PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2), and age-matched normal subjects. PD patients were randomly divided into two groups: one (zonisamide+) that did and one (zonisamide-) that did not undergo zonisamide therapy. Annual changes in neuroinflammation ([11C]DPA713 PET), dopamine transporter availability ([11C]CFT PET) and clinical severity were examined. Voxelwise differentiations in the binding of [11C]DPA713 (BPND) and [11C]CFT (SUVR) were compared with normal data and between the zonisamide+ and zonisamide- PD groups. The cerebral [11C]DPA713 BPND increased with time predominantly over the parieto-occipital region in PD patients. Comparison of the zonisamide+ group with the zonisamide- group showed lower levels in the cerebral [11C]DPA713 BPND in the zonisamide+ group. While the striatal [11C]CFT SUVR decreased longitudinally, the [11C]CFT SUVR in the nucleus accumbens showed a higher binding in the zonisamide+ group. A significant annual increase in attention score were found in the zonisamide+ group. The current results indicate neuroinflammation proceeds to the whole brain even after anti-parkinsonian therapy, but zonisamide coadministration might have the potential to ameliorate proinflammatory responses, exerting a neuroprotective effect in more damaged nigrostriatal regions with enhanced attention in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Zonisamida , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo
5.
Neurol Sci ; 45(4): 1725-1734, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zonisamide (ZNS) has shown some efficacy in motor symptoms of PD; however, more evidence is lacking, and its effects on nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) and quality of life (QoL) remain to be investigated. This randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study investigated the effect of ZNS on motor and NMS symptoms and QoL in advanced PD. METHODS: PD patients with Hoehn and Yahr stage ≥ 2 ("On" state) and at least 2 h off time daily were randomized to groups: ZNS 25 mg, ZNS 50 mg and placebo. Groups were assessed at baseline and at the 1- and 3-month follow-ups. The primary endpoint was the change in the total MDS-UPDRS III "On", while the secondary endpoint was the change in the total and parts I and IV MDS-UPDRS, Nonmotor Symptoms Scale and Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 at the final assessment. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were assessed for efficacy at the 1-month follow-up, and 58 patients were assessed at the 3-month follow-up. The primary endpoint showed significant improvement in the ZNS 25 mg group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.009). At the final assessment, the ZNS 25 mg group showed significant improvement of total and part VI MDS-UPDRS, bradykinesia, tremor and functional impact of fluctuations compared to placebo. There was no change in dyskinesia, NMSs, QoL or side effects except for sedation. CONCLUSION: ZNS has a favourable effect on motor symptoms in patients with wearing off as adjunctive therapy with other dopaminergic drugs, with no exacerbation of dyskinesia and a limited impact on NMSs and QoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04182399, in 24/11/2019.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Cross-Over , Tremor/complicações
6.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(2): e1374, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403976

RESUMO

The objective of this article is to describe a case of suspected zonisamide-induced immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) and anterior uveitis in a dog. A 7-year-old male neutered Siberian Husky with a history of refractory idiopathic epilepsy was presented for cluster seizures. Following the addition of zonisamide to the antiepileptic regime, the dog developed new IMPA and anterior uveitis. Within a few weeks of discontinuation of the zonisamide, the dog's IMPA and anterior uveitis resolved. These immune-mediated conditions were thus presumed to be an idiosyncratic reaction to zonisamide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IMPA and anterior uveitis in dogs associated with zonisamide administration at its recommended dose.


Assuntos
Artrite , Doenças do Cão , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Compostos Organofosforados , Uveíte Anterior , Masculino , Cães , Animais , Zonisamida/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/veterinária , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Artrite/induzido quimicamente , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite/veterinária , Uveíte Anterior/induzido quimicamente , Uveíte Anterior/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico
7.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 3, 2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a severe epilepsy disorder characterized by drug-resistant seizures and cognitive dysfunction, often caused by SCN1A gene mutations. It leads to neurodevelopmental delays and motor, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, with a high mortality rate. Treatment options include sodium valproate, clobazam, and newer agents such as cannabidiol and fenfluramine. Zonisamide, which is used in some cases, can cause hyperthermia and oligohydrosis. Herein, we present a case of a patient with Dravet syndrome whose seizures were controlled by treating infections and switching from zonisamide to perampanel. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old Japanese man with Dravet syndrome presented to our department with aspiration pneumonia. The patient had been treated with valproate, sodium bromide, and zonisamide for a long time. His seizures were triggered by hyperthermia. The patient was experiencing a sustained pattern of hyperthermia caused by infection, zonisamide, and persistent convulsions, which caused a vicious cycle of further seizures. In this case, the control of infection and switching from zonisamide to perampanel improved seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: Dravet syndrome usually begins with generalized clonic seizures in its infancy because of fever and progresses to various seizure types, often triggered by fever or seizure-induced heat due to mutations in the SCN1A gene that increases neuronal excitability. Seizures usually diminish with age, but the heat sensitivity remains. In this case, seizures were increased by repeated infections, and hyperthermia was induced by zonisamide, resulting in status epilepticus. Perampanel, an aminomethylphosphonic acid receptor antagonist, decreased seizures but caused psychiatric symptoms. It was effective in suppressing seizures of Dravet syndrome in this patient.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas , Hipertermia Induzida , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Hipertermia/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico
8.
Neurology ; 102(2): e207996, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valproate should be avoided in pregnancy, but it is the most effective drug for generalized epilepsies. Alternative treatment may require combinations of other drugs. Our objectives were to describe first trimester use of antiseizure medication (ASM) combinations that are relevant alternatives to valproate and determine whether specific combinations were associated with a lower risk of major congenital malformations (MCM) compared with valproate monotherapy. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked national registers from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden and administrative health care data from the United States and New South Wales, Australia. We described first trimester use of ASM combinations among pregnant people with epilepsy from 2000 to 2020. We compared the risk of MCM after first trimester exposure to ASM combinations vs valproate monotherapy and low-dose valproate plus lamotrigine or levetiracetam vs high-dose valproate (≥1,000 mg/d). We used log-binomial regression with propensity score weights to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs for each dataset. Results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Among 50,905 pregnancies in people with epilepsy identified from 7.8 million total pregnancies, 788 used lamotrigine and levetiracetam, 291 used lamotrigine and topiramate, 208 used levetiracetam and topiramate, 80 used lamotrigine and zonisamide, and 91 used levetiracetam and zonisamide. After excluding pregnancies with use of other ASMs, known teratogens, or a child diagnosed with MCM of infectious or genetic cause, we compared 587 exposed to lamotrigine-levetiracetam duotherapy and 186 exposed to lamotrigine-topiramate duotherapy with 1959 exposed to valproate monotherapy. Pooled aRRs were 0.41 (95% CI 0.24-0.69) and 1.26 (0.71-2.23), respectively. Duotherapy combinations containing low-dose valproate were infrequent, and comparisons with high-dose valproate monotherapy were inconclusive but suggested a lower risk for combination therapy. Other combinations were too rare for comparative safety analyses. DISCUSSION: Lamotrigine-levetiracetam duotherapy in first trimester was associated with a 60% lower risk of MCM than valproate monotherapy, while lamotrigine-topiramate was not associated with a reduced risk. Duotherapy with lamotrigine and levetiracetam may be favored to treat epilepsy in people with childbearing potential compared with valproate regarding MCM, but whether this combination is as effective as valproate remains to be determined. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that in people with epilepsy treated in the first trimester of pregnancy, the risk of major congenital malformations is lower with lamotrigine-levetiracetam duotherapy than with valproate alone, but similar with lamotrigine-topiramate.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada , Ácido Valproico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos de Coortes , Lamotrigina/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam , Topiramato , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Zonisamida , Recém-Nascido , Combinação de Medicamentos
9.
J Vet Intern Med ; 38(2): 1092-1100, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based recommendations for antiepileptic drug selection in cats beyond phenobarbital are limited, and additional studies are needed for cats where seizures remain inadequately controlled by administration of phenobarbital alone or for cats that cannot safely receive phenobarbital. OBJECTIVE: To compare seizure frequency in cats before and after oral administration of zonisamide and describe adverse clinical or clinicopathologic effects in this cohort. ANIMALS: Fifty-seven cats with a history of seizures. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective study. Median number of seizures per month and number of seizure days per month were compared before and after administration of zonisamide in all cats, a subgroup of cats with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), and a subgroup of cats receiving zonisamide as sole therapy. Clinical and clinicopathologic adverse effect data were also reported. RESULTS: A median decrease of 1 (P = .001, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-1.0, -0.5]) seizure per month, and 1 (P = .003, 95% CI [-1.5, -0.2]) seizure days per month was found across all cats after oral administration of zonisamide. The subgroup with IE showed median decreases of 1 (P = .03, 95% CI [-2.0, -0.5]) and 2 (P = .01, 95% CI [-2.5, -1.0]), respectively. The most common clinical adverse effects were sedation (17%), ataxia (11%), hyporexia (17%), and emesis (5%). One cat developed mild nonregenerative anemia, 2 cats developed mild metabolic acidosis, and 6 cats showed mild increases in ALT and ALP. CONCLUSION: Zonisamide was well tolerated and efficacious in controlling seizure activity in most cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Epilepsias Parciais , Epilepsia , Animais , Gatos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/veterinária , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/veterinária , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/veterinária , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico
10.
Epilepsy Res ; 199: 107264, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide additional information on the transport of the new anti-seizure medications lacosamide, perampanel, and zonisamide in breast milk and breastfed infants. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2022, concentrations of anti-seizure medications were measured in six women with epilepsy (each drug in two patients) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, concentrations were determined after two consecutive pregnancies in women receiving lacosamide and one woman receiving zonisamide. In all cases, anti-seizure medication concentrations were measured in the maternal serum and breast milk, and five cases, in the infant serum. RESULTS: For lacosamide, the ratios of breast milk/maternal serum concentration varied between 0.77 and 0.93, the ratios of infant/maternal serum concentrations were 0.16 and 0.35, and the ratios of infant serum/milk concentrations were 0.21 and 0.38. For perampanel, the ratios of breast milk/maternal serum concentration were 0.01 and 0.10 and the ratio of infant/maternal serum concentration was 0.36. For zonisamide, the ratios of breast milk/maternal serum concentration varied between 0.76 and 1.26, the ratios of infant/maternal serum concentrations between 0.44 and 0.85, and the ratios of infant serum/milk concentrations between 0.55 and 1.05. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding is recommended for women using lacosamide, perampanel, and zonisamide. However, the actual exposure can only be accurately evaluated by determining the serum concentration of anti-seizure medication in breastfed infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Nitrilas , Piridonas , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Zonisamida , Lacosamida
11.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 90(2): 475-482, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872105

RESUMO

AIMS: Gabapentin and pregabalin bind to α2-δ subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav ). Other drugs targeting Cav include cardiovascular calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and anticonvulsants (levetiracetam, ethosuximide and zonisamide). In addition to pharmacodynamics, the safety profile of gabapentinoids seems to overlap with the one of cardiovascular CCBs (oedema) and Cav -blocking anticonvulsants (suicide and ataxia). The objective of this study was to cluster the safety profile of different Cav -ligand drugs by focusing on whether gabapentinoids present a distinct adverse drug reaction (ADR) signature from cardiovascular CCBs and anticonvulsants. METHODS: We extracted all ADRs with at least one significant disproportionate reporting (reporting odds ratio) related to gabapentinoids, CCBs or anticonvulsants in VigiBase. After principal component analysis preprocessing, a hierarchical ascendent classification was performed to cluster gabapentinoids and other Cav -ligand drugs that share a similar ADR signature. The robustness of the results was determined through four sensitivity analyses, varying on the dataset or the clustering method. RESULTS: A total of 16 drugs and 65 ADRs were included. Gabapentinoids were in Cluster #1, which included eight other drugs (isradipine, nicardipine, lacidipine, lercanidipine, ethosuximide, levetiracetam, zonisamide and nimodipine). Cluster #2 contained two drugs (diltiazem and verapamil) and Cluster #3 contained four drugs (amlodipine, felodipine, nifedipine and nitrendipine). The clustering results were consistent in all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The safety profile of gabapentinoids overlaps with those of some dihydropyridine CCBs and Cav -blocking anticonvulsants. These results could be used to anticipate some unidentified ADRs of gabapentinoids from information accumulated with older drugs and sharing a common molecular target and ADR signature.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Etossuximida , Humanos , Zonisamida , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Levetiracetam , Ligantes , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo
12.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 62(7): 1288-1300, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105272

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe and validate an isotope dilution-liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) based reference measurement procedure (RMP) for zonisamide to accurately measure serum and plasma concentrations. METHODS: Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy was employed to determine the absolute content of the reference material used in order to establish traceability to SI units. Separation of zonisamide from known or unknown interferences was performed on a C8 column. For sample preparation a protocol based on protein precipitation in combination with a high dilution step was established. Assay validation and determination of measurement uncertainty were performed based on guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, the International Conference on Harmonization, and the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. RESULTS: The RMP was proven to be highly selective and specific with no evidence of a matrix effect, allowing for quantification of zonisamide within the range of 1.50-60.0 µg/mL. Intermediate precision was <1.4 % and repeatability CV ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 % over all concentration levels. The relative mean bias ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 % for native serum levels and from 0.2 to 2.0 % for Li-heparin plasma levels. The measurement uncertainties for single measurements and target value assignment ranged from 1.1 to 1.4 % and 0.8-1.0 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We present a novel LC-MS/MS-based candidate RMP for zonisamide in human serum and plasma which provides a traceable and reliable platform for the standardization of routine assays and evaluation of clinically relevant samples.


Assuntos
Isoxazóis , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Zonisamida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Zonisamida/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Isoxazóis/sangue , Padrões de Referência , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Espectrometria de Massa com Cromatografia Líquida
13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 45(4): 738-750, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097716

RESUMO

Myocardial hypertrophy is a pathological thickening of the myocardium which ultimately results in heart failure. We previously reported that zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, attenuated pressure overload-caused myocardial hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy in murine models. In addition, we have found that the inhibition of proteasome activates glycogen synthesis kinase 3 (GSK-3) thus alleviates myocardial hypertrophy, which is an important anti-hypertrophic strategy. In this study, we investigated whether zonisamide prevented pressure overload-caused myocardial hypertrophy through suppressing proteasome. Pressure overload-caused myocardial hypertrophy was induced in mice by trans-aortic constriction (TAC) surgery. Two days after the surgery, the mice were administered zonisamide (10, 20, 40 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g.) for four weeks. We showed that zonisamide administration significantly mitigated impaired cardiac function. Furthermore, zonisamide administration significantly inhibited proteasome activity as well as the expression levels of proteasome subunit beta types (PSMB) of the 20 S proteasome (PSMB1, PSMB2 and PSMB5) and proteasome-regulated particles (RPT) of the 19 S proteasome (RPT1, RPT4) in heart tissues of TAC mice. In primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs), zonisamide (0.3 µM) prevented myocardial hypertrophy triggered by angiotensin II (Ang II), and significantly inhibited proteasome activity, proteasome subunits and proteasome-regulated particles. In Ang II-treated NRCMs, we found that 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA, 2 mg/ml), a proteasome inducer, eliminated the protective effects of zonisamide against myocardial hypertrophy and proteasome. Moreover, zonisamide treatment activated GSK-3 through inhibiting the phosphorylated AKT (protein kinase B, PKB) and phosphorylated liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPKα), the upstream of GSK-3. Zonisamide treatment also inhibited GSK-3's downstream signaling proteins, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), both being the hypertrophic factors. Collectively, this study highlights the potential of zonisamide as a new therapeutic agent for myocardial hypertrophy, as it shows potent anti-hypertrophic potential through the suppression of proteasome.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Cardiomegalia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Zonisamida , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Zonisamida/farmacologia , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico
14.
CNS Drugs ; 37(11): 941-956, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37973769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Parkinson's disease, safinamide and zonisamide are novel monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors with a dual mechanism of action involving the inhibition of sodium and calcium channels and the subsequent release of glutamate. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of both drugs compared with placebo on motor symptoms, cognitive function, and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, Scopus, PsycINFO, and trials registries up to March 2023 for randomized controlled trials of adults with Parkinson's disease administered either safinamide or zonisamide and published in English. We excluded single-arm trials or if neither the efficacy nor safety outcomes of interest were reported. Primary outcomes were the change from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale section III (UPDRS-III) and serious adverse events. Secondary outcomes included a change from baseline in OFF-time, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 to evaluate quality of life, and Mini-Mental State Examination for cognitive function assessment. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.4.1. Random-effect models were used to calculate the pooled mean differences (MDs) and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses by medication, doses, Parkinson's disease stage, and risk of bias were conducted. We assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Sensitivity analysis was conducted, and publication bias were evaluated. This meta-analysis was not externally funded, and the protocol is available on the Open Science Framework Registration ( https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/AMNP5 ). RESULTS: Of 3570 screened citations, 16 trials met inclusion criteria (4314 patients with Parkinson's disease). Ten safinamide trials were conducted in several countries. Six zonisamide trials were included, five of which were conducted in Japan and one in India. UPDRS Part III scores were significantly lower with both monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors than with placebo (MD = -  2.18; 95% CI -  2.88 to -  1.49; I 2 =63%; n = 14 studies). A subgroup analysis showed a significant improvement in UPDRS-III in safinamide (MD = -  2.10; 95% CI -  3.09 to -  1.11; I2 = 71%; n = 8 studies) and zonisamide (MD = -  2.31; 95% CI -  3.35 to -  1.27; I2 = 52%; n = 6 studies) compared with placebo. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors significantly decreased OFF-time compared with placebo. No significant differences in cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), whereas an improvement in quality of life (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39 scores) was observed. There was no significant difference in incidence rates of serious adverse events among all examined doses of zonisamide and safinamide compared with placebo. Two trials were reported as a high risk of bias and sensitivity analyses confirmed the primary analysis results. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that novel monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors not only improve motor symptoms but also enhance patients' quality of life. The meta-analysis showed that both medications have a similar safety profile to placebo with regard to serious adverse events. The overall findings emphasize the effectiveness of safinamide and zonisamide in the treatment of Parkinson's disease as adjunct therapy. Further long-term studies examining the impact of these medications on motor and non-motor symptoms are necessary.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Adulto , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Zonisamida/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Dopaminérgicos/uso terapêutico , Monoaminoxidase/uso terapêutico
15.
CNS Drugs ; 37(10): 929-936, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37784006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus in poststroke epilepsy is a challenging condition because of multiple vascular comorbidities and the advanced age of patients. Data on third-generation antiseizure medication (ASM) in this condition are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of third-generation ASMs in the second- or third-line therapy of benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus in poststroke epilepsy following acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Data on the effectiveness of third-generation ASMs in patients with status epilepticus in poststroke epilepsy were gathered from two German Stroke Registries and the Mainz Epilepsy Registry. We included only cases with epilepsy remote to the ischemic event. No patients with acute symptomatic seizures were included. The following third-generation ASMs were included: brivaracetam, lacosamide, eslicarbazepine, perampanel, topiramate, and zonisamide. The assessment of effectiveness was based on seizure freedom within 48 h since the start of therapy with the respective ASM. Seizure freedom was evaluated both clinically (clinical evaluation at least three times per day) and by daily electroencephalogram records. RESULTS: Of the 138 patients aged 70.8 ± 8.1 years with benzodiazepine-refractory status epilepticus in ischemic poststroke epilepsy, 33 (23.9%) were treated with lacosamide, 24 (17.4%) with brivaracetam, 23 (16.7%) with eslicarbazepine, 21 (15.2%) with perampanel, 20 (14.5%) with topiramate, and 17 (12.3%) with zonisamide. Seizure freedom within 48 h was achieved in 66.7% of patients with lacosamide, 65.2% with eslicarbazepine, 38.1% with perampanel, 37.5% with brivaracetam, 35.0% with topiramate, and 35.3% with zonisamide (p < 0.05 for comparison of lacosamide or eslicarbazepine to other ASMs). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data, lacosamide and eslicarbazepine might be more favorable in the treatment of refractory status epilepticus in poststroke epilepsy, when administered as second- or third-line ASMs before anesthesia. Because of the fact that these ASMs share the same mechanism of action (slow inactivation of sodium channels), our findings could motivate further research on the role that this pharmaceutical mechanism of action has in the treatment of poststroke epilepsy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05267405).


Assuntos
Epilepsia , AVC Isquêmico , Estado Epiléptico , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lacosamida/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/etiologia , Topiramato , Zonisamida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 145, 2023 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37674206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common, chronic brain dysfunction in dogs. Recently, the effect of feeding a diet enriched with medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on seizure frequency has been evaluated in several studies in dogs with IE. However, most dogs with IE in previous studies were treated with phenobarbital as the main antiseizure medication (ASM). In Japan, zonisamide (ZNS) is the most prescribed ASM for dogs with IE. The interaction between ZNS and various nutrients including MCTs and the potential effects on treatment efficacy resulting from combining these therapies have not been previously studied. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover dietary study was conducted. Dogs (n = 7) treated with ZNS were fed either a placebo diet (PL) or Purina ProPlan Veterinary Diet NeuroCare (NC) for 3 months, after which treatments were crossed over and continued for another 3 months. Seizure frequency (seizures/month; sz/m), blood tests including concentrations of ZNS and ß-hydroxybutyric acid, and owner's visual analogue scale score were collected from all dogs for both treatment periods. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the seizure frequency between PL (2.95 ± 0.80 sz/m) and NC (1.90 ± 0.57 sz/m) during the 6 months of trial. Three of 7 dogs showed ≥ 50% seizure reduction, and 1 of those 3 dogs achieved seizure freedom in NC period. However, 2 of 7 dogs had no changes in epileptic seizure frequency, 2 of 7 dogs had a deterioration in seizure frequency in the NC period. Feeding the MCT diet concurrent with ZNS showed no apparent adverse effects and did not affect ZNS concentration. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that the commercially available MCT-enriched diet (NC) can be safely used concurrently with ZNS for dogs with IE.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Epilepsia , Cães , Animais , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/veterinária , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Triglicerídeos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Open Vet J ; 13(7): 846-853, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37614732

RESUMO

Background: Idiopathic epilepsy in cats is a more common disease than previously thought, but little information is available about the medical treatment of feline idiopathic epilepsy. Aim: To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of antiseizure medication (ASM) for a minimum of 6 months, including zonisamide (ZNS), in feline idiopathic epilepsy at a referral hospital in Japan. Methods: Twenty cats diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy treated with ASMs were retrospectively included. Results: Nine cats that were finally treated with phenobarbital (PB) monotherapy reached the primary goal (the seizure frequency after the treatment intervention was less than one seizure every 3 months). Three cats were treated with ZNS monotherapy and two reached the primary goal. Eight cats finally received combination therapy. Two of the three cats receiving PB and ZNS therapy achieved the primary goal, but one was considered no responder. Five cats [PB + diazepam (DZP), ZNS + DZP, and ZNS + levetiracetam + DZP] decreased the seizure frequency and reached the primary goal in all but one cat reached the secondary goal. Adverse events were observed in eight patients, but these were curable. Two patients had vomiting after ZNS monotherapy, one had diarrhea, and another was an increase in sleeping hours. Conclusion: PB was frequently used and seemed effective as both monotherapy and combination therapy. Some cats were treated with ASM protocols containing ZNS. ZNS may be available to treat idiopathic epilepsy in cats. However, ZNS administration may cause adverse events, such as gastrointestinal toxicity, in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Epilepsia , Gatos , Animais , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico , Japão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/veterinária , Convulsões/veterinária , Hospitais , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 95(1): 251-264, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37483001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), it is unknown whether adjunct zonisamide is as effective and safe as increasing levodopa dose when levodopa has inadequate efficacy on parkinsonism. OBJECTIVE: To compare adjunct zonisamide 25 mg/day versus an increased levodopa dose (increased by 100 mg/day) in patients with DLB treated with levodopa ≤300 mg/day for parkinsonism. METHODS: The DUEL study was a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, interventional, non-inferiority trial. During the observation period, levodopa was administered at ≤300 mg/day for 4 weeks. Subsequently, patients were randomized to receive adjunct zonisamide 25 mg/day or levodopa increased by 100 mg/day. RESULTS: Respective adjusted mean changes in MDS-UPDRS Part III total score at 16 and 24 weeks (primary endpoint) were -6.3 and -4.4 in the zonisamide add-on and -0.8 and 2.0 in the levodopa increase groups. The adjusted mean difference at 24 weeks was -6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] -13.5, 0.7); the upper limit of the 95% CI (0.7) was lower than the non-inferiority margin (3.0). No significant between-group differences were observed in total scores of the MDS-UPDRS Part II, Eating Questionnaire, EuroQol-5 dimension-5 level, Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, or other secondary endpoints. No notable between-group differences were observed in adverse event incidences. CONCLUSION: Adjunct zonisamide 25 mg/day may yield moderate improvement in motor symptoms in patients with DLB when the levodopa effect is insufficient, but it could not be verified that the zonisamide 25 mg/day was as effective as levodopa 100 mg/day because levodopa showed no sufficient efficacy as assumed.


Assuntos
Levodopa , Doença por Corpos de Lewy , Humanos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/tratamento farmacológico
19.
CNS Drugs ; 37(6): 531-544, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37271775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiseizure medication (ASM) as monotherapy or in combination is the treatment of choice for most patients with epilepsy. Therefore, knowledge about the typical adverse events (AEs) for ASMs and other coadministered drugs (CDs) is essential for practitioners and patients. Due to frequent polypharmacy, it is often difficult to clinically assess the AE profiles of ASMs and differentiate the influence of CDs. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective analysis aimed to determine typical AE profiles for ASMs and assess the impact of CDs on AEs in clinical practice. METHODS: The Liverpool AE Profile (LAEP) and its domains were used to identify the AE profiles of ASMs based on data from a large German multicenter study (Epi2020). Following established classifications, drugs were grouped according to their mode of action (ASMs) or clinical indication (CDs). Bivariate correlation, multivariate ordinal regression (MORA), and artificial neural network (ANNA) analyses were performed. Bivariate correlation with Fisher's z-transformation was used to compare the correlation strength of LAEP with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) to avoid LAEP bias in the context of antidepressant therapy. RESULTS: Data from 486 patients were analyzed. The AE profiles of ASM categories and single ASMs matched those reported in the literature. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) and voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) modulators had favorable AE profiles, while brivaracetam was superior to levetiracetam regarding psychobehavioral AEs. MORA revealed that, in addition to seizure frequency, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) modulators and antidepressants were the only independent predictors of high LAEP values. After Fisher's z-transformation, correlations were significantly lower between LAEP and antidepressants than between LAEP and HADS or NDDI-E. Therefore, a bias in the results toward over interpreting the impact of antidepressants on LAEP was presumed. In the ANNA, perampanel, zonisamide, topiramate, and valproic acid were important nodes in the network, while VGSC and SV2A modulators had low relevance for predicting relevant AEs. Similarly, cardiovascular agents, analgesics, and antipsychotics were important CDs in the ANNA model. CONCLUSION: ASMs have characteristic AE profiles that are highly reproducible and must be considered in therapeutic decision-making. Therapy using perampanel as an AMPA modulator should be considered cautiously due to its relatively high AE profile. Drugs acting via VGSCs and SV2A receptors are significantly better tolerated than other ASM categories or substances (e.g., topiramate, zonisamide, and valproate). Switching to brivaracetam is advisable in patients with psychobehavioral AEs who take levetiracetam. Because CDs frequently pharmacokinetically interact with ASMs, the cumulative AE profile must be considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS00022024, U1111-1252-5331.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Epilepsia , Adulto , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Topiramato , Zonisamida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido alfa-Amino-3-hidroxi-5-metil-4-isoxazol Propiônico/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
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