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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

ABSTRACT

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus pumilus/metabolism , Sewage , Temperature , Dietary Fiber , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
2.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 52(4): 61-70, dic. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340921

ABSTRACT

Resumen La demanda de xilanasas fúngicas en los procesos biotecnológicos industriales muestra un claro aumento en todo el mundo, por lo que hay un interés en ajustar las condiciones de producción de xilanasas microbianas. En este estudio se optimizó la capacidad del hongo Fusarium solani para producir xilanasas extracelulares con escasa actividad celulolítica mediante el diseño de Box-Wilson. Se determinaron las mejores condiciones de cultivo para obtener una preparación enzimática cruda con una actividad xilanolítica significativa y poca actividad celulolítica. En la mayoría de los tratamientos, la actividad xilanolítica fue mayor que la actividad celulolítica. Se observó un efecto negativo sobre la producción de endoxilanasas, p-xilosidasasy endocelulasascon el aumento de la concentración dexilano. El aumento del tiempo de incubación afectó adversamente la producción de endocelulasas y p-xilosidasas. De acuerdo con el modelo matemático y las pruebas experimentales, es posible producir endoxilanasas con una actividad endocelulasa mínima aumentando el tiempo de incubación y la concentración de sulfato de amonio. Las condiciones de cultivo óptimas para producir una mayor cantidad de endoxilanasas (10,65 U/mg) y mínima cantidad de endocelulasas fueron 2,5% (p/v) de xilano y 5, 2 y 0,4 g/l de extracto de levadura, sulfato de amonio y urea, respectivamente, con 120 h de incubación.


Resumen La demanda de xilanasas fúngicas en los procesos biotecnológicos industriales muestra un claro aumento en todo el mundo, por lo que hay un interés en ajustar las condicionesde producción de xilanasas microbianas. En este estudio se optimizó la capacidad del hongo Fusarium solani para producir xilanasas extracelulares con escasa actividad celulolítica medi-ante el dise˜no de Box-Wilson. Se determinaron las mejores condiciones de cultivo para obteneruna preparación enzimática cruda con una actividad xilanolítica significativa y poca actividad celulolítica. En la mayoría de los tratamientos, la actividad xilanolítica fue mayor que laactividad celulolítica. Se observó un efecto negativo sobre la producción de endoxilanasas, xylanolytic activity and little cellulolytic activity. In most treatments, the xylanolytic activity was higher than the cellulolytic activity. A negative effect on the production of endoxylanases, p-xylosidases and endocellulases was observed with the increasing of xylan concentration. Increasing the incubation time adversely affected the production of endocellulases and p-xylosidases. According to the mathematical model and experimental tests, it is possible to produce endoxylanases with minimal endocellulase activity increasing incubation time and the concentration of ammonium sulfate. The optimal culture conditions to produce a greater amount of endoxylanases (10.65 U/mg) and low endocellulases from F. solani were: 2.5% (w/v) xylan, 5.0, 2.0 and 0.4g/l, of yeast extract, ammonium sulfate and urea, respectively, with 120 h of incubation.


Subject(s)
Cellulases , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/biosynthesis , Fermentation , Research Design , Industrial Microbiology , Fusarium , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 920-931, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826884

ABSTRACT

The capacity for thermal tolerance is critical for industrial enzyme. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to endow wild-type enzymes with higher catalytic activity or thermostability using gene engineering and protein engineering strategies. In this study, a recently developed SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, mediated by isopeptide bond-ligation, was used to modify a rumen microbiota-derived xylanase XYN11-6 as cyclized and stable enzyme C-XYN11-6. After incubation at 60, 70 or 80 ℃ for 10 min, the residual activities of C-XYN11-6 were 81.53%, 73.98% or 64.41%, which were 1.48, 2.92 or 3.98-fold of linear enzyme L-XYN11-6, respectively. After exposure to 60-90°C for 10 min, the C-XYN11-6 remained as soluble in suspension, while L-XYN11-6 showed severely aggregation. Intrinsic and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS)-binding fluorescence analysis revealed that C-XYN11-6 was more capable of maintaining its conformation during heat challenge, compared with L-XYN11-6. Interestingly, molecular cyclization also conferred C-XYN11-6 with improved resilience to 0.1-50 mmol/L Ca²⁺ or 0.1 mmol/L Cu²⁺ treatment. In summary, we generated a thermal- and ion-stable cyclized enzyme using SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, which will be of particular interest in engineering of enzymes for industrial application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclization , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Chemistry , Metabolism , Enzyme Stability , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Microbiota , Protein Engineering , Rumen , Microbiology , Temperature
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190243, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132163

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the production of endoxylanases by Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3 in submerged fermentation using by-products of the food industry at 28ºC. In shake-flasks experiments, the highest endoxylanase activity of 45.8 U.mL-1 was observed within 6 days in a medium containing (w/v) 2.5% wheat bran and 1.2% corn steep liquor. The same culture conditions were used to evaluate the enzyme production in a 2 L stirred tank reactor under different agitation (300, 450 and 600 rev.min-1) and aeration (30 and 60 L.h-1) conditions. The use of 450 rev.min-1 coupled to an aeration of 90 L.h-1 resulted on 81.3 U.mL-1 endoxylanase activity within 5 days. The effect of temperature and pH on endoxylanase activity and stability showed the highest activity at 60 ºC and pH 6.0. Zymography showed the presence of three xylanolytic bands with molecular masses of 690, 180 and 142 kDa. The results showed that the thermotolerant actinobacterial endoxylanase can be produced in high titers using by-product of the food industry.


Subject(s)
Streptomyces/enzymology , Temperature , Food Industry , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/biosynthesis , Fermentation
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 33: 39-45, May. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022849

ABSTRACT

Background: In this work, the xylanase production by Penicillium chrysogenum F-15 strain was investigated using agroindustrial biomass as substrate. The xylanase was purified, characterized and applied in hemicellulose hydrolysis. Results: The highest xylanase production was obtained when cultivation was carried out with sugar cane bagasse as carbon source, at pH 6.0 and 20°C, under static condition for 8 d. The enzyme was purified by a sequence of ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography, presenting final specific activity of 834.2 U·mg·prot-1. T he molecular mass of the purified enzyme estimated by SDS-PAGE was 22.1 kDa. The optimum activity was at pH 6.5 and 45°C. The enzyme was stable at 40°C with half-life of 35 min, and in the pH range from 4.5 to 10.0. The activity was increased in the presence of Mg+2 and Mn+2 and reducing agents such as DTT and ßmercaptoethanol, but it was reduced by Cu+2 and Pb+2 . The xylanase presented Km of 2.3 mM and Vmax of 731.8 U·mg·prot-1 with birchwood xylan as substrate. This xylanase presented differences in its properties when it was compared to the xylanases from other P. chrysogenum strains. Conclusion: The xylanase from P. chrysogenum F-15 showed lower enzymatic activity on commercial xylan than on hemicellulose from agroindustry biomass and its biochemistry characteristics, such as stability at 40°C and pH from 4.0 to 10.0, shows the potential of this enzyme for application in food, feed, pulp and paper industries and for bioethanol production.


Subject(s)
Penicillium chrysogenum/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/biosynthesis , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Biomass , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/isolation & purification , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1996-2006, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771409

ABSTRACT

Efficient utilization of cellulose and xylan is of importance in the bioethanol industry. In this study, a novel bifunctional xylanase/cellulase gene, Tcxyn10a, was cloned from Thermoascus crustaceus JCM12803, and the gene product was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant protein was then purified and characterized. The pH and temperature optima of TcXyn10A were determined to be 5.0 and 65-70 °C, respectively. The enzyme retained stable under acid to alkaline conditions (pH 3.0-11.0) or after 1-h treatment at 60 °C. The specific activities of TcXyn10A towards beechwood xylan, wheat arabinoxylan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and lichenan were (1 480±26) U/mg, (2 055±28) U/mg, (7.4±0.2) U/mg and (10.9±0.4) U/mg, respectively. Homologous modeling and molecular docking analyses indicated that the bifunctional TcXyn10A has a single catalytic domain, in which the substrate xylan and cellulose shared the same binding cleft. This study provides a valuable material for the study of structure and function relationship of bifunctional enzymes.


Subject(s)
Cellulase , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Enzyme Stability , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pichia , Substrate Specificity , Thermoascus
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(4): 267-273, dic. 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843173

ABSTRACT

Macrophomina phaseolina is a polyphagous phytopathogen, causing stalk rot on many commercially important species. Damages caused by this pathogen in soybean and maize crops in Argentina during drought and hot weather have increased due its ability to survive as sclerotia in soil and crop debris under non-till practices. In this work, we explored the in vitro production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes --#91;pectinases (polygalacturonase and polymethylgalacturonase); cellulases (endoglucanase); hemicellulases (endoxylanase) and the ligninolytic enzyme laccase--#93; by several Argentinean isolates of M. phaseolina, and assessed the pathogenicity of these isolates as a preliminary step to establish the role of these enzymes in M. phaseolina-maize interaction. The isolates were grown in liquid synthetic medium supplemented with glucose, pectin, carboxymethylcellulose or xylan as carbon sources and/or enzyme inducers and glutamic acid as nitrogen source. Pectinases were the first cell wall-degrading enzymes detected and the activities obtained (polygalacturonase activity was between 0.4 and 1.3 U/ml and polymethylgalacturonase between 0.15 and 1.3 U/ml) were higher than those of cellulases and xylanases, which appeared later and in a lesser magnitude. This sequence would promote initial tissue maceration followed by cell wall degradation. Laccase was detected in all the isolates evaluated (activity was between 36 U/l and 63 U/l). The aggressiveness of the isolates was tested in maize, sunflower and watermelon seeds, being high on all the plants assayed. This study reports for the first time the potential of different isolates of M. phaseolina to produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in submerged fermentation.


Macrophomina phaseolina es un fitopatógeno polífago, causante de podredumbre carbonosa. Los daños que genera en cultivos de soja y maíz bajo siembra directa en Argentina, en períodos secos y calurosos, se incrementaron por su habilidad para sobrevivir como esclerocios en suelos y restos de cosecha. El propósito del trabajo fue estudiar la producción in vitro de enzimas degradadoras de pared celular vegetal (pectinasas --#91;poligalacturonasa y polimetilgalacturonasa--#93;; celulasas --#91;endoglucanasa--#93;; hemicelulasas --#91;endoxilanasa--#93; y la enzima ligninolítica lacasa) de varios aislamientos argentinos de M. phaseolina y evaluar la patogenicidad de esos aislamientos, como paso preliminar para establecer el papel de estas enzimas en la interacción M. phaseolina-maíz. Se estudió la cinética de crecimiento del hongo y la de la producción de dichas enzimas en medios de cultivo líquidos sintéticos con ácido glutámico como fuente de nitrógeno y con pectina, carboximetilcelulosa (CMC) o xilano como fuentes de carbono. Las pectinasas fueron las primeras enzimas detectadas y los máximos títulos registrados (1,4 UE/ml --#91;poligalacturonasa--#93; y 1,2 UE/ml --#91;polimetilgalacturonasa--#93;, respectivamente) superaron a los de celulasas y xilanasas, que aparecieron más tardíamente y en menor magnitud. Esta secuencia promovería la maceración inicial del tejido, seguida luego por la degradación de la pared celular vegetal. Se detectó actividad lacasa en todos los aislamientos (36 a 63 U/l). La agresividad de todos los aislamientos resultó alta en los 3 hospedantes evaluados: semillas de maíz, de girasol y de melón. En este trabajo se investiga por primera vez el potencial de distintos aislamientos de M. phaseolina para producir enzimas degradadoras de pared celular vegetal en cultivo líquido.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Cell Wall/enzymology , Zea mays/enzymology , Zea mays/parasitology , Polygalacturonase/isolation & purification , Cellulase/isolation & purification , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/isolation & purification
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(4): 16-25, July 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-793948

ABSTRACT

Background: Xylanase from bacteria finds use in prebleaching process and bioconversion of lignocelluloses into feedstocks. The xylanolytic enzyme brings about the hydrolysis of complex biomolecules into simple monomer units. This study aims to optimize the cellulase-free xylanase production and cell biomass of Bacillus tequilensis strain ARMATI using response surface methodology (RSM). Results: Statistical screening of medium constituents and the physical factors affecting xylanase and biomass yield of the isolate were optimized by RSM using central composite design at N = 30, namely 30 experimental runs with 4 independent variables. The central composite design showed 3.7 fold and 1.5 fold increased xylanase production and biomass yield of the isolate respectively compared to 'one factor at a time approach',inthe presence of the basal medium containing birchwood xylan (1.5% w/v) and yeast extract (1% w/v), incubated at 40°C for 24 h. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed high coefficient of determination (R2)of0.9978 and 0.9906 for the respective responses at significant level (p < 0.05). The crude xylanase obtained from the isolate showed stability at high temperature (60°C) and alkaline condition (pH 9) up to 4 h of incubation. Conclusions: The cellulase-free xylanase showed an alkali-tolerant and thermo-stable property with potentially applicable nature at industrial scale. This statistical approach established a major contribution in enzyme production from the isolate by optimizing independent factors and represents a first reference on the enhanced production of thermo-alkali stable cellulase-free xylanase from B. tequilensis.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/enzymology , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/biosynthesis , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Analysis of Variance , Biomass , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(4): 307-313, July 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757869

ABSTRACT

Background Two xylanases, Xyl I and Xyl II, were purified from the crude extracellular extract of a Trichoderma inhamatum strain cultivated in liquid medium with oat spelts xylan. Results The molecular masses of the purified enzymes estimated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration were, respectively, 19 and 14 kDa for Xyl I and 21 and 14.6 kDa for Xyl II. The enzymes are glycoproteins with optimum activity at 50°C in pH 5.0-5.5 for Xyl I and 5.5 for Xyl II. The xylanases were very stable at 40°C and in the pH ranges from 4.5-6.5 for Xyl I and 4.0-8.0 for Xyl II. The ion Hg2+ and the detergent SDS strongly reduced the activity while 1,4-dithiothreitol stimulated both enzymes. The xylanases showed specificity for xylan, Km and Vmax of 14.5, 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 2680.2 and 462.2 U·mg of protein-1 (Xyl I) and 10.7, 4.0 mg·mL-1 and 4553.7 and 1972.7 U·mg of protein-1 (Xyl II) on oat spelts and birchwood xylan, respectively. The hydrolysis of oat spelts xylan released xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetrose and larger xylooligosaccharides. Conclusions The enzymes present potential for application in industrial processes that require activity in acid conditions, wide-ranging pH stability, such as for animal feed, or juice and wine industries.


Subject(s)
Trichoderma/enzymology , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/isolation & purification , Enzyme Stability , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/chemistry
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 828-837, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279468

ABSTRACT

Xylanase is the key enzyme to degrade xylan that is a major component of hemicellulose. The enzyme has potential industrial applications in the food, feed, paper and flax degumming industries. The use of xylanases becomes more and more important in the paper industry for bleaching purposes. Xylanases used in the pulp bleaching process should be stable and active at high temperature and alkaline pH. Thermophilic and alkalophilic xylanases could be obtained by screening the wild type xylanases or engineering the mesophilic and neutral enzymes. In this paper, we reviewed recent progress of screening of the thermophilic and alkalophilic xylanases, molecular mechanism of thermal and alkaline adaptation and molecular engineering. Future research prospective was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Chemistry , Enzyme Stability , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Paper , Protein Engineering
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1217-1224, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345603

ABSTRACT

Thermophilic and alkalophilic xylanases have great potential in the pulp bleaching industry. In order to improve the thermal stability of an alkaline family 11 xylanase Xyn11A-LC, aromatic residues were introduced into the N-terminus of the enzyme by rational design. The mutant increased the optimum temperature by 5 degrees C. The wild type had a half-time of 22 min at 65 degrees C and pH 8.0 (Tris-HCl buffer). Under the same condition, the mutant had the half-time of 106 min. CD spectroscopy revealed that the melting temperature (T(m)) values of the wild type and mutant were 55.3 degrees C and 67.9 degrees C, respectively. These results showed that the introduction of aromatic residues could enhance the thermal stability of Xyn11A-LC.


Subject(s)
Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Chemistry , Enzyme Stability , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Protein Engineering , Temperature
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Nov; 51(11): 875-884
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149393

ABSTRACT

Xylanases are a group of depolymerizing enzymes often used for the hydrolysis of xylan (present in hemicellulose) to monomeric sugars and comprise endo-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) and β-xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37). They often act in synergy with other enzymes for complete hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Xylanases find several industrial applications, for example in food and feed industries, paper and pulp industries and more recently have acquired a great role in biomass to biofuels program. Bacteria and fungi can best produce xylanases. Recent developments in rDNA technology have resulted in molecular cloning and expression of xylanases in heterologous and homologous hosts. In view of significance of the actinomycetes for the production of biotechnological products, attempts have been made in recent years to explore them for the production of industrial enzymes, including xylanses, aiming to find the enzyme with novel features. This review provides the state-of-art information and developments on the xylanases from actinomycetes, presenting the production, purification, characterization and over-expression from various actinomycetes cultures.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/enzymology , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/biosynthesis , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/isolation & purification , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/metabolism
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jul; 51(7): 556-566
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147627

ABSTRACT

An efficient conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars is a key step in producing bioethanol in a cost effective and eco-friendly manner. Alternative source like water hyacinth biomass (WHB) (Eichhornia crassipes) may be used as a supplement for the routine feedstocks. The enzyme loading for optimum yield of total reducing sugar was investigated and the enzyme-substrate interaction optimised. The maximal reducing sugar and xylose yield was obtained using cellulase and xylanase loading of 46.12 and 289.98 U/g and 2.26% (w/v) substrate loading. The efficiencies of ethanol production from the WHB hydrolysate are very less and the maximal ethanol yield was 3.4969 g/L when Pichia stiptis was used, followed by 3.4496 and 3.1349 g/L for Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Candida/metabolism , Carbohydrates , Cellulases/metabolism , Eichhornia/metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism , Pichia/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1441-1449, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342382

ABSTRACT

A mesophilic xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae, abbreviated to AoXyn11A, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 11. Using AoXyn11A as the parent, the thermotolerant hybrid xylanase, we constructed AEx11A by substituting its N-terminus with the corresponding region of a hyperthermostable family 11 xylanase, EvXyn11(TS). AoXyn11A- and AEx11A-encoding genes were expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 separately, and effects of temperatures on expressed products were determined and compared. The optimum temperature (T(opt)) of AEx11A was 75 degrees C and its half-life at 70 degrees C (t1/2(70)) was 197 min, improved as compared with those (T(opt) = 50 degrees C, t1/2(70) = 1.0 min) of AoXyn11A. Homology modeling of the AEx11A's structure and comparison between structures of AEx11A and AoXyn11A revealed that one disulfide bridge (Cys5-Cys32) was introduced into AEx11A resulted from N-terminus substitution. To explore the effect of the disulfide bridge on the thermostability of AEx11A, it was removed from AEx11A by site-directed mutagenesis (C5T). Analytical results show that the T(opt) of the mutant AEx11A (AEx11A(C5T)) dropped to 60 degrees C from 75 degrees C of AEx11A, and its t1/2(70) and t1/2(80) also decreased to 3.0 and 1.0 min from 197 and 25 min.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Aspergillus oryzae , Base Sequence , Disulfides , Chemistry , Metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Chemistry , Genetics , Enzyme Stability , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Methods , Pichia , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Engineering , Methods , Recombinant Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 393-397, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351521

ABSTRACT

High-concentration sugars production from stover is an important perspective technology for the cellulosic ethanol industrialization. Fed-batch process is an effective way to achieve this goal in the fermentation industry. In this study, based on fed-batch process, high-concentration sugars were produced from pretreated corn stover by enzymatic hydrolysis. After being pretreated by the dilute sulphuric acid, the impacts of the ratio of solid raw material to liquid culture, the content of supplementary materials and the refilling time on the saccharification rate were investigated. Results showed that the initial ratio of solid raw material to liquid culture was 20% (W/V) and the initial concentrations of enzymes for xylanase, cellulose and pectinase were 220 U, 6 FPU, and 50 U per gram of substrates, respectively. After 24 hours and 48 hours, 8% pretreated corn stovers were added respectively together with the additions of xylanase (20 U) and cellulose (2 FPU) per gram of substrates. After 72 hours, the final concentration of reducing sugar was increased to 138.5 g/L from 48.5 g/L of the non fed-batch process. The rate of enzyme hydrolysis of the raw material was 62.5% of the thoretical value in the fed-batch process. This study demonstrated that the fed-batch process could significantly improve the concentration of reducing sugar.


Subject(s)
Batch Cell Culture Techniques , Methods , Carbohydrates , Cellulase , Metabolism , Cellulose , Metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Metabolism , Ethanol , Metabolism , Fermentation , Hydrolysis , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Metabolism , Zea mays , Chemistry
16.
Egyptian Journal of Microbiology. 2011; 46: 79-94
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170486

ABSTRACT

The use of waste as raw material is important for government economy and natural balance. This article investigates a strain of Aspergillus niger for xylanase production in solid state fermentation [SSF] using different agricultural residues without pretreatment. The organism produced 164.4 [micro mol/ ml/min] of xylanase in static flask on corn cob, an inexpensive lignocellulosic biomass, without enrichment of medium [only distilled water]. Using surfactant solution [Tween 80, 1%] for enzyme extraction from solid substrate increased the yield by 515%. Maximum xyianase activity was recorded at 55°C, with high activity at wide range of temperature [50-60°C]. The enzyme produced on corn cob showed good thermal stability with residual activity of 62.1 and 54.3% after 2 hr incubation at 50 and 60°C, respectively, Addition of glycerol [50%] improved stability against temperature by 19.9% after incubation at 60°C for 1hr, and 17.8% after incubation at 60°C for 2 hr. The optimum pH for the enzyme activity was 4.5, increasing pH causing decreasing in activity. Xylanase enzyme was stable at different pH's after 1 hr with remaining activity of 89.6% and 55.0%, respectively at pH 4.0 and 9.0. The enzyme possessed 70.6 and 37.6% of its activity by storage at room temperature after 10 and 30 days. In presence of metal ions such as Na[2+], Ca[2+] and protein disulphide reducing agents such as dithiothreitol [DTT], the activity of enzyme was increased by 34.9, 10.7 and 32.8%, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulphate [SDS] and Cu[2+] ion strongly inhibited the enzyme by 56,8 and 23.7%, respectively. Saccarification of different wastes by the enzyme was studied. The highest yield of reducing sugars [20.3 mg/ 200 mg dry weight substrate] was obtained from corn cob with maximum saccharification after 72 hr [71.8%] as compared to other wastes


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/chemical synthesis , Zea mays , Enzyme Stability
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 623-629, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292228

ABSTRACT

We engineered a disulphide bridge between two adjacent double-layered beta-sheet at the N-terminal region of Trichoderma reesei endo-1,4-beta-xylanase II(XYN II) by site-directed mutagenesis. The native xylanase XYN-OU and the mutated xylanase XYN-HA12 (T2C, T28C and S156F) were separately expressed in Pichia pastoris. Both xylanases were purified and characterized. The optimum temperature of XYN-HA12 was increased from 50 degrees C to 60 degrees C, relative to XYN-OU. At 70 degrees C, the halftime of inactivation for XYN-OU and XYN-HA12 were 1 min and 14 min, respectively. The optimum pH of XYN-HA12 was 5.0, similar to XYN-OU. However, XYN-HA12 could retain over 50% activity from pH 3.0 to 10.0 at 50 degrees C for 30 min. As for XYN-OU, it could retain over 50% activity from the pH value 4.0 to 9.0 at 50 degrees C in 30 min. The result of the mutated xylanase indicated that constructed disulphide bridge could improve its thermostability at relatively higher temperature.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , Disulfides , Chemistry , Metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Chemistry , Genetics , Enzyme Stability , Genetics , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Pichia , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Engineering , Methods , Recombinant Proteins , Chemistry , Trichoderma , Genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 290-296, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336229

ABSTRACT

Besides the catalytic domain, some xylanases contained a non-catalytic domain which is named as carbohydrate binding module (CBM). CBM can be used to improve their binding-ability to insoluble substrates. We illustrated the importance of CBM by reviewing the source of CBMs, type of families, features of binding to insoluble substrates, specific amino acids involved in substrate-binding, linker peptides connecting the catalytic domain, and the effect of CBMs on xylanase thermostability. CBM is important for xylanase to break down complicate carbohydrates. Perspectives on engineering xylanase activity according to the characteristics of CBMs were given.


Subject(s)
Binding Sites , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Catalysis , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Metabolism , Multienzyme Complexes , Chemistry , Substrate Specificity
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1921-1926, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336287

ABSTRACT

The aims of this research were to isolate a Aspergillus niger strain with higher beta-glucosidase activity. We utilized the beta-glucosidase producing strain Aspergillus niger CGMCC 3.316 as the original strain to first obtain a mutant 3-3M through ultraviolet irradiation. Then we studied the conditions of protoplast release and regeneration for strain 3-3M. We treated the protoplasts of strain 3-3M via ultraviolet irradiation and obtained another isolated mutant 60B-3D. The strain 60B-3D showed much higher beta-glucosidase production than the original strain and 3-3M strain. The beta-glucosidase activity of strain 60B-3D was 23.4 IU/mL, with an improvement of 39% compared with the original strain, and 23% compared with strain 3-3M. We also studied the fermentation process of strain 60B-3D, and compared it with the original strain and strain 3-3M. We found the strain 60B-3D exhibited an improvement in xylanase production. The comparison results also showed that the strain 60B-3D secreted more protein. These results were beneficial for producing beta-glucosidase through this productive mutant.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Aspergillus niger , Genetics , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases , Fermentation , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis , Mutation , Protoplasts , beta-Glucosidase
20.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2008 Dec; 45(6): 404-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26547

ABSTRACT

The improvement of xylanase production by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum S2 using a liquid fermentation culture was investigated. The optimized process was divided into three basic steps: (i) evaluating xylanase inducers using different agricultural residues such as wheat bran, oat bran, orange peel and barley bran at 1% final concentration, and also filter paper. Among these, wheat bran showed the maximum activity (2.5 U/ml) at 12 days post-inoculation; (ii) for optimization, we determined the optimal concentration of inducer, the effect of phosphate anion (K2HPO4/KH2PO4) and culture aeration using a rotary shaker at 100 and 180 rpm. The optimal conditions for these three factors were determined in an experimental panel using factorial data, in which a mathematical model (Minitab software) was fitted; (iii) The optimized culture medium containing a high level of wheat bran (3%) without KH2PO4-K2HPO4 and submitted to a high agitation (180 rpm/min) increased the xylanase production from 2.5 U/ml to 4 U/ml (1.6-fold).


Subject(s)
Anions/metabolism , Ascomycota/enzymology , Bioreactors , Culture Media , Dietary Fiber/metabolism , Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases/isolation & purification , Extracellular Space/metabolism , Fermentation , Hordeum/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phosphates/metabolism , Statistics as Topic
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