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2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 194-200, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279101

ABSTRACT

Resumen En países americanos, simultáneas a la pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) se están dando epidemias ocasionadas por diferentes arbovirus (del dengue, chikunguña y virus del Zika). En México, varias de las estrategias para control del mosquito Aedes aegypti, transmisor de arbovirus, involucran la interacción del personal salubrista y los moradores. Debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 se han implementado medidas de distanciamiento social y resguardo domiciliario. Para respetar estas medidas y evitar riesgo de contagio por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2), el Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades (CENAPRECE) ha presentado la estrategia de control de vectores en el escenario de transmisión simultánea por dengue y COVID-19 en México. En este trabajo mencionamos las medidas habituales de manejo integral de mosquito y mencionamos las adaptaciones realizadas. De igual forma, discutimos la relevancia de la capacitación y la supervisión al personal médico, esto debido a la similitud entre la sintomatología entre ambas patologías.


Abstract Countries of Latin America are dealing with a simultaneous COVID-19 and vector borne disease (VBDs, Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya) outbreaks. In Mexico, certain activities to control Aedes aegypti mosquito (the main VBDs vector) comprise community participation through the interaction between householders and vector control personnel. Preventive measures against COVID-19 include social distancing and stay-at-home strategy, to obey these policies, and reduce the risk of infection, the National Center for Preventive Programs and Disease Control of Mexico (CENAPRECE) has adapted the vector control approaches in the country. In this paper we mention routine prevention and control activities to control mosquitoes and show the adapted measures. Because, a number of symptoms of the COVID-19 and dengue fever overlap with each other, we also discuss the relevance of accurate disease surveillance and medic’s training and supervision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Pandemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion
3.
Nursing (Ed. bras., Impr.) ; 24(273): 5229-5242, fev.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1148490

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever incidência de dengue em Santos/SP e relacionar coeficiente de incidência (CI) de dengue com indicadores socioeconômicos e entomológicos de 2012-2016. Método: estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, ecológico dos casos confirmados de dengue, residentes em Santos, de 2012-2016, do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação-Online; foram obtidos seis indicadores socioeconômicos da base de setores censitários do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística-2010; o sétimo do Índice Paulista de Vulnerabilidade Social-2010 e os indicadores entomológicos da Secretaria de Saúde; foi aplicada Correlação bivariada de Spearman (SPSS-Statistics®). Aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa-CAAE nº79776017.1.0000.5479. Resultados: de 2012-2016 ocorreram 16.451 casos, com CI de 117,4 (2012) a 2.122,8 (2013) casos/100.000 habitantes, maior no sexo feminino e de 15-29 anos; os fatores socioeconômicos foram mais significativos entre 2015-2016; o Índice de Densidade de fêmeas Aedes aegypti apresentou maior correlação positiva. Conclusão: descreveu-se perfil epidemiológico/entomológico da dengue, apoiando gestores nas ações locais de controle.(AU)


Objectives: describe incidence of dengue in Santos/SP and relate dengue incidence coefficient (IC) with socioeconomic and entomological indicators from 2012-2016. Methods: epidemiological, descriptive, ecological study of confirmed cases of dengue, resident in Santos, from 2012-2016, of the Online-Notifiable Diseases Information System; six socioeconomic indicators were obtained from census sectors base of Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics-2010; the seventh from the São Paulo Index of Social Vulnerability-2010 and the entomological indicators from the Health Department; Spearman's Bivariate Correlation (SPSS-Statistics®) was applied. Approved by the Research Ethics Committee-CAAE nº79776017.1.0000.5479. Results: from 2012-2016 there were 16.451 cases, with IC from 117,4 (2012) to 2.122,8 (2013) cases/100.000 inhabitants, higher in females and between 15-29 years old; socioeconomic factors were more significant between 2015-2016; the Density Index of Aedes aegypti females showed a greater positive correlation. Conclusion: epidemiological/entomological profile of dengue was described, supporting managers in local control actions.(AU)


Objetivos: describir incidencia del dengue en Santos/SP y relacionar coeficiente de incidencia (CI) del dengue con indicadores socioeconómicos y entomológicos para 2012-2016. Métodos: estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, ecológico de casos confirmados de dengue, residentes en Santos, desde 2012-2016, del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación-Online; obtuvieron-se seis indicadores socioeconómicos desde base de sectores censales del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística-2010, el séptimo del Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social de São Paulo-2010 y los indicadores entomológicos del Departamento de Salud. Aplicó-se Correlación Bivariada de Spearman (SPSS-Statistics®). Aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación-CAAE nº79776017.1.0000.5479. Resultados: desde 2012-2016 hubo 16.451 casos, con CI de 117,4 (2012) a 2.122,8 (2013) casos/100.000 habitantes, mayor en mujeres y de 15-29 años; los factores socioeconómicos fueron más significativos entre 2015-2016; el Índice de Densidad de hembras Aedes aegypti mostró mayor correlación positiva. Conclusión: describió-se perfil epidemiológico/entomológico del dengue, apoyando a los gerentes en acciones de control local.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aedes/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Socioeconomic Factors , Sex Factors , Incidence , Age Factors , Ecological Studies , Social Vulnerability Index
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(5): 101629, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350315

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background The recognition of the causal association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities including microcephaly underlines the importance of preventing this disease in pregnant women (PW) and women of childbearing age (WCA). Although Brazil and other Latin American countries reported a significant reduction in the number of ZIKV infections in recent years, epidemic waves can recur in settings with previous outbreaks as conditions for transmission remain optimal and susceptible populations are continuously replenished. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 64 PW and 260 non-pregnant WCA attending routine medical appointments in two primary care units in São Paulo, Brazil, and assessed knowledge and attitudes about ZIKV infection and prevention. Results: Most women reported knowing that ZIKV is transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, and most knew that acute symptoms are similar to those seen in Dengue infection. Furthermore, most participants correctly described that ZIKV infection during pregnancy may cause detrimental outcomes for the newborn. However, most ignored that ZIKV infection can be asymptomatic, and only 15% knew about the risk of ZIKV sexual transmission. We found no statistically significant differences between PW and WCA regarding knowledge about ZIKV sexual transmission. Knowledge about ZIKV sexual transmission was significantly associated with education; among participants with ≤12 schooling years, only 9.0% (95%CI 3.4-18.5%) correctly answered that ZIKV can be sexually transmitted, compared to 12.9% (95%CI 8.2-18.8%) among participants with 12-14 schooling years, and to 24.4% (95%CI 15.9-34.9%) of participants with ≥15 schooling years (p = 0.015). Education remained independently associated with knowledge about sexual transmission of ZIKV in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, race and pregnancy status (p = 0.022). Conclusion: Our findings underscore the urgent need of educational and family planning programs that may help prevent detrimental outcomes of ZIKV infection in an endemic area of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aedes/virology
5.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020154, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249796

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar o mapeamento oficial com um mapeamento probabilístico da infestação por Aedes spp. nos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo ecológico com dados de amostras de criadouros em 2016-2017; obteve-se a classificação oficial em boletins epidemiológicos e estimou-se a probabilidade de infestação por município e semana, ajustando-se um modelo dinâmico de ocupação de sítios aos dados da vigilância epidemiológica municipal. Resultados: 187.245 amostras coletadas em 473 municípios originaram 10.648 detecções de Aedes aegypti e 8.414 de Aedes albopictus; o mapeamento oficial concorda com o probabilístico em municípios da região noroeste e oeste do RS; os mapeamentos discordam nas regiões leste, centro, nordeste e sul, revelando municípios oficialmente não infestados com alta probabilidade de infestação e notificação de arboviroses. Conclusão: A classificação oficial identificou infestação nos municípios infestados do noroeste e oeste, e não identificou infestação em municípios com possíveis falsos zeros e onde ela varia temporalmente.


Objetivo: Comparar el mapeo oficial con un mapeo probabilístico de infestación por Aedes spp. en los municipios de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Métodos: Estudio ecológico analizando muestras colectadas en criaderos en 2016-2017; se obtuvo la clasificación oficial en boletines epidemiológicos, y la probabilidad de infestación por municipio y semana ajustando un modelo dinámico de ocupación de sitios a los datos de la vigilancia epidemiológica municipal. Resultados: 187.245 muestras de 473 municipios generaron 10.648 detecciones de Aedes aegypti y 8.414 detecciones de Aedes albopictus. El mapeo oficial está de acuerdo con el probabilístico en municipios del noroeste y oeste de RS; los mapeos no concuerdan en el este, centro, nordeste y sur, revelando municipios oficialmente no infestados con alta probabilidad de infestación y notificación de arbovirus. Conclusión: Mientras la clasificación oficial identifica municipios del noroeste y oeste infestados críticamente, no identifica infestación en municipios con posiblemente falsos ceros y en donde la infestación varía temporalmente.


Objective: To compare official mapping with probabilistic mapping of infestation by Aedes spp. in the municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Methods: This was an ecological study using data from samples of mosquito breeding sites collected in 2016-2017; official classification was obtained from epidemiological reports, and infestation per municipality and week was estimated by fitting a dynamic site-occupancy model to data from municipal epidemiological surveillance. Results: 187,245 samples collected in 473 municipalities returned 10,648 detections of Aedes aegypti, and 8,414 detections of Aedes albopictus; official mapping agrees with probabilistic mapping in municipalities in the northwestern and western regions of the state. The mappings are not in agreement in the eastern, central, northeastern and southern regions, revealing municipalities officially not infested but with high probability of infestation and notification of arbovirus infection. Conclusion: While official classification identified critically infested municipalities in the state's northwestern and western regions, it did not identify infestation in municipalities with possible false zero errors and where infestation varies over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/virology , Disease Vectors/classification , Epidemiological Monitoring , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Probability , Vector Control of Diseases , Models, Theoretical
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 432-438, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377335

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la mezcla de flupyradifurona 26.3 g/L y transflutrina 52.5 g/L aplicada como niebla térmica a mosquitos Aedes vectores de virus dengue, Zika y chikungunya. Material y métodos: Se colocaron grupos de 15 mosquitos de Ae. aegypti (susceptibles y resistentes a piretroides) dentro de jaulas, en sala, recámara y cocina. Posteriormente, se aplicó la mezcla de flupyradifurona y transflutrina dentro de las viviendas a una dosis de 2 y 4 mg/m3, respectivamente. Resultados: La mezcla de flupyradifurona y transflutrina causó mortalidades de 97 a 100% sobre las cepas de mosquitos Aedes y su efectividad fue la misma en los diferentes compartimentos de las viviendas. Conclusiones: La mezcla de flupyradifurona y transflutrina, aplicada en niebla térmica, es una herramienta prometedora para el control de poblaciones de mosquitos Aedes independientemente de su estado de resistencia a insecticidas.


Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of thermal fogging of a mixture of flupyrafirudone (26.3 g/L) and transfluthrin (52.5 g/L) against dengue, Zika y chikungunya Aedes mosquito vectors. Materials and methods: Groups of 15 caged Ae. aegypti (susceptible and pyrethroid resistant) mosquitoes were placed in living room, kitchen and bedroom inside houses, after which a dose of 2 and 4 mg/m3 of flupyradifurone and transfluthrine, respectively, was applied as thermal fog. After one hour of exposure mosquitoes were transferred to the laboratory and mortality was recorded after 24 h. Results: The mixture killed 97 to 100% of mosquitoes from the strains and the efficacy was similar independently of their place within the premises. Conclusions: The mixture of flupyrafirudone and transfluthrin applied as thermal fog is a promising tool to control Aedes mosquito populations independently of the pyrethroid-insecticide resistance status.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyridines , 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes , Cyclopropanes , Fluorobenzenes , Insecticides , Chikungunya virus , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Aerosols , Dengue Virus , Drug Combinations , Zika Virus , Mosquito Vectors , Housing , Mexico
7.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(4): 2078-2085,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139297

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El virus del Zika es transmitido por mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus, se caracteriza por exantema, cefalea y fiebre y otras complicaciones. El primer caso del virus del Zika fue detectado en Cuba en febrero de 2016 y aunque está controlada la epidemia se mantiene el riesgo por existir presencia del vector. Con todos estos elementos los autores deciden realizar este estudio con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de las determinantes sociales en el comportamiento y la propagación de la enfermedad en América Latina. La declaración por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como una emergencia sanitaria hace necesario el desarrollo de un programa integral, para la erradicación del vector, la preparación de los profesionales actuantes y la información a la población que controle la propagación de la enfermedad (AU).


SUMMARY The Zika virus is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes; it is characterized by exanthema, headache, fever and other complications. The first Zika virus case in Cuba was detected in February 2016, and although the epidemic is controlled the risk still exists because of the presence of the vector. With all these elements the authors decided to carry out this study with the objective of determining the influence of social determiners in the behavior and propagation of the disease in Latin America. Its declaration by the WHO as a health emergency makes it necessary the development of a comprehensive program to eradicate the vector, to prepare the officiating professionals and to inform the population for controlling the disease spreading (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Pathology, Clinical , Signs and Symptoms , Americas/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Aedes/virology
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(2): 203-210, mar.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366006

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To gain a better understanding of the Zika virus (ZIKV) vector transmission in Mexico, we determined the vector competence of a local population ofAe. aegypti(Acapulco, Guerrero) for a strain of ZIKV isolated from a Mexican febrile patient. Materials and methods: Eggs were hatched and larvae were reared under controlled conditions. After five days post-emergence, female mosquitoes were fed an infectious blood-meal containing ZIKV. Mosquitoes were analyzed at 4, 7 and 14-day post-infection (dpi). Infection (gut), dissemination (wings, legs and heads) and potential transmission (salivary glands) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The RockefellerAe. aegyptistrain was used as ZIKV infection control. Results: ZIKV infection, dissemination, and potential transmission rates were 96.2, 96.1 and 93.2%, respectively. Conclusions: Ae. aegypti(F1) from Acapulco were very susceptible to ZIKV infection, and showed similar vector competence to that of the susceptible Rockefeller strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vector competence for ZIKV performed in a Mexican laboratory.


Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la competencia vectorial de una población local deAe. aegyptipara transmitir el virus Zika (ZIKV) aislado de un paciente febril mexicano. Material y métodos: Se desarrolló la primera generación (F1) de mosquitosAe. aegyptien el insectario a partir de huevos colectados mediante ovitrampas en la Colonia Renacimiento, Acapulco, Guerrero. Después de cinco días de la emergencia, los mosquitos hembras fueron alimentados con sangre infecciosa con ZIKV. La infección (intestino), la diseminación (alas, piernas y cabezas) y la transmisión potencial (glándulas salivales) se evaluaron mediante RT-qPCR, a los 4, 7 y 14 días después de la alimentación. Resultados: La infección por ZIKV, la diseminación y las tasas potenciales de transmisión fueron de 96.2, 96.1 y 93.2%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los mosquitos Ae. aegypti (F1) de Acapulco presentan una alta competencia vectorial (93.2%). Según los autores de este estudio, este es el primer informe de competencia vectorial para ZIKV realizado en un laboratorio mexicano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes/virology , Zika Virus/physiology , Mosquito Vectors , Mexico
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(2): 665-672, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055817

ABSTRACT

Resumo A dengue ocorre no Timor-Leste desde 2005, porém não existe um programa de monitoramento e controle do "Aedes aegypti". O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar a armadilha ovitrampa iscada com atraente natural como uma possível ferramenta para monitorar o vetor das arboviroses: Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) e Zika (ZIKV). O estudo foi realizado na cidade de Dili, capital do Timor-Leste, entre as semanas epidemiológicas 32 (02/08) a 48 (02/12) de 2016. Foram instaladas 70 armadilhas Ovitrampa, em residências de 15 sucos (ruas), de quatro Postos Administrativos (bairros) da cidade. Para as analises dos dados utilizou-se os indicadores entomológicos: Índice de Positividade de Ovitrampa (IPO), Índice de Densidade Vetorial (IDV) e Índice de Densidade de Ovos (IDO). Durante o experimento foram coletados 158.904 ovos de Aedes spp.. O IPO demonstrou que todas as áreas tiveram 98% a 100% de armadilhas contendo ovos de Aedes spp.. Os indicadores IDO e IPO apresentaram correlações positivas e significativa com a temperatura. A defasagem de duas e três semanas para precipitação indicou correlação positiva significativa para IDV e IDO. Portanto, a armadilha ovitrampa é uma ferramenta que pode integrar as ações de um programa de monitoramento e controle de Aedes spp. no Timor-Leste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/virology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Oviposition , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Timor-Leste , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200012, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135267

ABSTRACT

In Argentina, many Flavivirus were recognised including West Nile virus (WNV). During 2009 several strains of Culex Flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus, were isolated in the same region where circulation of WNV was detected. Hence, the objective of this study was to analyse the effect of co-infection in vitro assays using CxFV and WNV Argentinean strains in order to evaluate if CxFV could affect WNV replication. Our results showed that WNV replication was suppressed when multiplicity of infection (MOI) for CxFV was 10 or 100 times higher than WNV. Nevertheless, in vivo assays are necessary in order to evaluate the superinfection exclusion potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , West Nile virus/pathogenicity , Superinfection/virology , Culex/virology , Flavivirus/physiology , Insect Vectors/virology , Argentina , Viral Plaque Assay , Cell Line , Aedes/virology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200284, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135275

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges public health systems around the world. Tropical countries will face complex epidemiological scenarios involving the simultaneous transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti. The occurrence of arboviral diseases with COVID-19 in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region presents challenges and opportunities for strengthening health services, surveillance and control programs. Financing of training, equipment and reconversion of hospital spaces will have a negative effect on already the limited resource directed to the health sector. The strengthening of the diagnostic infrastructure reappears as an opportunity for the national reference laboratories. Sharing of epidemiological information for the modeling of epidemiological scenarios allows collaboration between health, academic and scientific institutions. The fear of contagion by COVID-19 is constraining people with arboviral diseases to search for care which can lead to an increase in serious cases and could disrupt the operation of vector-control programs due to the reluctance of residents to open their doors to health personnel. Promoting intense community participation along with the incorporation of long lasting innovations in vector control offers new opportunities for control. The COVID-19 pandemic offers challenges and opportunities that must provoke positive behavioral changes and encourage more permanent self-care actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Aedes/microbiology , Aedes/virology , Dengue/prevention & control , Pandemics , Americas , Caribbean Region , Mosquito Vectors , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
12.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 29(4): e2020057, 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124767

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as características da epidemia da dengue em Pinhalzinho, Santa Catarina, Brasil, e investigar os efeitos das variáveis climáticas sobre a infestação pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti. Métodos: Estudo ecológico, com dados sobre casos de dengue, hospitalizações e óbitos pela doença, em 2015 e 2016, além das variáveis meteorológicas e focos de Ae. aegypti, de 2015 a 2018. Resultados: No período epidêmico de 2015-2016, a taxa de incidência de dengue foi de 12.695,2/100 mil habitantes. Foi registrada maior incidência no sexo feminino (13.926,4/100 mil hab.) e nas faixas etárias acima de 50 anos (17.162,0/100 mil hab.). A temperatura média e a umidade relativa do ar apresentaram relação positiva com o aumento de focos de Ae. aegypti. Conclusão: A incidência de dengue durante a epidemia foi a maior já registrada no país. As condições climáticas devem ser consideradas no planejamento das ações de controle vetorial e prevenção à dengue.


Objetivo: Analizar las características de la epidemia de dengue en Pinhalzinho, Santa Catarina, Brasil, y evaluar los efectos de las variables climáticas en la infestación del mosquito Aedes aegypti. Métodos: Estudio ecológico con datos sobre casos de dengue , hospitalizaciones y óbitos en 2015 y 2016, además de las variables meteorológicas y focos de Ae. Aegypti de 2015 a 2018. Resultados: En el período epidémico de 2015-2016, la incidencia de dengue fue 12.695,2 casos/100 mil habitantes. Se registró la mayor incidencia en el sexo femenino y en el grupo de edad superior a los 50 años. El promedio de temperatura y humedad relativa del aire presentaron una relación positiva con el aumento de los brotes de Ae. aegypti. Conclusión: La epidemia fue la más grande registrada en el país. La evaluación del proceso epidémico y las condiciones climáticas se constituyen en importante herramienta para planificación del control vectorial y acciones de prevención al dengue.


Objective: To describe the characteristics of the dengue epidemic in Pinhalzinho, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and to investigate the effects of climate variables on Aedes aegypti mosquito infestation. Methods: This was an ecological study using data on dengue cases, hospitalizations and deaths in 2015 and 2016; in addition to climate variables and Aedes aegypti breeding grounds from 2015 to 2018. Results: In the 2015-2016 epidemic, the dengue incidence rate was 12,695.2/100,000 inhabitants. Higher incidence was registered in the female sex (13,926.4/100,000 inhabitants) and in the 50 years and over age group (17,162.0/100,000 inhabitants). Average temperature and relative humidity showed a positive relationship with increase in Aedes aegypti breeding grounds. Conclusion: Dengue incidence during the epidemic was the highest ever recorded in the country. Climate conditions must be considered when planning vector control and dengue prevention actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aedes/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Ecological Studies , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(8): 2983-2992, ago. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011893

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Aedes aegypti é um importante agente transmissor de afecções na atualidade, sendo o responsável por enfermidades como Zika, Chikungunya e os quatro sorotipos do Dengue. Por ocasião da relevância desse mosquito para o corpo social atual, investigações em Ecossaúde se tornam prementes, já que essa abordagem visa articular diferentes campos teóricos para entender as conexões históricas entre a natureza, a sociedade e a saúde. Partindo de uma premissa etnográfica, este estudo considerou as condições de desigualdade e injustiça que tornam vulneráveis a saúde de mulheres em torno do dengue, analisando práticas e percepções destas acerca dos potencias criadouros existentes no espaço público. Para compor o estudo, utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada e a observação participante, com uso de diário de campo. A pesquisa contou com a participação de dez mulheres moradoras de um bairro periférico da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, tendo ocorrido no período de janeiro a agosto de 2014. Da Análise de Conteúdo emergiu a categoria "Iniquidade social, contexto e práticas no espaço público". A partir das narrativas, constatou-se que condições precárias de vida e evidente iniquidade social poderão influenciar em um contexto permeado por lixo, com grande potencial para a proliferação do mosquito causador da dengue.


Abstract Aedes aegypti is currently a critical disease agent and is responsible for viruses such as Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue's four serotypes. This mosquito's relevance to the current social body has come to the fore and triggered urgent EcoHealth investigations since this approach aims to articulate different theoretical fields to understand the historical linkages between nature, society and health. Based on an ethnographic premise, this study considered the unequal and unfair conditions that make women's health vulnerable to dengue, analyzing their practices and perceptions about the potential breeding grounds in the public space. A semi-structured interview and participant observation, as well as a field diary, were used to compose the study. The research included the participation of ten women living in the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from January to August 2014. The category "Social inequality, context and practices in the public space" emerged from the content analysis. The narratives revealed that unstable living conditions and evident social inequality might influence in a context permeated by waste, with great potential for dengue's mosquito proliferation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Interviews as Topic , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 29, jan. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sites with large amount of potential breeding sites for immature forms of Aedes aegypti, called strategic points, influence in the active vector's dispersion into properties in their surroundings. METHODS: We selected four areas in the municipality of Campinas, three of them with strategic points classified as high, moderate, and low risk according to infestation and a control area, without strategic points. Between October 2015 and September 2016, we monthly installed oviposition traps and evaluated the infestation by Ae. aegypti in all properties of each selected area. To verify if there was vector dispersion from each strategic point, based on its location, we investigated the formation of clusters with excess of eggs or larvae or pupae containers, using the Gi spatial statistics. RESULTS: The amount of eggs collected in the ovitraps and the number of positive containers for Ae. aegypti did not show clusters of high values concerning its distance from the strategic point. Both presented random distribution not spatially associated with the positioning of strategic points in the area. CONCLUSIONS: Strategic points are not confirmed as responsible for the vector's dispersion for properties in their surroundings. We highlight the importance of reviewing the current strategy of the vector control program in Brazil, seeking a balance from the technical, operational, and economic point of view, without disregarding the role of strategic points as major producers of mosquitoes and their importance in the dissemination of arboviruses in periods of transmission.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar se locais com grande quantidade de potenciais criadouros de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, denominados pontos estratégicos, influenciam a dispersão ativa do vetor aos imóveis no seu entorno. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas quatro áreas no município de Campinas, três delas com pontos estratégicos classificados como alto, médio e baixo risco segundo a infestação e uma área controle, sem ponto estratégico. Entre outubro de 2015 e setembro de 2016, instalaram-se mensalmente armadilhas de oviposição e avaliou-se a infestação por Ae. aegypti em todos os imóveis de cada área selecionada. Para verificar se houve dispersão do vetor a partir de cada ponto estratégico, com base em sua localização, investigou-se a formação de aglomerados com excesso de ovos ou de recipientes com larvas ou pupas, utilizando a estatística espacial Gi. RESULTADOS: o número de ovos coletados nas ovitrampas e o número de recipientes positivos para Ae. aegypti não apresentaram aglomerados de altos valores relativos à sua distância do ponto estratégico. Ambos apresentaram distribuição aleatória não associada espacialmente com o posicionamento dos pontos estratégicos na área. CONCLUSÕES: Pontos estratégicos não se confirmaram como responsáveis pela dispersão do vetor para os imóveis no seu entorno. Destaca-se a importância de rever a estratégia atual do programa de controle de vetores do Brasil, buscando um equilíbrio do ponto de vista técnico, operacional e econômico, sem desconsiderar o papel dos pontos estratégicos como grandes produtores de mosquitos e sua importância na disseminação de arboviroses em momentos de transmissão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Pupa/growth & development , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Urban Population , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Mosquito Control/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Aedes/virology , Dengue/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Animal Distribution/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8339, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039262

ABSTRACT

A progressive increase in the circulation of arboviruses in tropical countries has been observed, accounting for 700,000 yearly deaths in the world. The main objective of this article was to identify the presence of Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in immature stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Household collections of immature phases of the vectors were carried out in the years 2015 and 2016. A total of 2902 dwellings were visited and the rate of infestation with larvae and pupae of Aedes mosquitoes was 283/1462 (19.4%) in March 2015 and 55/1440 (3.8%) in June 2015. In March 2015, 907 larvae/pupae were collected (583 or 64.3% of Ae. aegypti and 324 or 35.7% of Ae. albopictus) while in June 2015 there was a reduction in the number of immature forms found: 197 larvae/pupae (121 or 61.4% of Ae. aegypti and 76 or 38.6% of Ae. albopictus). This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in suspected human ZIKV cases from March to June 2015. The RT-qPCR performed in 18 pools identified that three (two of Ae. aegypti and one of Ae. albopictus) were positive for ZIKV, and none were positive for DENV or CHIKV. Our findings demonstrated that ZIKV was present in immature stages of insect vectors in the study region at least five months prior to the peak of ZIKV associated cases. Xenomonitoring of immature phases of the vectors may prove useful for predicting outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Aedes/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Seasons , RNA, Viral/analysis , Aedes/classification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/classification
16.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018411, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019841

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as expansões temporal e geográfica da circulação do vírus Zika (ZIKV) em países e territórios, desde seu isolamento até 2018. Métodos: revisão não sistemática da literatura do período entre 1947 e 2018, utilizando a base MEDLINE e estimativas da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Resultados: desde seu isolamento em 1947, a circulação do ZIKV expandiu-se pela África, Ásia e Pacífico, até chegar à América em 2013, causando manifestações clínicas graves; as maiores soroprevalências foram registradas na ilha de Yap (74%) e no Brasil (63%); mutações genéticas, a ausência de imunidade e a alta susceptibilidade dos vetores podem ter influenciado sua transmissibilidade e ajudam a explicar a magnitude de sua expansão. Conclusão: a expansão da circulação do ZIKV nas Américas foi a mais ampla já registrada, possivelmente resultado de características populacionais e geográficas dos locais por onde o vírus circulou.


Objetivo: Describir las expansiones temporal y geográfica de la circulación del virus Zika en países y territorios, desde su aislamiento hasta 2018. Métodos: Revisión no sistemática de la literatura del período comprendido entre 1947 y 2018 utilizando la base MEDLINE y estimaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: Desde su aislamiento en 1947 la circulación del virus Zika se expandió por África, Asia y el Pacífico hasta llegar a América en 2013, causando manifestaciones clínicas graves. Las mayores seroprevalencias se registraron en la isla Yap (74%) y en Brasil (63%). Mutaciones genéticas, ausencia de inmunidad y alta susceptibilidad de los vectores pueden haber influenciado su transmisibilidad y ayudan a explicar la magnitud de su expansión. Conclusión: La expansión de la circulación del virus Zika en las Américas fue la más amplia ya registrada, posiblemente como resultado de características poblacionales y geográficas de los lugares por donde el virus circuló.


Objective: to describe the temporal and geographical expansion of Zika virus (ZIKV) circulation in countries and territories, from the time it was first isolated until 2018. Methods: This was a non-systematic literature review covering the period from 1947 to 2018 using the MEDLINE database and World Health Organization estimates. Results: Since its isolation in 1947, ZIKV circulation spread through Africa, Asia and the Pacific before reaching the Americas in 2013, causing serious clinical manifestations; the highest seroprevalence rates were recorded in Yap (74%) and in Brazil (63%); genetic mutations, absence of immunity and high vector susceptibility may have influenced ZIKV transmissibility and help to explain the magnitude of its expansion. Conclusion: The spread of ZIKV circulation in the Americas was the most extensive recorded thus far, possibly as a result of population and geographical characteristics of the sites where the virus circulated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Epidemics/history , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/history , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Global Health/trends , Prevalence , Aedes/virology , Africa/epidemiology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190060, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041555

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to identify DENV-2 subtypes in Aedes aegypti pools collected between 2011 and 2017 in a rural area of Northern Cordoba, Colombia ("La Balsa"). METHODS: RT-PCR was performed to analyze the capsid/pre-membrane region (C-PrM). Sequencing and phylogenetic bayesian inference using reference DENV-2 sequences were performed. RESULTS: Twelve pools that tested positive for DENV-2 were characterized based on the C-PrM region and grouped under the Asian/American clade. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report the DENV-2 Asian-American subtype in a rural area of Cordoba region, which is associated with severe dengue and local epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Aedes/virology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Serotyping , Bayes Theorem , Colombia/epidemiology , Severe Dengue , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Serogroup
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190150, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) infections reported in recent epidemics have been linked to clinical complications that had never been associated with ZIKV before. Adaptive mutations could have contributed to the successful emergence of ZIKV as a global health threat to a nonimmune population. However, the causal relationships between the ZIKV genetic determinants, the pathogenesis and the rapid spread in Latin America and in the Caribbean remain widely unknown. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to characterise three ZIKV isolates obtained from patient samples during the 2015/2016 Brazilian epidemics. METHODS The ZIKV genomes of these strains were completely sequenced and in vitro infection kinetics experiments were carried out in cell lines and human primary cells. FINDINGS Eight nonsynonymous substitutions throughout the viral genome of the three Brazilian isolates were identified. Infection kinetics experiments were carried out with mammalian cell lines A549, Huh7.5, Vero E6 and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs) and insect cells (Aag2, C6/36 and AP61) and suggest that some of these mutations might be associated with distinct viral fitness. The clinical isolates also presented differences in their infectivity rates when compared to the well-established ZIKV strains (MR766 and PE243), especially in their abilities to infect mammalian cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Genomic analysis of three recent ZIKV isolates revealed some nonsynonymous substitutions, which could have an impact on the viral fitness in mammalian and insect cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes/virology , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phylogeny , Virus Cultivation , Virus Replication , Vero Cells , Brazil , Chlorocebus aethiops , Viral Load
19.
Ribeirão Preto; s.n; 2019. 121 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1425666

ABSTRACT

A dengue é considerada uma das mais importantes arboviroses reemergentes em termos de morbidade, letalidade e implicações econômicas e ocorre em todas as regiões tropicais e subtropicais do planeta. tem demonstrado tendência ascendente, devido as suas condições ambientais, climáticas e a ineficiência das políticas públicas. No município em estudo nos últimos dez anos a cidade sofreu várias epidemias de dengue com aumento dos casos graves, hospitalizações e óbitos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial e a evolução temporal da incidência da dengue e sua correlação com variáveis entomológicas e climáticas em um município brasileiro de tríplice fronteira, no período de agosto de 2006 a julho de 2016. O estudo foi desenvolvido na cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Foram feitas as análises descritivas, espaciais, temporais e analíticas, seguidas de testes de regressão linear simples para avaliar a correlação entre as variáveis, utilizando o programa estatístico "R". Foram avaliados a correlação entre a variáveis incidência da dengue e fatores climáticos e entomológicos para os anos epidêmicos e não epidêmicos em relação ao mesmo mês, um, dois e três meses antes da ocorrência da incidência da doença. Os dados foram coletados de fontes secundárias dos Sistemas de Informações em Saúde, disponibilizados pela Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. A base territorial geográfica utilizada foi a unidade de estrato. Os resultados mostraram que os anos epidêmicos apresentou 60% do período estudado. A incidência da doença nos anos epidêmicos foi alta, ultrapassando a 1000 casos/100 mil/habitantes e acometeu todas as regiões da cidade. Os resultados dos testes de regressão, apresentaram correlação negativa da dengue com índice de infestação Predial, para os anos epidêmicos, e positiva para os anos não epidêmicos com intervalo de dois e três meses. houve correlação positiva da dengue para os anos de epidemia com o índice de infestação do mosquito adulto, com intervalo de três meses, com a umidade relativa do ar em período simultâneo, dias de chuvas, média da temperatura média e média da temperatura máxima, com intervalo de um e dois meses, pluviosidade com intervalos de um, dois e três meses. Sendo assim pode inferir que o índice e infestação predial é fraco em estimar o risco de transmissão da doença, embora seja preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde para esse fim. O clima foi um dos principais fatores a responderem pela incidência da dengue. O intervalo de três meses, em relação ao início das epidemias, mostrou-se o período mais oportuno para realizar as ações de controle do vetor. Conclui-se que os resultados desta pesquisa podem contribuir proporcionado a precocidade da informação e viabilizando a tomada de decisão em tempo oportuno de forma a focalizar as áreas de maior risco e desta forma otimizar o serviço de campo e a prevenção das doenças causadas pelo Aedes aegypti


Dengue is considered one of the most important reemerging arboviruses in terms of morbidity, lethality and economic implications and occurs in all tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. has shown an upward trend due to its environmental, climatic conditions and the inefficiency of public policies. In the city under study in the last ten years the city suffered several epidemics of dengue with an increase in severe cases, hospitalizations and deaths. The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of dengue incidence and its correlation with entomological and climatic variables in a Brazilian municipality of triple border, from August 2006 to July 2016. The study was developed in the city of Foz do Iguaçu. Descriptive, spatial and temporal analyzes were performed, followed by simple linear regression tests to evaluate the correlation between the variables, using the statistical program "R". The correlation between the variables dengue incidence and climatic and entomological factors for the epidemic and non-epidemic years in relation to the same month, one, two and three months before the occurrence of the disease was evaluated. Data were collected from secondary sources of the Health Information Systems, made available by the Municipal Health Department. The geographic territorial base used was the stratum unit. The results showed that the epidemic years presented 60% of the studied period. The incidence of the disease in the epidemic years was high, surpassing 1000 cases / 100 thousand / inhabitants and affected all regions of the city. The results of the regression tests showed a negative correlation of dengue with Predial infestation index for the epidemic years and positive for the non - epidemic years with two - and three - month intervals. there was a positive correlation between dengue in the epidemic years and the adult mosquito infestation index, with a three-month interval, with the relative humidity of the air in the same period, rainy days, average temperature and mean maximum temperature, with interval of one and two months, rainfall with intervals of one, two and three months. Therefore, it can be inferred that the index and land infestation is weak in estimating the risk of transmission of the disease, although it is recommended by the Ministry of Health for this purpose. The climate was one of the main factors responding to the incidence of dengue. The three-month interval, in relation to the beginning of the epidemics, proved to be the most opportune period to carry out the vector control actions. It is concluded that the results of this research can contribute to the precocity of information and enable decision making in a timely manner in order to focus on the areas of greatest risk and thus optimize the field service and prevention of diseases caused by Aedes aegypti


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate , Aedes/virology , Dengue/prevention & control , Spatial Analysis
20.
Femina ; 46(5): 317-323, 20181031. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050135

ABSTRACT

A infecção congênita pelo zika vírus (ZIKV) tornou-se uma pandemia em meados de 2015 e é considerada uma emergência em saúde pública de interesse mundial, no que tange à prevalência, transmissão e possíveis sequelas neurológicas fetais. O artigo busca realizar uma revisão sobre a infecção do ZIKV na gestação e suas consequências para o feto. Realizada revisão a partir de estudos qualitativo, retrospectivo e documental, baseando-se em levantamento de produções científicas publicadas entre 2016 e 2018. Por meio da estratégia de busca, localizou-se 194 artigos, dos quais 28 foram selecionados para redação final. Conclui-se que as alterações ultrassonográficas, advindas de infecção no primeiro e segundo trimestre, são devidas à ação viral direta, efeito de imunoglobulinas e alterações na placentação. As alterações fetais são sobretudo as neurológicas, cardíacas e oftalmológicas. Gestantes com infecção comprovada, ou suspeitada, devem ser acompanhadas até o parto. Os investimentos em medicamentos e vacinas devem ser continuados.(AU)


Congenital zika virus (ZIKV) infection has become pandemic by mid-2015 and is considered a public health emergency of global concern with regard to prevalence, transmission and possible fetal neurological sequelae. The article aims to review the ZIKV infection in pregnancy and its consequences for the fetus. A review was carried out based on a qualitative, retrospective and documental studies, based on a survey of scientific productions published between 2016 and 2018. Through the search strategy, 194 articles were found, of which 28 were selected for final writing. It is concluded that ultrasonographic changes, due to infection in the first and second trimester, are due to direct viral action, immunoglobulins effect and changes in placentation. Fetal alterations are especially those neurological, cardiac and ophthalmologic. Pregnant women with proven or suspected infection should be followed up until delivery. Investments in drugs and vaccines should be continued.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Databases, Bibliographic , Aedes/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Microcephaly/diagnostic imaging
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