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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116455, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825377

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Marianismo beliefs, or traditional female gender role beliefs among Latinas, have been found to serve as risk or protective factors linked with health risk behaviors in prior studies, including alcohol and drug misuse. However, limited research has examined potential factors that may contribute to or explain these associations. Sexist discrimination, which can serve as a significant stressor that may contribute to substance misuse, is one potential factor that may link marianismo beliefs and substance misuse among Latina young adult women. OBJECTIVE: This study examined sexism as a potential mediator of hypothesized negative associations between five marianismo beliefs (Family Pillar, Virtuous and Chaste, Subordinate to Others, Silencing Self to Maintain Harmony, and Spiritual Pillar) and alcohol and drug misuse using structural equation modeling. METHOD: Participants included 611 cisgender Latina full-time college student young adult women in the U.S. ages 18-26 who participated in an online cross-sectional survey about their health and behaviors. RESULTS: Results delineated experiences of sexism as a significant risk factor for alcohol and drug misuse and as a potential explanatory factor that may partly explain associations between certain marianismo beliefs (i.e., Virtuous and Chaste beliefs) and substance misuse. Specifically, experiences of sexism partially accounted for the negative association between endorsement of the Virtuous and Chaste belief and increased alcohol and drug misuse among Latina young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and intervention efforts should take a culturally responsive, gender-informed approach to address substance misuse among Latina young adults and address the negative influence of sexism on health.


Assuntos
Hispânico ou Latino , Sexismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino/psicologia , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Sexismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Papel de Gênero , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116349, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825371

RESUMO

Anti-gender campaigns in the United States and globally have promoted policies and legislation that significantly limit bodily autonomy for women, transgender, and nonbinary people. This attack on the human rights of women and gender-diverse communities not only reflects implicit and explicit bias but also detrimentally impacts population health and well-being. We outline the domestic and global rise of anti-gender campaigns and their deep historical connections to broader forms of discrimination and inequality to argue that there is an ethical, democratic, and scientific imperative to more critically center and contextualize gender in health research. While the inclusion of gender as a complex concept in research design, implementation, and dissemination is important, we emphasize that gender inequities must be understood as inextricable from other systems of discrimination and exclusion. To that end, this commentary outlines two actions: for researchers to advance critical approaches to gender as part of a broader landscape of discrimination, and for the US National Institutes of Health to integrate both sex and gender into funded research.


Assuntos
National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Masculino , Sexismo , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116435, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825375

RESUMO

In this manuscript, we summarize the goals, content, and impact of the Gender and Health: Impacts of Structural Sexism, Gender Norms, Relational Power Dynamics, and Gender Inequities workshop held by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) in collaboration with 10 NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices. Specifically, we outline the key points emerging from the workshop presentations, which are the focus of the collection of articles in this supplement. The overarching goals of the workshop were to convene NIH staff, the external scientific community, and the public to discuss methods, measurement, modifiable factors, interventions, and best practices in health research on gender as a social and cultural variable and to identify opportunities to advance research and foster collaborations on these key topics. Themes emerging from the workshop include the need for intersectional measures in research on gender and health, the role of multilevel interventions and analyses, and the importance of considering gender as a social and structural determinant of health. Careful, nuanced, and rigorous integration of gender in health research can contribute to knowledge about and interventions to change the social and structural forces that lead to disparate health outcomes and perpetuate inequities.


Assuntos
National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Sexismo , Masculino
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116456, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825378

RESUMO

Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate for men and women based on assumptions about biological sex. It also operates as a major social organizing principle that confers unequal power, status, and resources to men and women, with direct consequences for health. Historic patriarchal and misogynistic beliefs and values are reinforced through social institutions, including health science, which reify gender inequities. This commentary examines two key domains in which the social organization and institutionalization of gender in scientific research affect the conduct of women's health research and, by extension, women's health outcomes. These domains are: 1) decisions about which topics are prioritized, researched, and funded and 2) the dissemination of research findings. Using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a case study to illustrate broader patterns in scientific research, we present evidence of gender-based inequities in what is prioritized, deemed fundable, and disseminated, and how this affects knowledge production and attention to women's health. We highlight efforts and progress made by the NIH and call for additional attention to further address gender-based inequities and their impact on women's health research. We conclude with a call for critical social science analyses-ideally supported by the NIH-of the social organization of health science research to identify points of intervention for redressing deep-seated obstacles to advancing research on women's health.


Assuntos
National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Saúde da Mulher , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Masculino , Equidade de Gênero , Sexismo , Papel de Gênero
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116804, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825380

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence links structural sexism to gendered health inequities, yet methodological challenges have precluded comprehensive examinations into life-course and/or intersectional effects. To help address this gap, we introduce an analytic framework that uses sequential conditional mean models (SCMMs) to jointly account for longitudinal exposure trajectories and moderation by multiple dimensions of social identity/position, which we then apply to study how early life-course exposure to U.S. state-level structural sexism shapes mental health outcomes within and between gender groups. Data came from the Growing Up Today Study, a cohort of 16,875 children aged 9-14 years in 1996 who we followed through 2016. Using a composite index of relevant public policies and societal conditions (e.g., abortion bans, wage gaps), we assigned each U.S. state a year-specific structural sexism score and calculated participants' cumulative exposure by averaging the scores associated with states they had lived in during the study period, weighted according to duration of time spent in each. We then fit a series of SCMMs to estimate overall and group-specific associations between cumulative exposure from baseline through a given study wave and subsequent depressive symptomology; we also fit models using simplified (i.e., non-cumulative) exposure variables for comparison purposes. Analyses revealed that cumulative exposure to structural sexism: (1) was associated with significantly increased odds of experiencing depressive symptoms by the subsequent wave; (2) disproportionately impacted multiply marginalized groups (e.g., sexual minority girls/women); and (3) was more strongly associated with depressive symptomology compared to static or point-in-time exposure operationalizations (e.g., exposure in a single year). Substantively, these findings suggest that long-term exposure to structural sexism may contribute to the inequitable social patterning of mental distress among young people living in the U.S. More broadly, the proposed analytic framework represents a promising approach to examining the complex links between structural sexism and health across the life course and for diverse social groups.


Assuntos
Sexismo , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Sexismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116291, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825383

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to delineate the nature of the colonial mindset, which perpetuates gendered settler colonial structures of historical oppression in research and practice. By connecting a critical consciousness and living in alignment with agility (AWA), this work explicates pathways from gendered complicity to embodying praxis-or becoming gender AWAke. This article begins by describing the nature of the colonial mindset. Second, I critically examine the dominant discourse institutionalized by Western psychology. Third, I introduce the FHORT and critically analyze how the colonial mindset has affected and driven violence against Indigenous women. Examining how settler colonial structural sexism in its heteropatriarchal and heteropaternalistic forms has become imposed upon the lives of Indigenous women and gender-expansive peoples exposes subjugated knowledges; it provides an empirical scaffolding for people to become critically conscious of dominant gender norms that apply to people, institutions, and society more broadly. Finally, I propose living AWAke for personal and collective liberation.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Humanos , Sexismo/psicologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Estado de Consciência
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4750, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834557

RESUMO

The transformative role of artificial intelligence (AI) in various fields highlights the need for it to be both accurate and fair. Biased medical AI systems pose significant potential risks to achieving fair and equitable healthcare. Here, we show an implicit fairness learning approach to build a fairer ophthalmology AI (called FairerOPTH) that mitigates sex (biological attribute) and age biases in AI diagnosis of eye diseases. Specifically, FairerOPTH incorporates the causal relationship between fundus features and eye diseases, which is relatively independent of sensitive attributes such as race, sex, and age. We demonstrate on a large and diverse collected dataset that FairerOPTH significantly outperforms several state-of-the-art approaches in terms of diagnostic accuracy and fairness for 38 eye diseases in ultra-widefield imaging and 16 eye diseases in narrow-angle imaging. This work demonstrates the significant potential of implicit fairness learning in promoting equitable treatment for patients regardless of their sex or age.


Assuntos
Etarismo , Inteligência Artificial , Oftalmologia , Sexismo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116379, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825372

RESUMO

A nascent body of work has begun exploring the health consequences of structural sexism. This article provides an overview of the concept of structural sexism and an elaboration of the potential pathways connecting it to health. Next, it reviews existing measurement approaches and the current state of empirical evidence on the relationship between structural sexism and health in the United States. Finally, it highlights key priorities for future research, which include: expanding and refining measures, increasing public data availability, broadening the scope of inquiry to include a wider range of outcomes, exploring mechanisms, incorporating intersectionality, and applying a life course lens.


Assuntos
Sexismo , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Pesquisa/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Feminino
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 351 Suppl 1: 116396, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825373

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Immigrants represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population, yet the many ways in which structural inequities, including racism, xenophobia, and sexism, influence their health remains largely understudied. Perspectives from immigrant women can highlight intersectional dimensions of structural gendered racism and the ways in which racial and gender-based systems of structural oppression interact. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to show the multilevel manifestations of structural gendered racism in the health experiences of immigrant women living in New York City. METHOD: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted in 2020 and 2021 with 44 cisgender immigrant women from different national origins in New York City to explore how immigrant women experienced structural gendered racism and its pathways to their health. Interviews were thematically analyzed using a constant comparative approach. RESULTS: Participants expressed intersectional dimensions of structural gendered racism and the anti-immigrant climate through restrictive immigration policy and issues related to citizenship status, disproportionate immigration enforcement and criminalization, economic exploitation, and gendered interpersonal racism experienced across a range of systems and contexts. Participants weighed their concerns for safety and facing racism as part of their life course and health decisions for themselves and their families. CONCLUSIONS: The perspectives and experiences of immigrant women are key to identifying multilevel solutions for the burdens of structural gendered racism, particularly among individuals and communities of non-U.S. national origin. Understanding how racism, sexism, xenophobia, and intersecting systems of oppression impact immigrant women is critical for advancing health equity.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Feminino , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Racismo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298581, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829912

RESUMO

Nursing is considered indigent and oppressed because of uneven organizational hierarchies and unsatisfactory work environments. This study aimed to highlight the critical aspects of organizational culture in the nursing profession and, in general, those propagating hostile behaviours among female nursing staff that result in dissatisfaction and intention to leave the organization. A quantitative research approach was applied and a survey research strategy was used to collect the data. Convenience sampling was applied and data were collected from female nurses who were easily accessible and willing to participate in the research. A total of 707 questionnaires were collected from 14 hospitals and the data was analyzed using SmartPLS 4. Lack of administrative support and gender discrimination positively affected person-related hostility. In contrast, person-related hostility mediated the relationship between gender discrimination and lack of administrative support with the intention to leave. Direct or indirect person-related hostility factors can severely damage organizational reputation and quality and may cause the loss of employees with specific organizational knowledge and exposure. Losing an experienced employee to a newer one cannot replace the costs incurred on hiring, training, and providing knowledge to older employees. HR managers in organizations should devise strategies and policies that allow for the timely resolution of issues of nursing staff based on fair work performance.


Assuntos
Hostilidade , Humanos , Feminino , Paquistão , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Cultura Organizacional , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem Hospitalar/psicologia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexismo , Masculino , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
12.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 205, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on overuse of diagnostic and therapeutic resources underline their contribution to the decline in healthcare quality. The application of "Do Not Do" recommendations, in interaction with gender biases in primary care, remains to be fully understood. Therefore, this study aims to identify which low-value practices (LVPs) causing adverse events are susceptible to be applied in primary care setting with different frequency between men and women. METHODS: A consensus study was conducted between November 1, 2021, and July 4, 2022, in the primary care setting of the Valencian Community, Spain. Thirty-three of the 61 (54.1%) health professionals from clinical and research settings invited, completed the questionnaire. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling through two scientific societies, meeting specific inclusion criteria: over 10 years of professional experience and a minimum of 7 years focused on health studies from a gender perspective. An initial round using a questionnaire comprising 40 LVPs to assess consensus on their frequency in primary care, potential to cause serious adverse events, and different frequency between men and women possibly due to gender bias. A second round-questionnaire was administered to confirm the final selection of LVPs. RESULTS: This study identified nineteen LVPs potentially linked to serious adverse events with varying frequencies between men and women in primary care. Among the most gender-biased and harmful LVPs were the use of benzodiazepines for insomnia, delirium, and agitation in the elderly, and the use of hypnotics without a previous etiological diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying specific practices with potential gender biases, mainly in mental health for the elderly, contributes to healthcare promotion and bridges the gap in gender inequalities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05233852, registered on 10 February 2022.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sexismo , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uso Excessivo dos Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle , Uso Excessivo dos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410706, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717770

RESUMO

Importance: Unlike other surgical specialties, obstetrics and gynecology (OB-GYN) has been predominantly female for the last decade. The association of this with gender bias and sexual harassment is not known. Objective: To systematically review the prevalence of sexual harassment, bullying, abuse, and discrimination among OB-GYN clinicians and trainees and interventions aimed at reducing harassment in OB-GYN and other surgical specialties. Evidence Review: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov was conducted to identify studies published from inception through June 13, 2023.: For the prevalence of harassment, OB-GYN clinicians and trainees on OB-GYN rotations in all subspecialties in the US or Canada were included. Personal experiences of harassment (sexual harassment, bullying, abuse, and discrimination) by other health care personnel, event reporting, burnout and exit from medicine, fear of retaliation, and related outcomes were included. Interventions across all surgical specialties in any country to decrease incidence of harassment were also evaluated. Abstracts and potentially relevant full-text articles were double screened.: Eligible studies were extracted into standard forms. Risk of bias and certainty of evidence of included research were assessed. A meta-analysis was not performed owing to heterogeneity of outcomes. Findings: A total of 10 eligible studies among 5852 participants addressed prevalence and 12 eligible studies among 2906 participants addressed interventions. The prevalence of sexual harassment (range, 250 of 907 physicians [27.6%] to 181 of 255 female gynecologic oncologists [70.9%]), workplace discrimination (range, 142 of 249 gynecologic oncologists [57.0%] to 354 of 527 gynecologic oncologists [67.2%] among women; 138 of 358 gynecologic oncologists among males [38.5%]), and bullying (131 of 248 female gynecologic oncologists [52.8%]) was frequent among OB-GYN respondents. OB-GYN trainees commonly experienced sexual harassment (253 of 366 respondents [69.1%]), which included gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. The proportion of OB-GYN clinicians who reported their sexual harassment to anyone ranged from 21 of 250 AAGL (formerly, the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists) members (8.4%) to 32 of 256 gynecologic oncologists (12.5%) compared with 32.6% of OB-GYN trainees. Mistreatment during their OB-GYN rotation was indicated by 168 of 668 medical students surveyed (25.1%). Perpetrators of harassment included physicians (30.1%), other trainees (13.1%), and operating room staff (7.7%). Various interventions were used and studied, which were associated with improved recognition of bias and reporting (eg, implementation of a video- and discussion-based mistreatment program during a surgery clerkship was associated with a decrease in medical student mistreatment reports from 14 reports in previous year to 9 reports in the first year and 4 in the second year after implementation). However, no significant decrease in the frequency of sexual harassment was found with any intervention. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found high rates of harassment behaviors within OB-GYN. Interventions to limit these behaviors were not adequately studied, were limited mostly to medical students, and typically did not specifically address sexual or other forms of harassment.


Assuntos
Ginecologia , Obstetrícia , Assédio Sexual , Humanos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Ginecologia/educação , Feminino , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Bullying/psicologia , Prevalência , Canadá , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302538, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768187

RESUMO

The problem of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in medicine is long-standing and widespread. This project aims to document and understand how gendered experiences encountered by final-year medical students in Switzerland are experienced by these individuals and how they influence their career choice. It also aims to identify representations and stereotypes linked to the different specialties. The project will take place at all Swiss universities offering a master's degree in human medicine, for a total of 9 programs. Around 36 participants will be recruited. Semi-structured qualitative individual interviews will be conducted. Analysis will be based on Grounded Theory principles.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Suíça , Feminino , Masculino , Sexismo/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia
15.
Am Heart J ; 272: 113-115, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705638

RESUMO

Despite a perceived increase in attention to gender differences in medicine, a comprehensive assessment of gender equality research, particularly in cardiology, remains underexplored. This observational retrospective study, focusing on documents related to "Gender Equality" according to the Sustainable Development Goals, reveals cardiology as a significant area for gender equality research, albeit with a decline in publications post-2018. The analysis highlighted a concentrated effort in the United States and a considerable impact gap between gender-focused and general cardiology research. The global academic community must intensify research into gender disparities, which is essential for achieving professional gender equality and addressing the burden of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Cardiologia , Equidade de Gênero , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Sexismo
16.
Cancer Cell ; 42(5): 723-726, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701793

RESUMO

Advances in biomedical research require a robust physician scientist workforce. Despite being equally successful at securing early career awards from the NIH as men, women MD-PhD physician scientists are less likely to serve as principal investigators on mid- and later careers awards. Here, we discuss the causes of gender disparities in academic medicine, the implications of losing highly trained women physician scientists, and the institutional and systemic changes needed to sustain this pool of talented investigators.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Médicas , Pesquisadores , Humanos , Feminino , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Escolha da Profissão , Estados Unidos , Sexismo , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Médicos , Distinções e Prêmios
17.
J Dent Educ ; 88 Suppl 1: 727-732, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758035

RESUMO

Women currently represent approximately 70% of the global healthcare workforce, 60.9% of the global dental workforce, 77.6% of the US healthcare workforce, and 36.7% of the US dental workforce. The American Dental Association states that the number of practicing women dentists in the United States has increased by 2.25 times since 2001, with a projected trajectory to level off by 2040. Despite having a major impact on the healthcare sector globally, women earn 24% less than men and only serve in 25% of senior leadership positions. In the US dental schools, only 14% of faculty serve in administrative roles, and as of April 2022, 28.6% of the US dental school deans were women, indicating gender underrepresentation in the highest roles of academic leadership. This corresponds to the data on gender parity still not being the norm in many societies and workplaces and can be attributed to public policies, stereotypical perceptions, and individual factors. Five key factors have been identified to be crucial for women's entry or advancement in global health leadership: a) public policy, b) community, c) institutional, d) interpersonal, and e) individual. Individual self-improvement and institutional practices may be used to overcome these barriers to women's leadership in healthcare and shift the power dynamics toward reinforcing gender equality. These transformative changes are measured through women's collective capacities and skills, relationship dynamics, community perceptions, and environmental practices. This article recognizes the present obstacles to women in healthcare leadership and proposes strategies to achieve gender equality both through individual and institutional practices.


Assuntos
Odontólogas , Saúde Global , Liderança , Humanos , Feminino , Odontólogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo , Estados Unidos , Masculino
18.
J Dent Educ ; 88 Suppl 1: 713-726, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dental residents experience high stress in their demanding programs and gender-based harassment/discrimination can contribute to their stress. The objectives were to compare stress, satisfaction, experienced sexual harassment and observed discrimination of women in dental graduate programs with high, medium, and low percentages of women and to explore relationships between these constructs of interest. METHODS: Note that, 112 pediatric dentistry (PD), 44 prosthodontics, and 56 oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents responded to a survey. RESULTS: PD residents had the lowest personal life-related stress (4-point scale with 4 = very stressful: PD = 2.99/P = 3.67/OMS = 3.56; p < 0.001), faculty-related stress (2.68/3.66/3.03; p < 0.001), lack of confidence-related stress (2.79/3.31/2.96; p < 0.01) and academic stress (2.65/3.24/3.02; p < 0.001), while prosthodontics residents had the highest stress levels. The average frequency of experiencing sexual harassment was highest for OMS residents and lowest for PD residents (5-point scale with 1 = never: 1.15/2.62/2.74; p < 0.001). PD residents observed least and OMS residents most frequently that female residents were treated less positively by other residents because of their gender (1.59/2.57/3.00; p < 0.001). Prosthodontics residents had the lowest job satisfaction score (5-point scale with 1 = lowest satisfaction: 4.12/3.14/4.20; p < 0.001). The more frequently male and female residents experienced sexual harassment, the higher their personal life-related stress, faculty-related stress, lack of confidence-related stress, and academic stress, and the lower their career satisfaction, specialty content satisfaction, and stress-related satisfaction. Women's frequencies of observed gender-based discrimination were associated with higher stress and lower satisfaction, while men's frequencies of these observations were not associated with stress, but associated with increased satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Dental residents' stress, career satisfaction, experienced sexual harassment, and observed discrimination of women residents differ depending on the dental specialty program. Both male and female residents report more stress and less satisfaction the more they experience sexual harassment. The more women observe discrimination of women, the more stressed and the less satisfied they are. For men, the frequencies of these observations are not associated with stress, but positively associated with increased satisfaction.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Satisfação no Emprego , Odontopediatria , Prostodontia , Sexismo , Cirurgia Bucal , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Sexismo/psicologia , Cirurgia Bucal/educação , Odontopediatria/educação , Prostodontia/educação , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 20: 17455057241252574, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742705

RESUMO

Despite decades of faculty professional development programs created to prepare women for leadership, gender inequities persist in salary, promotion, and leadership roles. Indeed, men still earn more than women, are more likely than women to hold the rank of professor, and hold the vast majority of positions of power in academic medicine. Institutions demonstrate commitment to their faculty's growth by investing resources, including creating faculty development programs. These programs are essential to help prepare women to lead and navigate the highly matrixed, complex systems of academic medicine. However, data still show that women persistently lag behind men in their career advancement and salary. Clearly, training women to adapt to existing structures and norms alone is not sufficient. To effectively generate organizational change, leaders with power and resources must commit to gender equity. This article describes several efforts by the Office of Faculty in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine to broaden inclusivity in collaborative work for gender equity. The authors are women and men leaders in the Office of Faculty, which is within the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine dean's office and includes Women in Science and Medicine. Here, we discuss potential methods to advance gender equity using inclusivity based on our institutional experience and on the findings of other studies. Ongoing data collection to evaluate programmatic outcomes in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine will be reported in the future.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Equidade de Gênero , Liderança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Comportamento Cooperativo , Docentes de Medicina/organização & administração , Médicas , Salários e Benefícios , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Sexismo , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal
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