Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.406
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(1): 31-36, mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437216


Asumiendo la metáfora de la encrucijada, propuesta por Santiago Levín, en la que estaría situada la psiquiatría en la actualidad, el presente artículo pretende reflexionar sobre algunos aspectos de una crisis paradigmática de la medicina mental que ha hecho a algunos temer por su futuro. Se abordan algunas cuestiones epistemológicas de cierto calado, como el régimen de "verdad" en el que supuestamente deben manejarse los expertos, así como los dilemas planteados en los dos elementos clave del encuentro clínico: el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. Finalmente, se insiste en la importancia de lo ético, lo social, y lo político a la hora de replantear saberes y prácticas. (AU)

On the understanding we accept where psychiatry would today be located in the metaphor of the crossroads, as proposed by Santiago Levín, the purpose of this article is to explore certain aspects of a paradigmatic crisis in mental medicine that has raised some concerns as to its future. Certain deep epistemological questions are addressed, such as the schema of "truth", where experts should supposedly manage themselves, and the dilemmas raised from the two key elements of a clinical session: diagnosis and treatment. Finally, the study emphasises the importance of the ethical, social, and political aspects of rethinking knowledge and practices. (AU)

Humans , Psychiatry/trends , Psychopathology/trends , Psychotropic Drugs , Mental Health/trends , Psychiatry/ethics , Socioeconomic Factors , Truth Disclosure , Models, Biological
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1783-1793, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007598


Organoids are three-dimensional cellular structures with self-organizing and self-differentiation capacities. They faithfully recapitulate structures and functions of in vivo organs as represented by functionality and microstructural definitions. Heterogeneity in in vitro disease modeling is one of the main reasons for anti-cancer therapy failures. Establishing a powerful model to represent tumor heterogeneity is crucial for elucidating tumor biology and developing effective therapeutic strategies. Tumor organoids can retain the original tumor heterogeneity and are commonly used to mimic the cancer microenvironment when co-cultured with fibroblasts and immune cells; therefore, considerable effort has been made recently to promote the use of this new technology from basic research to clinical studies in tumors. In combination with gene editing technology and microfluidic chip systems, engineered tumor organoids show promising abilities to recapitulate tumorigenesis and metastasis. In many studies, the responses of tumor organoids to various drugs have shown a positive correlation with patient responses. Owing to these consistent responses and personalized characteristics with patient data, tumor organoids show excellent potential for preclinical research. Here, we summarize the properties of different tumor models and review their current state and progress in tumor organoids. We further discuss the substantial challenges and prospects in the rapidly developing tumor organoid field.

Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Organoids/pathology , Carcinogenesis , Models, Biological , Precision Medicine/methods , Tumor Microenvironment
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249756, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345533


Abstract Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.

Resumo O frango Ri é a raça de frango de quintal mais popular do Vietnã, mas pouco se sabe sobre a curva de crescimento dessa raça. Este estudo comparou o desempenho de modelos com três parâmetros (Gompertz, Brody e Logistic) e modelos contendo quatro parâmetros (Richards, Bridges e Janoschek) para descrever o crescimento do frango Ri. O peso corporal do frango Ri foi registrado semanalmente da semana 1 à semana 19. Os modelos de crescimento foram ajustados usando o pacote minpack.lm no software R e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC); critério de informação bayesiano (BIC) e erro quadrático médio (RMSE) foram usados ​​para comparação de modelos. Com base nesses critérios, os modelos com quatro parâmetros apresentaram melhor desempenho do que os com três parâmetros, sendo o modelo de Richards o melhor para homens e mulheres. O menor e o maior valor dos pesos assimétricos (α) foram obtidos pelos modelos Bridges e Brody para cada um dos sexos, respectivamente. A idade e o peso estimados pelo modelo de Richard foram de 8,46 e 7,51 semanas e 696,88 e 487,58 g para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Diferenças nas curvas de crescimento foram observadas entre frangos machos e fêmeas. No geral, os resultados sugeriram o uso do modelo de Richards para descrever a curva de crescimento de frangos Ri. Mais estudos sobre a genética e genômica dos parâmetros de crescimento obtidos são necessários antes de usá-los para o melhoramento genético de frangos Ri.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Chickens , Models, Theoretical , Body Weight , Bayes Theorem , Asian People , Models, Biological
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 471-477, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009380


The finite element method (FEM) is a mathematical method for obtaining approximate solutions to a wide variety of engineering problems. With the development of computer technology, it is gradually applied to the study of biomechanics of human body. The application of the combination of FEM and biomechanics in exploring the relationship between vascular injury and disease, and pathological mechanisms will be a technological innovation for traditional forensic medicine. This paper reviews the construction and development of human vascular FEM modeling, and its research progress on the vascular biomechanics. This paper also looks to the application prospects of FEM modeling in forensic pathology.

Humans , Computer Simulation , Models, Biological , Biomechanical Phenomena , Finite Element Analysis , Forensic Medicine
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 824-831, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385651


SUMMARY: Biomechanical factors are important factors in inducing intervertebral disc degeneration, in this paper, the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties of degenerated intervertebral discs were analyzed experimentally. Firstly, the loading and unloading curves of intervertebral discs before and after degeneration at different strain rates were compared to analyze the changes of their apparent viscoelastic mechanical properties; The internal stress/strain distribution of the disc before and after degeneration was then tested by combining digital image technology and fiber grating technology. The results show that the intervertebral disc is strain-rate- dependent whether before or after degeneration; The modulus of elasticity and peak stress of the degenerated disc are significantly reduced, with the modulus of elasticity dropping to 50 % of the normal value and the peak stress decreasing by about 55 %; Degeneration will not change the distribution of the overall internal displacement of the intervertebral disc, but has a greater impact on the superficial and middle AF; The stress in the center of the nucleus pulposus decreases, and the stress in the outer AF increases after degeneration. Degeneration has a great impact on the nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties of intervertebral disc, which has reference value for the mechanism, treatment and prevention of clinical degenerative diseases.

RESUMEN: Los factores biomecánicos son importantes en la inducción de la degeneración del disco intervertebral. En este estudio se analizaron experimentalmente las propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas no lineales de los discos intervertebrales degenerados. En primer lugar se compararon las curvas de carga y descarga de los discos intervertebrales, antes y después de la degeneración, a diferentes velocidades de deformación para analizar los cambios aparentes de sus propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas. La distribución interna de tensión/deformación del disco antes y después de la degeneración se probó luego combinando tecnología de imagen digital y tecnología de rejilla de fibra. Los resultados mostraron que el disco intervertebral depende de la velocidad de deformación antes o después de la degeneración; El módulo de elasticidad y la tensión máxima del disco degenerado se reducen significativamente, cayendo el módulo de elasticidad al 50 % del valor normal y la tensión máxima disminuyendo en aproximadamente un 55 %; La degeneración no cambiará la distribución del desplazamiento interno general del disco intervertebral, pero tiene un mayor impacto en la FA superficial y media; El estrés en el centro del núcleo pulposo disminuye y el estrés en el FA externo aumenta después de la degeneración. La degeneración tiene un gran impacto en las propiedades mecánicas viscoelásticas no lineales del disco intervertebral, que tiene valor de referencia para el mecanismo, tratamiento y prevención de enfermedades clínicas degenerativas.

Stress, Mechanical , Viscosity , Nonlinear Dynamics , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Biomechanical Phenomena , Elastic Modulus , Models, Biological
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 531-545, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927726


Constraint-based genome-scale metabolic network models (genome-scale metabolic models, GEMs) have been widely used to predict metabolic phenotypes. In addition to stoichiometric constraints, other constraints such as enzyme availability and thermodynamic feasibility may also limit the cellular phenotype solution space. Recently, extended GEM models considering either enzymatic or thermodynamic constraints have been developed to improve model prediction accuracy. This review summarizes the recent progresses on metabolic models with multiple constraints (MCGEMs). We presented the construction methods and various applications of MCGEMs including the simulation of gene knockout, prediction of biologically feasible pathways and identification of bottleneck steps. By integrating multiple constraints in a consistent modeling framework, MCGEMs can predict the metabolic bottlenecks and key controlling and modification targets for pathway optimization more precisely, and thus may provide more reliable design results to guide metabolic engineering of industrially important microorganisms.

Genome , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Models, Biological , Thermodynamics
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1412369


Objective: To test the cross-validation of anthropometric prediction equations for appendicular muscle mass (AMM) in older Brazilian women. Methods: Sixty-seven older women (69.84 ± 5.95 years old) underwent anthropometric measurements. AMM (kg) reference values obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (AMMDXA) were compared to 20 anthropometric equations for estimating AMM in older adults. A paired t-test (p > 0.05), standard error of estimate (SEE < 3.50 kg), and r2 > 0.70 confirmed the validity of the equations. The agreement between predictions and the reference was also verified (Bland-Altman analysis of agreement between methods). Results: Four American equations and one Mexican equation were not statistically different from AMMDXA (p > 0.05) but did not present suitable r2 values for validation. The American equation from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), AMM (kg) = (-0.04 × age [years]) + (0.46 × calf circumference [cm]) + (0.32 × arm circumference [cm]) + (0.11 × thigh circumference [cm]) ­ (0.27 × body mass index [BMI, kg/m2 ]) + (0.07 × waist circumference [cm]) ­ 13 119 showed the best performance (r2 = 0.64; SEE = 3.24 kg), with minimal mean difference (0.26 kg), no heteroscedasticity for extreme values, and with high agreement with the Brazilian sample (-3.90 to 3.40 kg). Conclusion: When specific equations for a given population are not available, the use of generic equations of greater sample representativeness with scientifically and reliably analyzed data is allowed.

Objetivo: Testar a validação cruzada das equações antropométricas preditivas da massa muscular apendicular (MMA) em idosas brasileiras. Metodologia: Sessenta e sete idosas (69,84 ± 5,95 anos) foram submetidas a medidas antropométricas. Os valores de referência da MMA (kg) fornecida pela absorciometria de raios X de dupla energia (MMADXA) foi comparada com 20 equações antropométricas preditivas para estimar a MMA para idosos. Teste t pareado (p > 0,05), erro padrão de estimativa (EPE) < 3,50 kg e r2 > 0,70 confirmaram a validade das equações. A concordância entre as previsões e a referência também foi verificada (análise de concordância entre métodos de Bland-Altman). Resultados: Quatro equações americanas e uma equação mexicana não foram estatisticamente diferentes da MMADXA (p > 0,05), mas nenhuma delas apresentou r2 adequado para validação. A equação americana dos dados do National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), MMA (kg) = (-0,04 × idade [anos]) + (0,46 × circunferência da panturrilha [cm]) + (0,32 × circunferência do braço [cm]) + (0,11 × circunferência da coxa [cm]) ­ (0,27 × índice de massa corporal-IMC [kg/m2 ]) + (0,07 × circunferência da cintura [cm]) ­ 13,12 apresentou o melhor desempenho (r2 = 0,64; EPE = 3,24 kg): com diferença média mínima (0,26 kg), sem heterocedasticidade para valores extremos e alta concordância com a amostra brasileira (-3,90 a 3,40 kg). Conclusão: Quando não existem equações específicas para uma determinada população, é permitida a utilização de equações genéricas de maior representatividade amostral, cujos dados tenham sido analisados de forma científica e confiável

Humans , Female , Aged , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Anthropometry/methods , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Muscles/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Absorptiometry, Photon , Cross-Sectional Studies , Models, Biological
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 274-277, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288582


ABSTRACT Introduction This paper research an improved biological image tracking algorithm of athlete's cervical spine health under color feedback. Objective A new algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy of detection and tracking. Methods In this study, the first thing is to apply the color feedback algorithm to improve and optimize the Improved Camshift algorithm. The optimized algorithm was used to track the center of the image, and the video was processed frame by frame. The center position of the tracking frame was obtained. Results The average number of head twists per person is 39 times. Among the three groups, children twisted the least, and older adults twisted the most. Conclusion The algorithm proposed in this study has certain effectiveness and superiority and can be well applied to detecting the number of head twists during exercise. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução Este artigo investiga um algoritmo aprimorado para rastrear imagens biológicas da saúde da coluna cervical do atleta sob feedback de cores. Objetivo Um novo algoritmo é proposto para melhorar a precisão de detecção e monitoramento. Métodos neste estudo, primeiro aplicamos o algoritmo de feedback de cores para otimizar o algoritmo Camshift aprimorado. O algoritmo otimizado foi usado para rastrear o centro da imagem e o vídeo foi processado quadro a quadro. A posição central do quadro de rastreamento foi obtida. Resultados o número médio de voltas da cabeça por pessoa é 39 vezes. Entre os três grupos, as crianças viraram menos e os adultos mais velhos viraram mais. Conclusão O algoritmo proposto neste estudo tem alguma eficácia e superioridade e pode ser bem aplicado para detectar o número de giros da cabeça durante o exercício. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción Este artículo investiga un algoritmo mejorado de seguimiento de imágenes biológicas de la salud de la columna cervical del atleta bajo retroalimentación de color. Objetivo Se propone un nuevo algoritmo para mejorar la precisión de la detección y el seguimiento. Métodos En este estudio, lo primero es aplicar el algoritmo de retroalimentación de color para optimizar el algoritmo Camshift mejorado. El algoritmo optimizado se utilizó para rastrear el centro de la imagen y el video se procesó cuadro por cuadro. Se obtuvo la posición central del marco de seguimiento. Resultados El número medio de giros de cabeza por persona es 39 veces. Entre los tres grupos, los niños eran los que menos giraban y los adultos mayores eran los que más. Conclusión El algoritmo propuesto en este estudio tiene cierta efectividad y superioridad y se puede aplicar bien para detectar el número de giros de cabeza durante el ejercicio. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Female , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Algorithms , Athletes , Models, Biological
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(3): 257-261, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288584


ABSTRACT Introduction Study the relationship between the metabolic enzyme and the biological image, filtered by an adaptive filtering algorithm. Objective The research aims to In this study, human metabolic enzymes were evaluated by electrocardiogram and electromyogram images, and an adaptive filtering algorithm removed the noises in the images. Methods The electrocardiogram and electromyogram images at different periods were obtained, and the calculation method and application scope of the adaptive filtering algorithm were analysed. Results Adaptive filter was designed by the combination of adaptive filtering algorithm and dynamic information. Therefore, the artefact of the image was removed. Conclusions The adaptive filtering algorithm can effectively remove the noise or artefact in electrocardiogram and electromyogram signals. The optimal image information can be obtained. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução Estudar a relação entre a enzima metabólica e a imagem biológica filtrada por um algoritmo de filtragem adaptativa. Objetivo O objetivo da pesquisa, neste estudo, é avaliar enzimas metabólicas humanas por meio de imagens de eletrocardiograma e eletromiograma, sendo que um algoritmo de filtragem adaptativa eliminou o ruído nas imagens. Métodos Imagens de eletrocardiograma e eletromiograma foram obtidas em diferentes períodos e foram analisados o método de cálculo e o escopo de aplicação do algoritmo de filtragem adaptativa. Resultados a filtragem adaptativa foi projetada combinando um algoritmo de filtragem adaptativa e informações dinâmicas. Portanto, o artefato foi removido da imagem. Conclusões O algoritmo de filtragem adaptativa pode efetivamente eliminar ruído ou artefato em sinais de eletrocardiograma e eletromiograma. Informações de imagem ideais podem ser obtidas. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción Estudiar la relación entre la enzima metabólica y la imagen biológica, filtrada por un algoritmo de filtrado adaptativo. Objetivo La investigación tiene como objetivo, en este estudio, evaluar las enzimas metabólicas humanas mediante imágenes de electrocardiograma y electromiograma, y un algoritmo de filtrado adaptativo eliminó los ruidos en las imágenes. Métodos Se obtuvieron las imágenes de electrocardiograma y electromiograma en diferentes períodos y se analizó el método de cálculo y alcance de aplicación del algoritmo de filtrado adaptativo. Resultados El filtrado adaptativo se diseñó mediante la combinación de un algoritmo de filtrado adaptativo e información dinámica. Por lo tanto, se eliminó el artefacto de la imagen. Conclusiones El algoritmo de filtrado adaptativo puede eliminar eficazmente el ruido o artefacto en las señales de electrocardiograma y electromiograma. Se puede obtener la información de imagen óptima. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Fatigue/enzymology , Fatigue/metabolism , Muscles/metabolism , Algorithms , Electrocardiography , Electromyography , Models, Biological
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 430-433, Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288602


ABSTRACT Introduction: The need for a lactic acid cycle eliminates lactic acid produced during exercise. This process requires energy consumption. D-ribose supplementation can increase muscle cell energy, accelerate the synthesis of PRPP in the heart and skeletal muscle, and eliminate the pentose phosphate pathway in the low limit of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity; it doubles the speed of ATP recovery, so supplementing ribose can improve exercise capacity and accelerate the elimination of lactic acid to improve recovery ability. Objective: Supplementing D-ribose can increase muscle cell energy and accelerate the regeneration of ATP in the myocardium and skeletal muscle. This experiment intends to explore the effects of anaerobic and aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise capacity and recovery ability after supplementing D-ribose granules by observing the changes in exercise tests before and after nutritional supplementation and recovery indicators after exercise. Methods: The thesis used a paired design to randomly divide 24 male amateur tennis players into two groups (12 in each group): physical training group (control group), physical training + nutrition D-ribose group (test group), and the D- The effect of ribose on the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity of amateur tennis players. Results: The observation indexes of the two groups before the test were not statistically significant (P>0.05); after the test for eight weeks, the aerobic capacity indexes of the test group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), and also higher than those before the test (P<0.05)); The recovery of 3minHR and 5minHR of the experimental group after exercise was significantly faster than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Nutritional D-ribose supplementation can enhance the aerobic training effect of amateur tennis players, improve aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity, and accelerate heart rate recovery after exercise. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.

RESUMO Introdução: A necessidade de um ciclo de ácido lático elimina o ácido lático produzido durante o exercício. Este processo requer consumo de energia. A suplementação com D-ribose pode aumentar a energia das células musculares, acelerar a síntese de PRPP no coração e no músculo esquelético e eliminar a via da pentose fosfato no limite inferior da atividade da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase; ele dobra a velocidade de recuperação de ATP, portanto, a suplementação de ribose pode melhorar a capacidade de exercício e acelerar a eliminação de ácido láctico para melhorar a capacidade de recuperação. Objetivo: A suplementação de D-ribose pode aumentar a energia das células musculares e acelerar a regeneração de ATP no miocárdio e músculo esquelético. Este experimento pretende explorar os efeitos do exercício anaeróbio e aeróbio e da capacidade de exercício anaeróbio e capacidade de recuperação após a suplementação de grânulos de D-ribose, observando as mudanças nos testes de exercício antes e após a suplementação nutricional e indicadores de recuperação após o exercício. Métodos: A tese utilizou um desenho pareado para dividir aleatoriamente 24 tenistas amadores do sexo masculino em dois grupos (12 em cada grupo): grupo de treinamento físico (grupo controle), grupo de treinamento físico + nutrição D-ribose (grupo de teste) e o grupo D - O efeito da ribose na capacidade de exercício aeróbio e anaeróbio de tenistas amadores. Resultados: Os índices de observação dos dois grupos antes do teste não foram estatisticamente significantes (P> 0,05); após o teste por oito semanas, os índices de capacidade aeróbia do grupo teste foram maiores do que os do grupo controle (P <0,05), e também maiores do que aqueles antes do teste (P <0,05); A recuperação de 3minHR e 5minHR do grupo experimental após o exercício foi significativamente mais rápida do que a do grupo controle (P <0,05). Conclusões: A suplementação nutricional de D-ribose pode aumentar o efeito do treinamento aeróbio de jogadores de tênis amadores, melhorar a capacidade de exercício aeróbio e anaeróbio e acelerar a recuperação da freqüência cardíaca após o exercício. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción: La actividad física regular ayuda a mejorar las habilidades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares. Cómo evaluar la tensión nerviosa de los vasos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares a través del deporte es un tema candente. Objetivo: El artículo analiza la influencia de la participación regular en deportes sobre la función cardiovascular de las personas y los indicadores relacionados con la sangre. Métodos: Seleccionamos a 30 adultos mayores sanos que participan regularmente en deportes, registramos sus cambios en el ECG, presión arterial, frecuencia cardíaca y otros indicadores relacionados con la función cardiovascular, y analizamos la función sanguínea de los ancianos. Detección del recuento de glóbulos rojos (RBC), volumen de glóbulos rojos (MCV) y hemoglobina (Hb), creatinina sérica (Cr), glucosa en sangre (BGS), triglicéridos (TG), colesterol (TC), lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL) y se mide la lipoproteína de alta densidad (HDL). Resultados: Los adultos mayores que persisten en el ejercicio durante mucho tiempo tienen mejores indicadores que los que no lo hacen. Conclusión: El ejercicio aeróbico adecuado puede reducir la rigidez de los vasos sanguíneos en los ancianos. El ejercicio puede ayudar a los ancianos a aumentar la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca y mejorar los indicadores sanguíneos y la masa corporal de la función nerviosa autónoma del corazón. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humans , Male , Ribose/administration & dosage , Exercise/physiology , Tennis , Dietary Supplements , Athletes , Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Diet, Healthy , Heart Rate/physiology , Models, Biological
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(1): 49-54, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156108


ABSTRACT Introduction It has been suggested that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with several non-communicable chronic diseases, but measuring it is difficult. Thus, anthropometry could be used because is easily applied in clinical practice. Objectives The present study aimed to develop and validate VAT estimation equations (Eq) in military men. Methods The sample consisted of 409 (mean age, 36.5 ± 6.7 years) military men in the Brazilian Army (BA) divided into an equation group (EG) ( n = 270; mean age, 37.0 ± 6.3 years) and a validation group (VG) ( n =139; mean age, 36.0 ± 7.2 years). Anthropometric, hemodynamic and DXA body composition evaluations ( GE iLunar ) were performed. The Student's t test, Pearson's correlation, and stepwise general linear regression were applied. Bland-Altman graphics were used to assess the concordance between VAT by Eq and by DXA. The level of significance was 95% ( p < 0.05). Results Age, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and body mass index presented the main significant positive correlations with the VAT-DXA. Four Eq were created Eq1 ( r 2 = 0.793), Eq2 ( r 2 = 0.810), Eq3 ( r 2 = 0.817), and Eq 4 ( r 2 = 0.823) ( p < 0.05). No differences were observed between VAT by DXA and VAT by Eq ( p = 0.982, p = 0.970, p = 0.495 and p = 0.698). Bland-Altman analysis also presented good concordance as the bias was close to zero and was not statistically significant. Conclusion Eq2 (age*13.0 + WC*60.0 - 4975,.5) was more suitable because it is easier to apply, has a higher predictive power (81.0%), less bias (1.86) and validation yielded average VAT values close to those found in DXA. It may still be considered a valuable tool for other extensive epidemiological studies in military men in the BA and can be used in adult men. Evidence Level I: Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference ''gold'' standard).

RESUMO Introdução A literatura científica tem sugerido que o tecido adiposo visceral (TAV) está associado a doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, mas é difícil fazer sua mensuração. Assim, a antropometria pode ser empregada por ser de fácil aplicação na prática clínica. Objetivos Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar equações de estimativa (Eq) do TAV em militares. Métodos A amostra consistiu em 409 (média de idade 36,5 ± 6,7 anos) militares do Exército Brasileiro (EB) divididos em Grupo equação (GE) (n = 270; média de idade 37,0 ± 6,3 anos) e Grupo validação (GV) (n = 139; média de idade 36,0 ± 7,2 anos). Foram realizadas avaliações antropométricas, hemodinâmicas e de composição corporal por DXA (GE iLunar). O teste t de Student, a correlação de Pearson e a regressão linear geral Stepwise foram aplicados. Os gráficos de Bland-Altman foram usados para avaliar a concordância entre os resultados de TAV pela Eq e por DXA. O nível de significância adotado foi de 95% (p <0,05). Resultados Idade, circunferência da cintura (CC), circunferência do quadril e o índice de massa corporal apresentaram as principais correlações positivas e significativas com TAV-DXA. Foram criadas quatro equações: Eq1 (r2 = 0,793), Eq2 (r2 = 0,810), Eq3 (r2 = 0,817) e Eq 4 (r2 = 0,823), p < 0,05. Não foram observadas diferenças entre o TAV por DXA pelas Eq (p = 0,982, p = 0,970, p = 0,495 e p = 0,698). A análise de Bland-Altman também apresentou boa concordância, porque o viés foi próximo de zero e não estatisticamente significativo. Conclusões A Eq2 (idade*13,0 + CC*60,0 - 4975,5) foi mais adequada, porque é mais fácil de aplicar, tem maior poder preditivo (81,0%), menor viés (1,86) e a validação forneceu valores médios de TAV próximos aos encontrados no DXA. Além disso, pode ser considerada uma ferramenta valiosa para outros estudos epidemiológicos extensos em militares do EB e pode ser usada em homens adultos. Nível de Evidência I; Teste de critérios diagnósticos desenvolvidos anteriormente em pacientes consecutivos (com padrão de referência "ouro" aplicado).

RESUMEN Introducción La literatura científica ha sugerido que el tejido adiposo visceral (TAV) está asociado a enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, pero es difícil hacer su medición. Así, la antropometría puede ser empleada por ser de fácil aplicación en la práctica clínica. Objetivos Este estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar y validar ecuaciones de estimativa (Ec) del TAV en militares. Métodos La muestra consistió en 409 (promedio de edad 36,5 ± 6,7 años) militares del Ejército Brasileño (EB) divididos en Grupo de ecuación (GE) (n = 270; promedio de edad 37,0 ± 6,3 años) y Grupo validación (GV) (n = 139; promedio de edad 36,0 ± 7,2 años). Fueron realizados análisis antropométricos, hemodinámicos y de composición corporal por DXA (GE iLunar). Fueron aplicados el teste t de Student, la correlación de Pearson y la regresión linear general Stepwise. Los gráficos de Bland-Altman fueron usados para evaluar la concordancia entre los resultados de TAV por la Ec y por DXA. El nivel de significancia fue de 95% (p <0,05). Resultados Edad, circunferencia de cintura (CC), circunferencia de la cadera y el índice de masa corporal presentaron las principales correlaciones positivas y significativas con TAV-DXA. Fueron creadas cuatro ecuaciones: Ec1 (r2 = 0,793), Ec2 (r2 = 0,810), Ec3 (r2 = 0,817) y Ec4 (r2 = 0,823), p <0,05. No fueron observadas diferencias entre el TAV por DXA por las Ec (p = 0,982, p = 0,970, p = 0,495 y p = 0,698). El análisis de Bland-Altman también presentó buena concordancia, porque el sesgo fue próximo de cero y no estadísticamente significativo. Conclusiones La Ec2 (edad*13,0 + CC*60,0 - 4975.5) fue más adecuada, porque que es más fácil de aplicar, tiene mayor poder predictivo (81,0%), menor sesgo (1,86) y la validación suministró valores promedio de TAV próximos a los encontrados en el DXA. Además, puede ser considerada una herramienta valiosa para otros estudios epidemiológicos extensos en militares del EB y puede ser usada en hombres adultos. Nivel de Evidencia I: Test de criterios diagnósticos desarrollados anteriormente en pacientes consecutivos (con patrón de referencia "oro" aplicado).

Humans , Male , Adult , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Military Personnel , Models, Biological , Absorptiometry, Photon , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Waist Circumference
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3961-3974, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921479


Novel model systems have provided powerful tools for the research of human biology. Despite of being widely used, the conventional research models could not precisely describe the human physiological phenomenon. Organoids are three-dimensional multicellular aggregates derived from stem cells or organ progenitors that could differentiate and self-organize to recapitulate some specific functionalities and architectures of their in vivo counterpart organs. Organoids can be used to simulate organogenesis because of their human origin. In addition, the genomic stability of organoids could be well maintained during long-term amplification in vitro. Moreover, organoids can be cryopreserved as a live biobank for high-throughput screening. Combinatorial use of organoids with other emerging technologies (e.g. gene editing, organ-on-a-chip and single-cell RNA sequencing) could overcome the bottlenecks of conventional models and provide valuable information for disease modelling, pharmaceutical research, precision medicine and regenerative medicine at the organ level. This review summarizes the classifications, characteristics, current applications, combined use with other technologies and future prospects of organoids.

Humans , Gene Editing , Models, Biological , Organoids , Regenerative Medicine , Stem Cells
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 21-30, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880705


Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a unique post-translational modification that regulates many biological processes, such as DNA damage repair. During DNA repair, ADP-ribosylation needs to be reversed by ADP-ribosylhydrolases. A group of ADP-ribosylhydrolases have a catalytic domain, namely the macrodomain, which is conserved in evolution from prokaryotes to humans. Not all macrodomains remove ADP-ribosylation. One set of macrodomains loses enzymatic activity and only binds to ADP-ribose (ADPR). Here, we summarize the biological functions of these macrodomains in DNA damage repair and compare the structure of enzymatically active and inactive macrodomains. Moreover, small molecular inhibitors have been developed that target macrodomains to suppress DNA damage repair and tumor growth. Macrodomain proteins are also expressed in pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, these domains may not be directly involved in DNA damage repair in the hosts or pathogens. Instead, they play key roles in pathogen replication. Thus, by targeting macrodomains it may be possible to treat pathogen-induced diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Humans , ADP-Ribosylation , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Repair/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Models, Biological , Models, Molecular , N-Glycosyl Hydrolases/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 295-302, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879277


In the study of oral orthodontics, the dental tissue models play an important role in finite element analysis results. Currently, the commonly used alveolar bone models mainly have two kinds: the uniform and the non-uniform models. The material of the uniform model was defined with the whole alveolar bone, and each mesh element has a uniform mechanical property. While the material of the elements in non-uniform model was differently determined by the Hounsfield unit (HU) value of computed tomography (CT) images where the element was located. To investigate the effects of different alveolar bone models on the biomechanical responses of periodontal ligament (PDL), a clinical patient was chosen as the research object, his mandibular canine, PDL and two kinds of alveolar bone models were constructed, and intrusive force of 1 N and moment of 2 Nmm were exerted on the canine along its root direction, respectively, which were used to analyze the hydrostatic stress and the maximal logarithmic principal strain of PDL under different loads. Research results indicated that the mechanical responses of PDL had been affected by alveolar bone models, no matter the canine translation or rotation. Compared to the uniform model, if the alveolar bone was defined as the non-uniform model, the maximal stress and strain of PDL were decreased by 13.13% and 35.57%, respectively, when the canine translation along its root direction; while the maximal stress and strain of PDL were decreased by 19.55% and 35.64%, respectively, when the canine rotation along its root direction. The uniform alveolar bone model will induce orthodontists to choose a smaller orthodontic force. The non-uniform alveolar bone model can better reflect the differences of bone characteristics in the real alveolar bone, and more conducive to obtain accurate analysis results.

Humans , Biomechanical Phenomena , Computer Simulation , Finite Element Analysis , Models, Biological , Periodontal Ligament , Stress, Mechanical , Tooth Movement Techniques
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1526-1540, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878653


Genome-scale metabolic network model (GSMM) is becoming an important tool for studying cellular metabolic characteristics, and remarkable advances in relevant theories and methods have been made. Recently, various constraint-based GSMMs that integrated genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and thermodynamic data have been developed. These developments, together with the theoretical breakthroughs, have greatly contributed to identification of target genes, systems metabolic engineering, drug discovery, understanding disease mechanism, and many others. This review summarizes how to incorporate transcriptomic, proteomic, and thermodynamic-constraints into GSMM, and illustrates the shortcomings and challenges of applying each of these methods. Finally, we illustrate how to develop and refine a fully integrated GSMM by incorporating transcriptomic, proteomic, and thermodynamic constraints, and discuss future perspectives of constraint-based GSMM.

Genome/genetics , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Models, Biological , Proteomics
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1510-1525, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878652


¹³C metabolic flux analysis (¹³C-MFA) enables the precise quantification of intracellular metabolic reaction rates by analyzing the distribution of mass isotopomers of proteinogenic amino acids or intracellular metabolites through ¹³C labeling experiments. ¹³C-MFA has received much attention as it can help systematically understand cellular metabolic characteristics, guide metabolic engineering design and gain mechanistic insights into pathophysiology. This article reviews the advances of ¹³C-MFA in the past 30 years and discusses its potential and future perspective, with a focus on its application in industrial biotechnology and biomedicine.

Amino Acids , Carbon Isotopes , Isotope Labeling , Metabolic Engineering , Metabolic Flux Analysis , Models, Biological
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200262, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285560


HIGHLIGHTS Fluoxetine increases the metabolic rate and excretion of ammonia in both species. O:N ratio in fish showed higher values in the highest concentrations of fluoxetine. The LC50 - 96 hour values of Palaemon pandaliformis represented greater toxicity. Both species are a good biological model for fluoxetine exposure studies.

Abstract Fluoxetine is an emerging pollutant that acts as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and being a hydrolytic molecule that is photolytically stable and accumulaties in biological tissues, its disposal in the aquatic environment can interfere with the physiology of fish and shrimp. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of fluoxetine on routine metabolism (metabolic rate, specific ammonia excretion and O:N ratio) of Deuterodon iguape and Palaemon pandaliformis. For this, five groups of each species, were exposed to different concentrations of fluoxetine for 24 hours (D. iguape) and 2 hours (P. pandaliformis). The results demonstrated that in D. iguape exposure to fluoxetine significantly increased both the metabolic rate by 75%, 85%, 55% and 50% for concentrations of 0.05; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0 mgL-1, respectively, and the specific ammonia excretion by 40%, 48% and 20% for concentrations of 0.05; 0.1 and 0.5 mgL-1, respectively, when compared with their control. The O:N ratio was statistically greater in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mgL-1. Concerning P. pandaliformis, exposure to fluoxetine increased metabolic rate at concentrations 30.0 and 60.0 µgL-1, and also increased specific ammonia excretion at concentrations 10.0, 30.0 and 60.0 µgL-1, when compared with the control group. It was concluded that exposure to fluoxetine increases the routine metabolism of both species and that at the concentration 1.0 mgL-1, Deuterodon iguape required different energy substrates.

Fluoxetine/metabolism , Palaemonidae/drug effects , Ammonia/metabolism , Models, Biological
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 253-256, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391131


Las matemáticas en epidemiología y en general en las ciencias biológicas constituyen, además de una herramienta, una forma de pensar y estructurar descripciones, explicaciones y predicciones de procesos. Por ello, tanto en epidemiología como en otras áreas del conocimiento biológico, las matemáticas son utilizadas para modelar. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar como los modelos matemáticos se utilizan en la teoría epidemiológica. En este artículo nos centraremos en un modelo en particular, el modelo SIR, utilizado para describir la evolución de epidemias. Se presenta sus características fundamentales desde el punto de vista matemático y se discute el papel de los diferentes parámetros. Además, este modelo se aplica, a modo de ejemplo, a la evolución del Covid-19 en Chile.

Mathematics in epidemiology and in general in biological sciences constitute, in addition to a tool, a way of thinking and structuring descriptions, explanations and predictions. Thus, both in epidemiology and in other areas of biological knowledge, the mathematics is used for modeling. The objective of this article is to present how mathematical models are used in epidemiological theory. In this article will focus on a particular model, the SIR model, used to describe the evolution of epidemics. Its fundamental characteristics from the mathematical point of view are presented and the role of different parameters. In addition, this model is applied, by way of example, to the evolution of Covid-19 in Chile.

Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Models , Computer Simulation , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Models, Biological
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Article in Spanish | COLNAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1123581


La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.

The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.

O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.

Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Reflex , Sensory Deprivation , Synapses , Cognition , Models, Animal , Growth and Development , Models, Biological , Nervous System , Neuronal Plasticity