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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338882

RESUMO

Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicide molecules in the triazine family. Despite its interdiction in the European Union in 2004, atrazine and its main degradation products remain among the most frequently found molecules in freshwater reservoirs in many European Union countries. Our study aims in obtaining insight into the desorption process of atrazine from the main soil absorbent material: clay. Constrained Molecular Dynamics simulations within the Density Functional Theory framework allow us to obtain a free energy desorption profile of atrazine from a Ca2+-montmorillonite surface. The results are interpreted in terms of atrazine inclination to the clay surface and moreover, in terms of hydration states of the cations present in the clay interlayer as well as the hydration state of the atrazine. The desorption mechanism is driven by atrazine alkyl groups and their sizes because of dispersion stabilizing effects. The highest barrier corresponds to the loss of the isopropyl interaction with the surface.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Bentonita , Cálcio , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Argila , Cálcio da Dieta , Adsorção
2.
Development ; 151(4)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369735

RESUMO

Malrotation of the intestine is a prevalent birth anomaly, the etiology of which remains poorly understood. Here, we show that late-stage exposure of Xenopus embryos to atrazine, a widely used herbicide that targets electron transport chain (ETC) reactions, elicits intestinal malrotation at high frequency. Interestingly, atrazine specifically inhibits the cellular morphogenetic events required for gut tube elongation, including cell rearrangement, differentiation and proliferation; insufficient gut lengthening consequently reorients the direction of intestine rotation. Transcriptome analyses of atrazine-exposed intestines reveal misexpression of genes associated with glycolysis and oxidative stress, and metabolomics shows that atrazine depletes key glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites. Moreover, cellular bioenergetics assays indicate that atrazine blocks a crucial developmental transition from glycolytic ATP production toward oxidative phosphorylation. Atrazine-induced defects are phenocopied by rotenone, a known ETC Complex I inhibitor, accompanied by elevated reactive oxygen species, and rescued by antioxidant supplementation, suggesting that malrotation may be at least partly attributable to redox imbalance. These studies reveal roles for metabolism in gut morphogenesis and implicate defective gut tube elongation and/or metabolic perturbations in the etiology of intestinal malrotation.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Rotação , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(2): 27010, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide in the United States. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated cancer risks. Previous analyses within the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) have found some evidence of associations with cancer at some sites. OBJECTIVE: We updated exposure information, incident cases, and follow-up time to assess the associations between atrazine use and cancer at specific sites in the AHS. METHODS: Information about lifetime pesticide use was reported at enrollment (1993-1997) and follow-up (1999-2005). Among 53,562 pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa, we identified 8,915 incident cases through cancer registry linkages through 2014 (North Carolina)/2017 (Iowa). We used Poisson regression to evaluate the association between ever/never and intensity-weighted lifetime days of atrazine use and incident cancer risk controlling for several confounders. We also evaluated lagged exposures and age-stratified risk. RESULTS: Approximately 71.2% of applicators reported ever using atrazine, which was associated with lung cancer [rate ratios (RR)=1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.46]. Aggressive prostate cancer risk was increased in the highest quartile (RRQ4=1.20; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.52; p-trend=0.19), particularly among those <60 years old (RRQ4=3.04; 95% CI: 1.61, 5.75; p-trend<0.001; p-interaction=0.04). Among applicators <50 years of age, ever-atrazine use was associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (RR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.10, 5.38; p-interaction=0.60). For soft tissue sarcoma, there was an elevated risk in the highest tertile of exposure (RRT3: 2.54; 95% CI: 0.97, 6.62; p-trend=0.31). In analyses with exposure lagged by 25 years, there was an elevated risk of pharyngeal (RRT3=3.04; 95% CI: 1.45, 6.36; p-trend=0.07) and kidney (RRQ4=1.62; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.29; p-trend<0.005) cancers. DISCUSSION: We observed suggestive associations with some malignancies in overall, age-specific, and lagged analyses. Associations with aggressive prostate cancer and NHL were apparent among those diagnosed at younger ages and with cancers of the pharynx and kidney, and soft tissue sarcomas were observed in lagged analyses. Further work is needed to confirm these observed associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13684.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Praguicidas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Incidência , Agricultura
4.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 59(3): 98-111, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38297504

RESUMO

Argentina stands as one of the leading consumers of herbicides. In a laboratory incubation experiment, the persistence and production of degradation metabolites of Atrazine, 2,4-D, and Glyphosate were investigated in a loamy clay soil under two contrasting agricultural practices: continuous soybean cultivation (T1) and intensified rotations with grasses and legumes (T2). The soils were collected from a long-term no-till trial replicating the influence of the meteorological conditions in the productive region. The soil was enriched with diluted concentrations of 6.71, 9.95, and 24 mg a.i./kg-1 of soil for the respective herbicides, equivalent to annual doses commonly used in the productive region. Samples were taken at intervals of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 32, and 64 days, and analysis was conducted using high-resolution liquid chromatography UPLC MS/MS. An optimal fit to the first-order kinetic model was observed for each herbicide in both rotations, resulting in relatively short half-lives. Intensified crop sequences favored the production of biotic degradation metabolites. The impact of the high frequency of soybean cultivation revealed a trend of soil acidification and a reduced biological contribution to attenuation processes in soil contamination.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Atrazina/análise , Solo/química , Argentina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Herbicidas/química , Produção Agrícola , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético
5.
Environ Pollut ; 343: 123286, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171425

RESUMO

The ecological functioning of black soil largely depends on the activities of various groups of microorganisms. However, little is known about how atrazine, a widely used herbicide with known harmful effects on the environment, influences the microbial ecology of black soil, and the extracellular enzymes related to the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. Here, we evaluated the change in extracellular enzymes and bacterial community characteristics in black soil after exposure to various concentrations of atrazine. Low concentrations of applied atrazine (10 - 20 mg kg-1) were almost completely degraded after 120 days. At high concentrations (80 - 100 mg kg-1), about 95% of the applied atrazine was degraded over the same period. Additionally, linear fitting of data indicated that the total enzymatic activity index (TEI) and bacterial α-diversity index were negatively correlated with atrazine applied concentration. The atrazine had a greater effect on bacterial beta diversity after 120 days, which differentiated species clusters treated with low and high atrazine concentrations. Soil bacterial community structure and function were affected by atrazine, especially at high atrazine concentrations (80 - 100 mg kg-1). Key microorganisms such as Sphingomonas and Nocardioides were identified as biomarkers for atrazine dissipation. Functional prediction indicated that most metabolic pathways might be involved in atrazine dissipation. Overall, the findings enhance our understanding of the factors driving atrazine degradation in black soil and supports the use of biomarkers as indicators of atrazine dissipation.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Atrazina/análise , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Herbicidas/análise , Bactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental
6.
Water Res ; 251: 121113, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215539

RESUMO

A novel treatment technique by coupling granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and ozone regeneration was constructed for long-lasting water decontamination. The GAC adsorption showed high performance for atrazine (ATZ) removal (99.9 %), and the ozone regeneration ensured the recyclability of GAC for water purification. The regeneration process was evaluated via several paths to assist the efficient adsorption process. Employing ozone micro-nano bubbles (O3-MNBs) for regenerating GAC showed superior performance compared to traditional ozone. Meantime, inhibiting the formation of bromate (BrO3-). ATZ adsorption process suffered from the pore-filling, hydrogen bonding effect and π-π EDA interaction. The surface phenolic hydroxyl group, carboxyl group and pyridine nitrogen benefitted the triggering of ozone to generate reactive oxygen species, and regenerate the GAC surface. The superior performance of the adsorption and regeneration process was verified via a long-term running by a pilot study. It significantly improved the removal of organic micropollutants, UV254 and permanganate index. Additionally, the intermittent O3-MNBs regeneration process resulted in efficient decontamination within the pores structure of GAC, which also effectively preserved the pore structure from destruction. For actual application, the cost of water production can be saved around 0.63 kWh m-3. This work proposed new ideas and theoretical support for economic water production.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Benzenossulfonatos , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal/química , Projetos Piloto , Ozônio/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água , Adsorção
7.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 483: 116819, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215996

RESUMO

Atrazine is a pesticide used to control weeds in both in pre- and post-emergence crops. The chronic exposure to atrazine can lead to severe damage in animals, especially in the endocrine and reproduction systems, leading to the inclusion of this pesticide into the endocrine disrupting chemicals group. Studies with rats showed that atrazine exposure during lactation in dams caused changes in the juvenile offspring, however; there is still limited information regarding the effects of atrazine during puberty. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of peripubertal exposure of atrazine in rats, assessing motor activity, social behavior and neurochemical alterations. Juvenile rats were treated with different doses of atrazine (0, 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg) by gavage from postnatal day 22 to 41. Behavioral tests were conducted for the evaluation of motor activity and social behavior, and neurochemical evaluation was done in order to assess monoamine levels. Atrazine caused behavioral alterations, evidenced by decrease in the exploratory activity (p values variation between 0.05 and 0.0001) and deficits in the social behavior of both male and females as adults (p values variation between 0.01 and 0.0001). As for the monoaminergic neurotransmission, atrazine led to very few alterations on the dopamine and serotonin systems that were limited to the females (p < 0.05). Altogether, the results suggests that peripubertal exposure of atrazine cause behavioral and neurochemical alterations. More studies need to be conducted to fully understand the differences in atrazine's effects and its use should be considered carefully.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Praguicidas , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Atrazina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Encéfalo , Dopamina
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 917: 170238, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280601

RESUMO

We experimentally assessed the impact of the application of herbicides and fertilizers derived from agricultural activity through the individual and simultaneous addition of glyphosate, atrazine, and nutrients (nitrogen 'N' and phosphorus 'P') on the biofilm community and their resilience when the experimental factors were removed. We hypothesize that i) the presence of agrochemicals negatively affects the biofilm community leading to the simplification of the community structure; ii) the individual or simultaneous addition of herbicides and nutrients produces differential responses in the biofilm; and iii) the degree of biofilm recovery differs according to the treatment applied. Environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate (0.7 mgL-1), atrazine (44 µgL-1), phosphorus (1 mg P L-1 [KH2PO4]), and nitrogen (3 mg N L-1[NaNO3]) were used. Chlorophyll a, ash-free dry weight, abundance of main biofilm groups and nutrient contents in biofilm were analyzed. At initial exposure time, all treatments were dominated by Cyanobacteria; through the exposure period, it was observed a progressive replacement by Bacillariophyceae. This replacement occurred on day 3 for the control and was differentially delayed in all herbicides and/or nutrient treatments in which the abundance of cyanobacteria remains significant yet in T5. A significant correlation was observed between the abundance of cyanobacteria and the concentration of atrazine, suggesting that this group is less sensitive than diatoms. The presence of agrochemicals exerted differential effects on the different algal groups. Herbicides contributed to phosphorus and nitrogen inputs. The most frequently observed interactions between experimental factors (nutrients and herbicides) was additivity excepting for species richness (antagonistic effect). In the final recovery time, no significant differences were found between the treatments and the control in most of the evaluated parameters, evincing the resilience of the community.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Cianobactérias , Diatomáceas , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Atrazina/toxicidade , Clorofila A , Fósforo , Biofilmes , Nitrogênio/análise , Fertilização , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 112(2): 32, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38294690

RESUMO

In this work, the characteristics and mechanisms for atrazine adsorption-desorption with 9 types of soils were investigated with batch equilibrium studies, elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, and UV‒visible spectroscopy. The atrazine sorption data for the 9 soils showed better fits with the Freundlich model than the Langmuir model, except with Red earth in Jiangxi (REJ) The results showed that the adsorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic matter (OM) content and negatively correlated with cation-exchange capacity (CEC) and pH. UV‒visible spectroscopy showed that dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the soil enhanced atrazine adsorption, but the adsorption on different DOM fractions was quite different. In addition, the infrared spectra revealed differences in the functional groups of soils and these functional groups may drive the adsorption process via hydrogen bonding and coordination with the -NH2 groups in atrazine.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Solo , Adsorção , Agricultura , China , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 915: 170028, 2024 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224882

RESUMO

Atrazine is a ubiquitous herbicide with persistent environmental presence and accumulation in the food chain, posing potential health hazards to organisms. Increasing evidence suggests that atrazine may have detrimental effects on various organ systems, including the nervous, digestive, and immune systems. However, the specific toxicity and underlying mechanism of atrazine-induced cardiac injury remain obscure. In this study, 4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered atrazine via intragastric administration at doses of 50 and 200 mg/kg for 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. Our findings showed that atrazine exposure led to cardiac fibrosis, as evidenced by elevated heart index and histopathological scores, extensive myofiber damage, and interstitial collagen deposition. Moreover, atrazine induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, macrophage infiltration, and excessive production of inflammatory factors. Importantly, atrazine upregulated the expressions of crucial pyroptosis proteins, including NLRP3, ASC, CASPASE1, and GSDMD, via the activation of NF-κB pathway, thus promoting cardiomyocyte pyroptosis. Collectively, our findings provide novel evidence demonstrating that atrazine may exacerbate myocardial fibrosis by inducing cardiomyocyte pyroptosis, highlighting its potential role in the development of cardiac fibrosis.


Assuntos
Atrazina , NF-kappa B , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Cardiotoxicidade , Piroptose , Miócitos Cardíacos , Fibrose
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 171: 116205, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290252

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR), a water-soluble herbicide commonly used to control broad-leaf and monocotyledonous weeds, presents a significant risk to environmental soil and water quality. Exposure to ATR adversely affects human and animal health, frequently resulting in cardiac impairment. Curcumin (Cur), an acidic polyphenol derivative from plants acclaimed for its pronounced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has garnered interest as a potential therapeutic agent. However, whether it has the potential to ameliorate ATR-induced cardiac toxicity via modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis pathways in mice remains unclear. Our results showed that Cur supplementation attenuates ATR-induced cardiotoxicity, evidenced by decrease in creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, key biochemical markers of myocardial injury, which have a more significant protecting effect in high-dose ATR induced injury. Histopathological and electron microscopy examinations further solidified these findings, demonstrating an amelioration in organellar damage, particularly in endoplasmic reticulum swelling and subsequent mitochondrial impairment. Additionally, ATR exposure augments ERS and triggers apoptotic pathways, as indicated by the upregulation of ERS-related gene expression (ATF6, CHOP, IRE1, GRP78) and pro-apoptotic markers (BAX, BAK1, Caspase3, Caspase. Intriguingly, Cur counteracts this detrimental response, significantly reducing ERS and pro-apoptotic signals at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, our findings illuminate Cur's cardioprotective effect against ATR-induced injury, primarily through its anti-ERS and anti-apoptotic activities, underscoring Cur's potential as a therapeutic for ATR-induced cardiotoxicity.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Curcumina , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Transdução de Sinais , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 26(2): 323-333, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126732

RESUMO

Atrazine and glyphosate are two of the most used pesticides around the world causing serious water contamination. In this study, amine-functionalized Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 silica (SBA-15-NH2) was synthesized and employed for the aqueous adsorption of atrazine and glyphosate. The adsorbent was mesoporous post-functionalization with lower surface area, pore volume, size, and stability when compared to the SBA-15. The pesticides adsorption rates were high with over 85% of potential adsorption having occurred within the initial 180 min. The equilibria for atrazine and glyphosate adsorption were 60 and 360 min, respectively, and the rate data fit the fractal pseudo-second-order and pseudo-second-order models, respectively. Atrazine adsorption was higher at lower solution pH with reduced adsorption as the pH value increased. There was enhanced atrazine adsorption as temperature increased from 22 to 32 °C, but further temperature rise resulted in lower adsorption compared to that recorded at 22 °C. The processes comprise electrostatic interaction, trapping of atrazine within mesopores, and multi-layer adsorption of atrazine on surface-adsorbed atrazine. The equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model better than the Freundlich. The SBA-15-NH2 adsorption capacity for atrazine and glyphosate was better than many adsorbents reported in literature, the adsorbent is reusable, and exhibited sustained efficiencies for atrazine that was ≥82% even after 3-cycles, an indication of chemical stability and renewability.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Purificação da Água/métodos , Dióxido de Silício , Cinética , Adsorção , Água
13.
Chemosphere ; 349: 140982, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38103653

RESUMO

The degradation kinetics and mechanism of atrazine (ATZ) via an enzyme-based Fenton reaction were investigated at various substrate concentrations and pH values. Toxicological assessment was conducted on ATZ and its degradation products, and the associated reaction pathway was examined. The in situ production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was monitored within the range of 3-15 mM, depending on the increase in glucose concentration, while decreasing the pH to 3.2-5.1 (initial pH of 5.8) or 6.5-7.4 (initial pH of 7.7). The degradation efficiency of ATZ was approximately 2-3 times higher at an initial pH of 5.8 with lower glucose concentrations than at an initial pH of 7.7 with higher substrate concentrations during the enzyme-based Fenton reaction. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for H2O2 decomposition under various conditions in the presence of ferric citrate was 1.9-6.3 × 10-5 s-1. The •OH concentration ([•OH]ss) during the enzyme-based Fenton reaction was 0.5-4.1 × 10-14 M, and the second-order rate constant for ATZ degradation was 1.5-3.3 × 109 M-1 s-1. ATZ intrinsically hinders the growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana, and its inhibitory effect is marginal, depending on the reaction time of the enzyme-based Fenton process. The ATZ transformation during this process occurs through dealkylation, hydroxylation, and dechlorination via •OH-mediated reactions. The degradation kinetics, mechanism, and toxicological assessment in the present study could contribute to the development and application of enzyme-based Fenton reactions for in situ pollutant abatement. Moreover, the enzyme-based Fenton reaction could be an environmentally benign and applicable approach for eliminating persistent organic matter, such as herbicides, using diverse H2O2-producing microbes and ubiquitous ferric iron with organic complexes.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Atrazina/toxicidade , Atrazina/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/química , Cinética , Glucose
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(1): 742-751, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38111124

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATZ) is a widely used herbicide that has toxic effects on animals. Melatonin (MLT) is a natural hormone with strong antioxidant properties. However, the effect of MLT on the glucose metabolism disorder caused by ATZ is still unclear. Mice were divided into four groups randomly and given 21 days of gavage: blank control group (Con), 5 mg/kg MLT group (MLT), 170 mg/kg ATZ group (ATZ), and 170 mg/kg ATZ and 5 mg/kg MLT group (ATZ + MLT). The results show that ATZ alters mRNA levels of metabolic enzymes related to glycogen synthesis and glycolysis and increased metabolites (glycogen, lactate, and pyruvate). ATZ causes abnormalities in glucose metabolism in mouse liver, interfering with glycemia regulation ability. MLT can regulate the endoplasmic reticulum to respond to disordered glucose metabolism in mice liver. This study suggested that MLT has the power to alleviate the ATZ-induced glycogen overdeposition and glycolytic deficit.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Melatonina , Camundongos , Animais , Atrazina/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(4): 5116-5131, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38112872

RESUMO

Atrazine, a widely used herbicide in agriculture, is detrimental to both the ecological environment and human health owing to its extensive use, poor degradability, and biotoxicity. The technology commonly used to remove atrazine from water is activated carbon adsorption, but it has the problems of difficult recovery, secondary contamination, and a low removal rate. To efficiently remove atrazine from agricultural wastewater, in this study, a new environmental material, embedding immobilization (EI)-Co- and Zr-modified activated carbon powder (Co/Zr@AC), was prepared by immobilizing the bimetallic Co/Zr@AC via EI technique and employed to remove atrazine. When preparing EI-Co/Zr@AC, the single-factor experiment was conducted and determined the optimal preparation conditions: sodium alginate 2.5% (wt), calcium chloride 4.0% (wt), Co/Zr@AC 1.0% (wt), and bentonite 2.0% (wt). The prepared EI-Co/Zr@AC has a three-dimensional mesh structure and many pores and also possesses good mass transfer performance and mechanical properties. The removal efficiency by EI-Co/Zr@AC for the removal of 5.0 mg/L atrazine from 50 mL was 94.1% at pH 7.0 and 25°C, with an EI-Co/Zr@AC dosage of 0.8 g. The mechanistic study showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could describe the removal process better than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the Freundlich isotherm model fit better than other isotherm models. Additionally, the synthesized EI-Co/Zr@AC spheres demonstrated good reusability, with the atrazine removal rate remaining 70.4% after five cycles, and the mechanical properties of the spheres were stable.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Atrazina/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Bentonita , Água/química , Adsorção , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 465: 133237, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38113741

RESUMO

The abuse and residue of herbicides in the black soil area had seriously affected the soil structure, function and crop growth, posing severe threats to agricultural soil environment and public health. Given the limitation of routine microbial remediation, innovative and eco-friendly functional bacterial biofilm which could adapt under adverse conditions was developed on the biochar to investigate its enhanced bioremediation and metabolic characteristics of typical herbicide atrazine. Results revealed that the atrazine degrading strain Acinetobacter lwoffii had competitive advantage in soil indigenous microorganisms and formed dense biofilms on the biochar which was beneficial to cell viability maintenance and aggregations. Metatranscriptomics and RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated that the biochar-mediated biofilm improved the frequency of intercellular communications through quorum sensing and two-component signal regulation systems, and enhanced the atrazine biodegradation efficiency through horizontal gene transfer in co-metabolism mode, providing important scientific basis for the biological remediation of farmland soil non-point source pollution.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Carvão Vegetal , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Atrazina/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 908: 168307, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37949145

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most used herbicides in the US and a known endocrine disruptor. ATZ is frequently detected in drinking water, especially in Midwestern regions of the United States, exceeding the EPA regulation of maximum contamination level (MCL) of 3 ppb. Epidemiology studies have suggested an association between ATZ exposure and neurodegeneration. Less, however, is known about the neurotoxic mechanism of ATZ, particularly for exposures at a developmental stage. Here, we exposed floor plate progenitors (FPPs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to low concentrations of ATZ at 0.3 and 3 ppb for two days followed by differentiation into dopaminergic (DA) neurons in ATZ-free medium. We then examined the morphology, activity, pathological protein aggregation, and transcriptomic changes of differentiated DA neurons. We observed significant decrease in the complexity of neurite network, increase of neuronal activity, and elevated tau- and α-synuclein (aSyn) pathologies after ATZ exposure. The ATZ-induced neuronal changes observed here align with pathological characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD). Transcriptomic analysis further corroborates our findings; and collectively provides a strong evidence base that low-concentration ATZ exposure during development can elicit increased risk of neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Atrazina/toxicidade , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Herbicidas/toxicidade
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e277798, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126645

RESUMO

In the cropping systems that integrate the corn crop, the insertion of Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don is predominantly intercropped. In this context, there is a need to observe herbicides that present selectivity for this sunn hemp species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity of pre and post-emergent herbicides on C. ochroleuca. Two field experiments were conducted in randomized blocks with four replications, involving the pre-emergence and post-emergence application of different herbicide treatments. For the pre-emergent ones, amicarbazone, atrazine and flumioxazin provided phytotoxicity higher than 90% and, consequently, low plant biomass. On the other hand, acetochlor and s-metolachlor did not cause phytotoxicity and did not affect the dry mass of crotalaria. In post-emergence, atrazine + mesotrione showed phytotoxicity >95%, followed by nicosulfuron and 2.4-D with phytotoxicity between 50-60%, whereas tembotrione did not cause injury to the plants. Thus, it was found that among the pre-emergent, acetochlor and s-metolachlor were selective, and for the emerging powders, only tembotrione was the most selective for all parameters analyzed.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Crotalaria , Herbicidas , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Zea mays
19.
Environ Int ; 181: 108303, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37948867

RESUMO

Atrazine residues can pose serious threats to soil ecology and human health. Currently, the underlying relationship between soil microbial communities and the degradation genes associated with atrazine degradation remains unclear. In this study, the degradation characteristics of atrazine was investigated in ten different soil types. Further, diversity and abundance of degradation genes and succession of the bacterial community were also studied. The degradation of 10 mg/kg atrazine in different soil types exhibited an initial rapid trend followed by a gradual slowdown, adhering to the first-order kinetic equation. Atrazine significantly increased the absolute abundance of atz degradation genes. The increase in the absolute abundance of atzC gene was the largest, whereas that of atzA gene was the smallest, and the trzD gene was only detected in the Binzhou loam soil. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that the number of potential bacterial hosts of atzC was the highest compared with the other atz genes. Atrazine also altered the structural composition of the soil microbial community. The relative abundances of Ochrobactrum, Nocardiopsis, Lactobacillus, and Brevibacterium was increased in the atrazine-treated soils, while those of Conexibate, Solirubacter, and Micromonospora was decreased significantly compared with the control. Additionally, four atrazine-degrading bacterial strains Rhizobium AT1, Stenotrophomonas AT2, Brevibacterium AT3, and Bacillus AT4 were isolated from the atrazine-treated soils. After 14 d for inoculation, their degradation rate for 10 mg/L atrazine ranged from 17.56 % to 30.55 %. Moreover, the relative abundances of the bacterial genera, including these four isolates, in the atrazine-treated soil were significantly higher than those in the control, indicating that they were involved in the synergistic degradation of atrazine in the soil. This study revealed the degradation characteristics of atrazine, distribution of degradation genes, and succession of microbial communities, and explored the internal relationship between microbial community structure and atrazine degradation mechanisms in different soil types.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Atrazina/metabolismo , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 268: 115716, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992640

RESUMO

Due to the wide use of atrazine (ATR), the concern has increased regarding the negative impact of ATR on reproduction. Nevertheless, the reproductive effects caused by different exposure concentrations and the severity of toxic damage are poorly understood. In organisms, ATR is metabolized and degraded through phase II enzyme systems, and changes in cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes may have a regulatory role in the harm of ATR. However, less information is available on the induction of CYPs by ATR in avian organisms, and even less on its effects on the testis. Birds are exposed to ATR mainly through food residues and contaminated water, the purpose of this study was to examine reproductive toxicity by different exposure concentrations and elaborate metabolic disorders caused by ATR in European quail (Coturnix coturnix). In this study, the quail were given ATR at 50 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg by oral gavage for 45 days, and the testicular weight coefficients, histopathology and ultrastructure of testes, primary biochemical functions, sex steroid hormones, critical protein levels in the testosterone synthesis pathway, the expression of genes involved CYPs, gonad axis and nuclear receptors expression were investigated. Altogether, testicular coefficient decreased significantly in the high-dose group (1.22%) compared with the control group (3.03%) after 45 days of ATR exposure, and ATR is a potent CYP disruptor that acts through the NXRs and steroid receptor subfamily (APND, CAR, ERND and ERα) without a dose-dependent manner. Notably, ATR interfered with the homeostasis of hormones by triggering the expression of hormones on the gonad axis (LH and E2). These results suggest that exposure to ATR can cause testicular toxicity involving accommodative disorder of phase II enzyme and testosterone synthesis in European quail.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Masculino , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Atrazina/metabolismo , Coturnix/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
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