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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111943, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493720

RESUMO

Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum) has been proven as a potential remediation plant of the pollution caused by atrazine. Plants used in remediation can release root exudates to communicate with rhizosphere microorganisms and accelerate the removal of pollutants in soil. However, the response of pearl millet root exudates under atrazine stress has remained unclear. In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted at Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China, to investigate the oxidative stress response and the changes in composition of root exudates in pearl millet plants that were exposed to 19.4 mgL-1 of atrazine, compared to the untreated control. The experiment was established as six treatments with exposure to no atrazine for 2, 4 and 6 days (CK-2, CK-4, CK-6) and 19.4 mgL-1 atrazine for 2, 4 and 6 days (AT-2, AT-4, AT-6), respectively. The results suggest that the growth of the seedlings changed slightly when exposed to atrazine for 2 days. The content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances exposed to atrazine for 6 days increased 26% compared with the treatment that was exposed for 2 days. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species in test plant obviously increased when exposed to atrazine for 6 days. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase increased from 30.82 ug-1 to 37.33 ug-1 fresh weight after 6 days of exposure to atrazine. The results of a nontargeted metabolomic analysis suggest that carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism in pearl millet were obviously affected by the oxidative stress caused by atrazine. The contents of sphinganine and methylimidazole acetaldehyde in CK-6 increased by 5.14 times and 2.05 times, respectively, compared with those of CK-2. Furthermore, the contents of (S)-methylmalonic acid semialdehyde and 1-pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid decreased by 0.56 times and 0.5 times, respectively, compared with the AT-6. These results strongly suggest that the changes observed in the composition of root exudates in pearl millet seedlings can be attributed to the oxidative stress caused by atrazine.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Pennisetum/efeitos dos fármacos , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Atrazina/metabolismo , China , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pennisetum/metabolismo , Pennisetum/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 269: 129333, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385668

RESUMO

Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to control weeds, pests and plant diseases. Antibiotics may be introduced to the agricultural environment by manure fertilizer or wastewater irrigation. Co-existence of antibiotics in field may lead to profound impacts on pesticide residue. In this study, the impacts of oxytetracycline on the environmental fate and metabolic profile of atrazine was investigated, and the disturbance of oxytetracycline on functional genes related to atrazine degradation in soils was also studied. Oxytetracycline could inhibit the degradation of atrazine significantly and prolong the half-life to 1.27 and 1.59 times longer at 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. Also, oxytetracycline altered the composition of atrazine metabolites, including three chloro-s-triazine metabolites (DEA, DIA, DDA) and three hydroxyl metabolites (OH-ATZ, OH-DEA, OH-DIA). Oxytetracycline decreased the ratio of hydroxyl metabolites, while increased the chloro-s-triazine metabolites which had higher toxicity and were easily leached in soil. Atrazine hydrolase genes atzA and trzN were down-regulated by oxytetracycline, which might decrease the hydroxyl metabolite formation and detoxification of atrazine. Oxytetracycline changed the degradation of atrazine and the composition of the metabolites probably by altering the soil microorganisms. The increased persistence and the percentage of the chloro-s-triazine metabolites induced by oxytetracycline might result in increased environmental problems.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Antibacterianos , Atrazina/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Metaboloma , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111601, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396121

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATZ) is among the most widely used herbicides in the world, and yet it has a potential to contaminate aquatic environments due to pesticide leaching from agricultural areas. In the Neotropical region, studies about the effects of this herbicide in native aquatic wildlife is scarce.Our study aimed at investigating the effects of a 30-day exposure to a commercial atrazine formulation on oxidative stress parameters, histopathology in testis and liver, and hormone levels in males and female of yellow-tailed tetra fish (Astyanax altiparanae). Adults were exposed to low but environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine as follows: 0 (CTL-control), 0.5 (ATZ0.5), 1 (ATZ1), 2 (ATZ2) and 10 (ATZ10) µg/L. Our results showed decreased GST activity in gills in all groups of exposed animals and increased CAT activity in gills from the ATZ10 group. In the liver, there was an increase in lipid peroxidation in fish from ATZ1 and ATZ2 groups. Histological analysis of the liver showed increased percentage of sinusoid capillaries in ATZ2 fish, increased vascular congestion in ATZ1 and increased leukocyte infiltration in the ATZ10 group. Hepatocyte diameter analysis revealed a decrease in cell size in all groups exposed to ATZ, and a decrease in hepatocyte nucleus diameter in ATZ1, ATZ2 and ATZ10 groups. Endocrine parameters did not show significant changes following ATZ exposure, although an increase of triiodothyronine/thyroxine (T3/T4) ratio was observed in ATZ2 fish. Our results provide evidence that even low, environmentally relevant concentrations of ATZ produced oxidative damage and histological alterations in adult yellow-tailed tetra.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Characidae/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Atrazina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111630, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396150

RESUMO

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF) is one of the commonly used and frequently detected drugs in water bodies, and several studies indicate its toxic effect on plants and algae. Studies performed with asynchronous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures indicated that DCF inhibit the growth of population of the algae. Here, a synchronous population of C. reinhardtii, in which all cells are in the same developmental phase, is used. Following changes in cells size, photosynthetic activity and gene expression, we could compare, at the level of single cell, DCF-mediated effects with the effects caused by atrazine, a triazine herbicide that inhibits photosynthesis and triggers oxidative stress. Application of DCF and atrazine at the beginning of the cell cycle allowed us to follow the changes occurring in the cells in the subsequent stages of their development. Synchronized Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures (strain CC-1690, wild type) were exposed to diclofenac sodium salt (135 mg/L) or atrazine (77.6 µg/L). The cell suspension was sampled hourly (0-10 h) in the light period of the cell cycle to determine cell number and volume, photosynthetic pigment content, chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP test) in vivo, and selected gene expression (real-time qPCR), namely psbA, psaA, FSD1, MSD3 and APX1. The two toxicants differently influenced C. reinhardtii cells. Both substances decreased photosynthetic "vitality" (PI - performance index) of the cells, albeit for different reasons. While atrazine significantly disrupted the photosynthetic electron transport, resulting in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and limited cell growth, DCF caused silencing of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers, transforming them into "heat sinks", thus preventing significant ROS overproduction. Oxidative stress caused by atrazine was the probable reason for the rapid appearance of phytotoxic action soon after entering the cells, while the effects of DCF could only be seen several hours after treatment. A comparison of DCF-caused effects with the effects caused by atrazine led us to conclude that, although DCF cannot be regarded as typical photosynthetic herbicide, it exhibits an algicidal activity and can be potentially dangerous for aquatic plants and algae.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/fisiologia , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrazina/metabolismo , Atrazina/toxicidade , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116362, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387782

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most commonly used herbicides that could directly impair the growth and health of organisms in mariculture areas and adversely affect human health through the food chain. This study investigated the contaminant occurrence, migration, and transformation of ATR and three of its chlorinated metabolites, namely deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA), and didealkylatrazine (DDA), in surface seawater, sediment, and aquatic organisms from the Xiangshan Harbor. ATR was detected in all samples, while DIA and DDA were only respectively detected in aquatic and seawater samples. The distribution of ATR and its metabolites presented different patterns depending on the geographic location and showed a higher level in the aquaculture area than that in the non-aquaculture area. The bioaccumulation of ATR in aquaculture organisms showed that benthic organisms, such as Ditrema, and Sinonovacula constricta (Sin), had increased levels. The ecological risks indicated that ATR posed medium or high risks to algae in the water phase of the study area. The microcosm experiment showed that the main fate of ATR in the simulated microenvironment was sedimentation, which followed the first-order kinetic equation. The ATR in the sediment could be enriched 3-5 times in Sin, and its major metabolites were DEA and DIA.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Aquicultura , Baías , Herbicidas/análise , Humanos , Água do Mar
6.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116379, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388679

RESUMO

Exposures to organic pesticides, particularly during a developmental window, have been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Atrazine (ATZ), one of the most used pesticides in the U.S., is suspected to be associated with increased neurodegeneration later in life but few studies assessed the neurotoxicity of developmental ATZ exposure using human neuronal cells. Here, we exposed human SH-SY5Y cells to 0.3, 3, and 30 ppb of ATZ prior to differentiating them into dopaminergic-like neurons in ATZ-free medium to mimic developmental exposure. The differentiated neurons exhibit altered neurite outgrowth and SNCA pathology depending on the ATZ treatment doses. Epigenome changes, such as decreases in 5mC (for 0.3 ppb only), H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 were observed immediately after exposure. These alterations persist in a compensatory manner in differentiated neurons. Specifically, we observed significant reductions in 5mC and H3K9me3, as well as, an increase in H3K27me3 in ATZ-exposed cells after differentiation, suggesting substantial chromatin rearrangements after developmental ATZ exposure. Transcriptional changes of relevant epigenetic enzymes were also quantified but found to only partially explain the observed epigenome alteration. Our results thus collectively suggest that exposure to low-dose of ATZ prior to differentiation can result in long-lasting changes in epigenome and increase risks of SNCA-related Parkinson's Disease.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Atrazina/toxicidade , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Neurônios
7.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127830, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763580

RESUMO

Atrazine residue in soil is one of the serious environmental problems and continues to risk ecosystem and human health. To address the environmental behaviors and dissipation of atrazine and better manage the application of atrazine in reality, we comprehensively investigated the adsorption and desorption, migration ability, and vanishing of atrazine in three distinct soils in China including Jiangxi (JX, pH 5.45, TOC 0.54%), Nanjing (NJ, pH 6.15, TOC 2.13%), and Yancheng (YC, pH 8.60, TOC 0.58%) soils. The atrazine adsorptive capacity to the soils was arranged in the order of NJ > YC > JX. The leaching assay with profiles of the soils showed strong migration, suggesting it had a high bioavailability to weeds and potential for underground water contamination. We further investigated the effects of environmental factors such as soil moisture, microbial activity and photolysis on atrazine degradation and showed that the degradation of atrazine in the soil mainly underwent the abiotic process, most likely through hydrolysis and photolysis-mediated mechanisms, and to less extend through soil microbial catabolism. Using HRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and by comparing the measured and theoretical m/z values and fragmentation data, ten metabolites comprising eight degraded products and two conjugates were characterized. Atrazine existing in the soils and sprayed coordinately blocked the growth of three common weeds, which prompted us to use the minimal atrazine in practice to control the waste of the pesticide and its impact on the environment. Overall, our work provided an insight into the mechanisms for the degradation of atrazine residues in the soils and contributed to the environmental risk assessment of the pesticide and management in its application control in the crop rotation and safe production.


Assuntos
Atrazina/química , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Adsorção , Atrazina/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Ecossistema , Herbicidas/química , Praguicidas/análise , Fotólise , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Food Chem ; 337: 127752, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777573

RESUMO

The Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita) is cultivated widely in China. However, there are potential safety risks associated with herbicide residues in Chinese Yam because of its characteristics and unregulated use of pesticides. We developed an efficient sample preparation technique for simultaneous analysis of atrazine and its degradation products in Chinese Yam using accelerated solvent extraction and pipette tip solid-phase extraction followed by UPLC-DAD analysis. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) were used as the adsorbent material. Method performance was evaluated and our results showed the limit of quantification was 1-3 µg/ kg, with recoveries in the range 79.2-103.8%. When compared with other methods, this method provided superior performance in terms of sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. This method is, therefore, expected to be useful in supervised residue analysis.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Atrazina/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dioscorea/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Atrazina/química , Impressão Molecular , Polímeros/síntese química , Polímeros/química , Solventes/química
9.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128408, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182150

RESUMO

The safety of creating fish farms in agricultural settings was evaluated by growing Piaractus mesopotamicus in a pond, while crops where cultivated in a nearby field under a pesticide application regime typical of the Pampa region. Atrazine, glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were detected in the water of the pond at concentrations ranging between 92 and 118 µg/L for atrazine, 12 and 221 µg/L for glyphosate and 21 and 117 µg/L for AMPA. Atrazine and malathion were detected in fish muscles at concentrations ranging between 70 and 105 µg/kg for atrazine and 8.6 and 23.7 µg/kg for malathion. Compared to fish raised in a pisciculture, fish from the agricultural pond presented reduced values of pack cell volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, together with significantly greater cholinesterase activity in both plasma and liver and reduced glutathione-S-transferase activity in the liver. A comet assay also demonstrated that P. mesopotamicus from the agricultural pond presented a significantly greater level of DNA damage in both erythrocytes and gill cells. Overall, the present study demonstrates that pisciculture ponds established in an agricultural setting may receive pesticides applied to nearby cultures and that these pesticides may be taken up by the fish and affect their physiology and health. The accumulation of pesticides residues in fish flesh may also present a risk to human consumers and should be closely controlled.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Agricultura , Animais , Atrazina , Colinesterases , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Peixes , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Tanques/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127965, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814135

RESUMO

Developing low-cost, high-efficiency catalysts for advanced oxidation processes remain a key issue for the degradation of organic pollutants. In this study, a novel FeCo2O4/rectorite composite was synthesized via a facile combustion process and employed to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for dealing with atrazine (ATZ). The addition of rectorite could result in higher specific surface area, smaller pore size and more hydroxyl groups, which were beneficial to enrich pollutants to the adsorption sites and provide sufficient reactive sites. After meticulous evaluation, the degradation efficiency of FeCo2O4/rectorite composite towards ATZ exhibited improved PMS activation efficiency which was about 2.6 times than that of pure FeCo2O4. Based on the characterization results, the sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals were considered to be the main free radicals which were involved into the circulation of Co(II)-Co(III)-Co(II) as well as the oxidation of ≡Fe(II), which was responsible for the remarkable catalytic efficiency. In addition, the chemical stability and superior catalytic performance of FeCo2O4/rectorite should also be attributed to the chemical combination between metal ions and the surface hydroxyl groups of rectorite. Overall, these findings are beneficial for understanding the mechanism of PMS activation by natural mineral-based catalysts and contributing to the practical application of sulfate-based technology for organic wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Metais/química , Peróxidos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Silicatos de Alumínio , Atrazina/química , Catálise , Radical Hidroxila/química , Minerais , Modelos Químicos , Nanopartículas , Oxirredução , Papel (figurativo) , Sulfatos
11.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127921, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841874

RESUMO

This work shows the potential of using photochemical modelling to assess the river-water ability to photodegrade agrochemicals on a geographic and temporal scale. The case of flowing water requires different data treatment compared to more stationary water bodies (e.g., lakes), but it could allow for the identification of particularly vulnerable environments. Five pesticides were considered here, and the photodegradation rate followed the order bentazon > isoproturon > dimethomorph âˆ¼ chlortoluron > atrazine. The modelled photodegradation kinetics was particularly fast in the river Po, which receives significant input of agricultural nitrate from groundwater and features higher steady-state [•OH] than most other rivers in the region. The fact that the Po eventually collects all river waters in Piedmont is positive, from the point of view of comprehensive photodegradation of pesticides. However, this paradoxical situation of agricultural pollution (nitrate) helping fight pollution from the same source (pesticides) has two important limitations: (i) when compared to the parent compounds, some intermediates deriving from •OH reactions are either more harmful (N-formyl derivatives of phenylureas), or about as harmful (desethyl atrazine); (ii) banned atrazine is no longer sprayed over fields during the plant growth season, but it reaches surface waters from legacy groundwater inputs. The latter are operational also during winter, when photochemistry is least active. Therefore, photochemistry might not ensure considerable attenuation of atrazine during wintertime. Overall, bentazon would be the safest among the studied pesticides because of fast degradation by direct photolysis, and of low ecotoxicological impact of its phototransformation intermediates.


Assuntos
Água Doce/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agroquímicos , Atrazina , Benzotiadiazinas , Descontaminação , Itália , Cinética , Nitratos , Praguicidas/análise , Fotoquímica , Fotólise , Rios/química , Purificação da Água
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111546, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254405

RESUMO

Degradation solutions containing atrazine need to be further purified before they are discharged into the aquatic environment. With the objectives of evaluating removal capacity of the microalga Chlorella sp. toward atrazine in degradation solutions and toxicity of the degradation products, we investigated the removal efficiency (RE) and bioaccumulation of atrazine in the microalgae after an 8 d exposure to diluted degraded solutions containing 40 µg/L and 80 µg/L of atrazine as well as degradation products in the present study. Moreover, pure atrazine solutions with similar concentrations were simultaneously inoculated with the microalgae in order to distinguish the influence of the products. The photocatalytic degradation results showed that 31.4% of atrazine was degraded after 60 min, and three degradation products, desisopropyl-atrazine (DIA), desethyl-atrazine (DEA), and desethyl-desisopropyl-atrazine (DEIA) were detected. After an 8-d exposure, 83.0% and 64.3% of atrazine were removed from the degraded solutions containing 40 µg/L and 80 µg/L of atrazine, respectively. In comparison with the control, i.e., pure atrazine solution with equal concentration, Chlorella sp. in the degraded atrazine solution showed lower RE and growth rate. The photosynthetic parameters, especially performance index (PIABS), clearly displayed the differences between treatments. The values of PIABS of Chlorella sp. cultured in degradation atrazine for 8 days were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that in the corresponding pure atrazine, suggesting potential inhibitory effect of degradation products on the microalgae. Atrazine and the degradation products inhibited algal photosynthesis via depressed light absorption and electron transport, and reduced utilization of light energy via energy dissipation. Our results demonstrated that microalgae Chlorella sp. had an encouraging atrazine removal potential and the degradation products of atrazine may inhibit algal growth and removal capability. This study may be useful for the application of microalgae in herbicide wastewater treatment and understanding algal removal of atrazine in natural aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Atrazina/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Atrazina/toxicidade , Chlorella/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Soluções , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239380, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326428

RESUMO

Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide previously shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease to subsequent generations. The current study was designed as an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) to identify transgenerational sperm disease associated differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs) and differential histone retention regions (DHRs). Gestating female F0 generation rats were transiently exposed to atrazine during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, and then subsequent F1, F2, and F3 generations obtained in the absence of any continued exposure. The transgenerational F3 generation males were assessed for disease and sperm collected for epigenetic analysis. Pathology was observed in pubertal onset and for testis disease, prostate disease, kidney disease, lean pathology, and multiple disease. For these pathologies, sufficient numbers of individual males with only a single specific disease were identified. The sperm DNA and chromatin were isolated from adult one-year animals with the specific diseases and analyzed for DMRs with methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) sequencing and DHRs with histone chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing. Transgenerational F3 generation males with or without disease were compared to identify the disease specific epimutation biomarkers. All pathologies were found to have disease specific DMRs and DHRs which were found to predominantly be distinct for each disease. No common DMRs or DHRs were found among all the pathologies. Epimutation gene associations were identified and found to correlate to previously known disease linked genes. This is one of the first observations of potential sperm disease biomarkers for histone retention sites. Although further studies with expanded animal numbers are required, the current study provides evidence the EWAS analysis is effective for the identification of potential pathology epimutation biomarkers for disease susceptibility.


Assuntos
Atrazina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenoma/genética , Histonas/genética , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metilação de DNA/genética , Doença/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Hereditariedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hereditariedade/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
14.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 128-139, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016363

RESUMO

The Variable Volume Water Model (VVWM), the receiving water body model for the USEPA regulatory assessment of aquatic pesticide exposures, is composed of a set of static and quasistatic receiving water body conceptual models, but research comparing performance of these models to observations is limited. The water body models included are the constant volume (CVol), constant volume with overflow (CVO), and varying volume with overflow (VVO) models. This work quantified the performance of these three VVWM conceptual models compared with atrazine observations in 50 community water systems (CWSs), and the effect of alternative conceptual models on estimated environmental concentrations of pesticides in regulatory screening assessments. The 50 selected CWSs most relevant to the static and quasistatic VVWM concepts were small in size, with estimated time to peak flow of <1.5 d for consistency with the daily runoff assumption in USEPA landscape Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM). The CVO and VVO conceptual models resulted in similar distributions of bias across CWSs with the median result being close to no bias, but the CVol model resulted in overestimation in the majority of CWSs with median model bias near three times the observed values. At present, the CVol conceptual model parameterized with conservative input assumptions has been the regulatory standard invoked in VVWM, yet our results showed that a more physically correct conceptual model (CVO or VVO) could be invoked in regulatory exposure modeling for ecological risk assessment, reducing structural model bias while still allowing users to introduce conservative model inputs for screening purposes.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Água
15.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 152-162, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016367

RESUMO

Pesticides are important for agriculture in the United States, and atrazine is one of the most widely used and widely detected pesticides in surface water. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which atrazine and its degradation product, deethylatrazine, increase and decrease in surface waters can help inform future decisions for water quality improvement. This study considers causal factors for trends in pesticide concentration in U.S. streams and models the causal factors, other than use, in structural equation models. The structural equation models use a concomitant trend in corn (Zea mays L.) and a latent variable model, indicating moisture supply and management. The moisture supply and management latent variable model incorporates long-term moisture conditions in the individual watersheds by using the Palmer hydrologic drought index, human influence on the hydrologic cycle through the percentage of the watershed drained by tile drains in 2012, and the base-flow contribution to streamflow, using the base-flow index. The structural equation models explain 77 and 38% of the variability in atrazine and deethylatrazine trends, respectively, across the conterminous United States. The models highlight future water quality challenges, particularly in tile-drained settings where fall precipitation and heavy precipitation are increasing.


Assuntos
Atrazina/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Atrazina/análogos & derivados , Estados Unidos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111359, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961490

RESUMO

As one of the most commonly used and frequently detected herbicides in the coastal seawater, the ecotoxicity of atrazine to phytoplankton has been well demonstrated. However, little attention has been paid to the ecotoxicity of its two major hydrolysates (desisopropylatrazine (DIA) and desethylatrazine (DEA)), which are also widely distributed in natural seawater. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the photosynthetic physiology and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Pt-1 (CCMP 2561) under atrazine, DIA and DEA stress, respectively. The results showed that both atrazine and the two derivatives had significant negative effects on the concentration of chlorophyll a, maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and relative electron transport rates (rETR) of P. tricornutum Pt-1. Furthermore, the CDOM pattern released by P. tricornutum Pt-1 cells also changed significantly after 7-day exposure. Compared with the control group, the fluorescence intensity (3D-EEM spectra) of protein-like components was obviously lower, while that of the humic acid-like components was higher. The findings of this study indicate that the ecotoxicity of atrazine might have been underestimated in previous investigations: both atrazine and its two major derivatives are not only phototoxic to microalgae but also influence the carbon sequestration potential in the coastal seawater.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Sequestro de Carbono , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila A , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Elétrons , Fluorescência , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microalgas , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar
17.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127333, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947666

RESUMO

Increasing use of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in Africa raises environmental and public health concerns. But there is a large uncertainty about their occurrence and the composition of pesticide mixtures on this continent. This paper investigates the presence of 27 CUPs in air across 20 sampling sites in Africa. 166 passive air samples, consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF), were collected in 12 African countries between 2010 and 2018. Samples were extracted with methanol and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The detection frequencies of CUPs per site were compared to land use patterns and sampling years, while their similarities were assessed using hierarchical cluster analysis. Overall, 24 CUPs were detected at least once. In 93% of all samples, at least one CUP was detected, while 78% of the samples had mixtures of two or more CUPs (median 3, interquartile range 5). Atrazine and chlorpyrifos were detected in 19 out of 20 sampling sites. Carbaryl, metazachlor, simazine, tebuconazole and terbuthylazine had the highest detection frequencies at sampling sites dominated by croplands. Across all the sampling years, 16 CUPs were present. Seven CUPs were newly detected from 2016 onwards (azinfos-methyl, dimetachlor, chlorsulfuron, chlortoluron, isoproturon, prochloraz and pyrazon), while metamitron was only present before 2012. Sites within a radius of about 200 km showed similarities in detected CUP mixtures across all samples. Our results show the presence of CUP mixtures across multiple agricultural and urban locations in Africa which requires further investigation of related environmental and human health risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , África , Agricultura , Atrazina/análise , Clorpirifos/análise , Humanos , Poliuretanos
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 481-489, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914331

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to enhance the biodegradability of atrazine with FH-1 and NJ-1 alone by selecting the mixing ratio, optimizing the culture medium and conditions. The results showed that FH-1 and NJ-1 have the best biodegradation effect on atrazine being mixed in a volume ratio of 3:2. In a single factor experiment, sucrose and NH4Cl provided carbon and nitrogen sources for the mixed bacteria. Subsequently, composition of fermentation medium was further optimized using Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. Based on the results, growth of mixed bacteria and biodegradation of atrazine performed best effects with a biodegradation rate of 85.6% when sucrose and NH4Cl amounts were 35.30 g/L and 10.28 g/L. The optimal medium condition was 10% inoculum of mixed bacteria, with initial atrazine concentration of 50 mg/L, neutral or weakly alkaline pH value, 30°C. The biodegradation rate reached 97.4%, 11.8% higher than the unoptimized condition.


Assuntos
Atrazina/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Arthrobacter/metabolismo , Atrazina/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Herbicidas/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111170, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861007

RESUMO

The widespread use of the herbicides Atrazine (ATR) has been raised attention due to its ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. As an endocrine disruptor, ATR causes reproductive, immune, nervous system toxicity in biota. In this study, we aimed to investigate metabolic profile characteristics and potential metabolic biomarker that reflects specific damage in toxic effect after ATR exposure. Hence, a metabolomics study was performed to determine the significantly affected metabolites and the reproduction and locomotion of C. elegans were investigated. Mediation analysis was used to evaluate the mediating effect of metabolites on association between ATR exposure and toxic effect. ATR (≥0.04 mg/L) caused the significant dose dependent reduction of brood size and locomotion behavior, however, the body length and width were significantly decreased only in 40 mg/L group. These results suggesting that brood size, head thrashes and body bends are more sensitive indictor to assessment ATR toxicity in C. elegans. Meanwhile, metabolomics analysis revealed that ATR exposure can induce metabolic profiles significant alterations in C. elegans. We found that 9 metabolites significantly increased and 18 metabolites significantly decreased, such as phosphatidylcholine, GMP, CDP-choline, neopterin etc. Those alteration of metabolites were mainly involved in the pathways: glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, folate biosynthesis, glycine, serine and threoninemetabolism, pyrimidine and purine metabolism. Overall, these changes are signs of possible oxidative stress and ATP synthesis disruption modification. Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of ATR exposure on brood size, via 7,8-dihydroneopterin 2',3'-cyclic-p, and phosphatidylcholine might mediate association between ATR exposure and body bends, suggesting that 7,8-dihydroneopterin 2',3'-cyclic-p and phosphatidylcholine might be potentially specificity marker for brood size and body bend respectively. This preliminary analysis investigates metabolic characteristics in C. elegans after ATR exposure, helping to understand the pathways involved in the response to ATR exposure and provide potential biomarkers for the safety evaluation of ATR.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicina/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111569, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861938

RESUMO

Recently, atrazine has been increasingly used to control weeds in the corn and sugarcane farms, which affects the water resources and aquatic organisms. In this study, atrazine residual concentrations in water and fish samples of the Shadegan wetland (Iran) were investigated. Furthermore, the health and ecological risk assessment were calculated. A total of fifty water samples were collected from the wetland during three periods with a four-month time interval. Also, ten samples of ten different fish species were analyzed at the same time. The estimation of acceptable daily intake and comparison with international standards indicates danger to adjacent residential areas of wetland. Non-carcinogenic risk analysis showed that total hazard quotient (HQing + HQderm) were below the acceptable limit and there is no danger to the residents of the area. Atrazine concentration in the water and fish samples ranged between 0 and 2175.8 µg/L, and 0 to 35.58 µg/L, respectively. Results showed that 88% of the water samples were higher than EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water in summer. The concentrations of atrazine in fish samples in summer were more than other seasons. Analysis of ecological risk assessment also showed that considering the average atrazine concentration in three seasons, the risk exposure was very high. This study will be beneficial to the both residents and government officials in management of Shadegan wetland pollution in term of toxic compounds.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
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