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1.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205140p1-7501205140p11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399062

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The most frequently used measures of facial emotion recognition (FER) are insufficiently comprehensive, reliable, valid, and efficient; moreover, the impact of gender on scoring has not been controlled. OBJECTIVE: To develop a computerized adaptive test of FER for adults with schizophrenia. DESIGN: First, we selected photographs from a published database. Second, items that fitted well to a Rasch model were used to form the item bank. Third and last, we determined the best administration mode for prospective users to achieve both high reliability and efficiency. SETTING: Psychiatric hospitals and the community. PARTICIPANTS: Adults living with schizophrenia (n = 351) and adults without diagnosed mental illness (n = 101). RESULTS: After removal of misfit items (infit or outfit ≥1.4), the remaining 165 items were selected to form an item bank. Among them, 39 showed severe gender bias, so the item difficulties were adjusted accordingly. On the basis of the item bank, two administration modes were recommended for prospective users. The reliable mode required approximately 128 items (nearly 20 min) to achieve reliability (.72-.81), similar to that of the entire item bank. The efficient mode required approximately 73 items (approximate 11 min) to provide acceptable reliability (.69-.73) for the seven domain scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our newly developed measure provides comprehensive, valid, and unbiased (to examinees' gender) assessments of FER in adults living with schizophrenia. In addition, the administration modes can be flexibly changed to optimize the reliability or efficiency for prospective users. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This newly developed FER measure can help occupational therapists identify deficits in recognizing specific basic emotions and plan corresponding interventions to manage the impact on their clients' social functions.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sexismo
3.
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241915, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315871

RESUMO

Women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) impedes progress in solving Africa's complex development problems. As in other regions, women's participation in STEM drops progressively moving up the education and career ladder, with women currently constituting 30% of Africa's STEM researchers. This study elucidates gender-based differences in PhD performance using new survey data from 227 alumni of STEM PhD programs in 17 African countries. We find that, compared to their male counterparts, sampled women had about one less paper accepted for publication during their doctoral studies and took about half a year longer to finish their PhD training. Negative binomial regression models provide insights on the observed differences in women's and men's PhD performance. Results indicate that the correlates of publication productivity and time to PhD completion are very similar for women and men, but some gender-based differences are observed. For publication output, we find that good supervision had a stronger impact for men than women; and getting married during the PhD reduced women's publication productivity but increased that of men. Becoming a parent during the PhD training was a key reason that women took longer to complete the PhD, according to our results. Findings suggest that having a female supervisor, attending an institution with gender policies in place, and pursuing the PhD in a department where sexual harassment by faculty was perceived as uncommon were enabling factors for women's timely completion of their doctoral studies. Two priority interventions emerge from this study: (1) family-friendly policies and facilities that are supportive of women's roles as wives and mothers and (2) fostering broader linkages and networks for women in STEM, including ensuring mentoring and supervisory support that is tailored to their specific needs and circumstances.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Política Organizacional , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Simulação por Computador , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Educação de Pós-Graduação/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 158-159: 10-15, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When addressing the variable "gender" in health research designs, a distinction is made between biological ("sex") and sociocultural or psychosocial aspects ("gender"). In health research, it is important to avoid systematic errors that may result when gender aspects are inappropriately or not sufficiently addressed (so-called gender bias). A gender bias occurs, for instance, when the presence of gender differences is assumed without empirical evidence or when research data that was generated from samples of male participants is automatically applied to women. Funding institutions can create incentives for researchers to integrate gender-sensitive analyses into their research projects and to consider the potential influence of the "gender" variable. The aim of this study was to explore which explicit requirements concerning gender aspects applicants to German funding institutions in the various health sectors need to meet in their research designs. METHODS: From March to June 2019, we researched funding institutions in the health sector at the German federal level. We examined the funding guidelines of each identified institution in light of their requirements for applicants to take gender aspects into consideration in their research. We explored this in a two-step procedure (online document search and e-mail contact). RESULTS: We examined 18 institutions. Information on the requirements for applicants to address gender aspects in their research projects was identified for four institutions: the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the German Federal Ministry of Health, the German Research Foundation, and the Volkswagen Stiftung. In particular, the consideration of gender aspects for planned research projects was used as an evaluation criterion in the institutions' application guidelines available online. If considered relevant for a planned research project, the consideration of gender aspects affects project planning, implementation and evaluation of results. Eight institutions had no such requirements. For the remaining six institutions, we were not able to find any such information, neither by document research nor through e-mail contact. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Only a few funding institutions in the health sector have so far included requirements regarding the consideration of the "gender" variable in health research in their application guidelines. Furthermore, the funding institutions' requirements are somewhat heterogeneous and need standardization. Funding institutions in the health sector could identify research needs and set new research priorities in order to expand the empirical evidence on gender aspects in the various health sectors and to increase the social benefit of the scientific results obtained. In this way, applicants can be sensitized and encouraged to consider gender aspects in their research projects and, if necessary, to conduct them in a gender-differentiated manner.


Assuntos
Sexismo , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158077

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health issue worldwide and a serious violation of human rights. Recognizing IPV as a form of violence is essential for both victims who need help and offenders who can join treatment programs. Furthermore, only a society able to identify violence can effectively deal with IPV. The present study is aimed at investigating the role of sociocultural dimensions (i.e., ambivalent sexism toward women, ambivalence toward men, and lay theories about gender differences) in sustaining myths about IPV and moral disengagement. The participants were 359 university students (76.5% female). The results show that hostile sexism toward women plays a key role in sustaining both myths and moral disengagement. Moreover, benevolence toward men and biological lay gender theories (i.e., "naïve" theories assuming that sex differences are a product of biology and genetics) significantly affected the endorsement of IPV myths. The implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Princípios Morais , Participação Social , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Violência
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143185

RESUMO

The knowledge of the promoting variables of dating violence has been a topic much studied in the last decade. However, the definition of the profile of this type of victim still presents numerous unknowns that hinder the effectiveness of prevention programs against violence. This study analyzes the interaction of cognitive, emotional and behavioral variables that converge in the victim profile. The sample comprised 2577 adolescents (55.2% girls) of 14 to 18 years in age (M = 15.9, SD = 1.2). The instruments used were the dating violence questionnaire (CUVINO), the scale of detection of sexism in adolescents (DSA), Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement Scale and Child and Adolescent Disposition Scale (CADS). To study the relationship between the different variables considered in this article, a SEM analysis was used. The results show that victims of gender violence and emotional abuse have high scores in benevolent sexism, moral disengagement and emotionally negative behavioral patterns. Likewise, the existence of an interdependent relationship between these three sets of variables was found.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Violência
10.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 48(6): 454-464, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198475

RESUMO

Gender inequity persists within the anaesthetic workforce, despite approaching numerical parity in Australia and New Zealand. There is evidence, from anaesthesia and the wider health workforce, that domestic gender norms regarding parental responsibilities contribute to this. The creation of 'family-friendly' workplaces may be useful in driving change, a concept reflected in the gender equity action plan developed by the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. This study aimed to explore the extent to which a family-friendly culture exists within anaesthesia training in New Zealand, from the perspective of leaders in anaesthesia departments. An electronic survey composed of quantitative and qualitative questions was emailed to all supervisors of training, rotational supervisors and departmental directors at Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists accredited training hospitals in New Zealand. Twenty-eight of the 71 eligible participants responded (response rate 39%). The majority (61%) agreed with the statement 'our department has a "family friendly" approach to anaesthesia trainees'; however, there was a discrepancy between views about how departments should be and how they actually are. Several barriers contributing to this discrepancy were identified, including workforce logistics, governance, departmental structures and attitudes. Uncertainty in responses regarding aspects of working hours, parental leave and the use of domestic sick leave reflect gaps in understanding, with scope for further enquiry and education. To redress gender bias seriously through the development of family-friendly policies and practices requires supportive governance and logistics, along with some cultural change.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Sexismo , Austrália , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(6): 466-470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217736

RESUMO

Gender bias within hormone replacement therapy has been prevalent for decades, and the circumstances surrounding this bias continue to worsen. A billion-dollar industry has been built on dozens of testosterone replacement therapies and medications to treat andropause and erectile dysfunction for men; women have been less fortunate. This article discusses this bias and the well-orchestrated attempt by the pharmaceutical industry to eliminate bioidentical hormones, as well as to downplay the important role of compounding pharmacies in fulfilling the needs of women in this longstanding gender gap.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Sexismo , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa , Testosterona
15.
Can Rev Sociol ; 57(4): 523-549, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151625

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic created rapid, wide-ranging, and significant disruptions to work and family life. Accordingly, these dramatic changes may have reshaped parents' gendered division of labor in the short term. Using data from 1,234 Canadian parents in different-sex relationships, we compare retrospective reports of perceived sharing in how housework and childcare tasks were split prior to the declaration of the pandemic to assessments of equality afterward. Further, we describe perceptions of changes in fathers' engagement in these tasks overall, by respondent gender, and by employment arrangements before and during the pandemic. Results indicate small shifts toward a more equal division of labor in the early "lockdown" months, with increased participation in housework and childcare by fathers, supporting the needs exposure hypothesis. We conclude by discussing gender differences in parents' reports and potential implications for longer term gender equality.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Relações Familiares , Equidade de Gênero , Serviço de Limpeza , Pandemias , Pais , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emprego , Pai , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sexismo , Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(713): 2104-2107, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146959

RESUMO

Gender bias in medicine negatively interfere with the medical care of both men and women, which can lead to risks for patients as well as health inequalities. Unisanté has launched a pilot project to integrate reflexivity by students at the Medical School of the University of Lausanne on the influence of gender in clinical practice, using an electronic portfolio. The clinical vignettes presented and discussed in this article illustrate this reflective work and the main biases and stereotypes encountered: pain management, assessment of the psychosocial context, management of domestic violence, screening for chlamydia infection and discussion of a contraceptive method.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina , Sexismo , Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Faculdades de Medicina , Suíça
17.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241596, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206668

RESUMO

We provide nationally representative estimates of sexual minority representation in STEM fields by studying 142,641 men and women in same-sex couples from the 2009-2018 American Community Surveys. These data indicate that men in same-sex couples are 12 percentage points less likely to have completed a bachelor's degree in a STEM field compared to men in different-sex couples. On the other hand, there is no gap observed for women in same-sex couples compared to women in different-sex couples. The STEM degree gap between men in same-sex and different-sex couples is larger than the STEM degree gap between all white and black men but is smaller than the gender gap in STEM degrees. We also document a smaller but statistically significant gap in STEM occupations between men in same-sex and different-sex couples, and we replicate this finding by comparing heterosexual and gay men using independently drawn data from the 2013-2018 National Health Interview Surveys. These differences persist after controlling for demographic characteristics, location, and fertility. Finally, we document that gay male representation in STEM fields (measured using either degrees or occupations) is systematically and positively associated with female representation in those same STEM fields.


Assuntos
Engenharia/estatística & dados numéricos , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Estados Unidos
20.
N Engl J Med ; 383(22): 2148-2157, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2000, a landmark study showed that women who graduated from U.S. medical schools from 1979 through 1997 were less likely than their male counterparts to be promoted to upper faculty ranks in academic medical centers. It is unclear whether these differences persist. METHODS: We merged data from the Association of American Medical Colleges on all medical school graduates from 1979 through 2013 with faculty data through 2018, and we compared the percentages of women who would be expected to be promoted on the basis of the proportion of women in the graduating class with the actual percentages of women who were promoted. We calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and used adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models to examine the differences between the early cohorts (1979-1997) and the late cohorts (1998-2013). RESULTS: The sample included 559,098 graduates from 134 U.S. medical schools. In most of the cohorts, fewer women than expected were promoted to the rank of associate or full professor or appointed to the post of department chair. Findings were similar across basic science and clinical departments. In analyses that included all the cohorts, after adjustment for graduation year, race or ethnic group, and department type, women assistant professors were less likely than their male counterparts to be promoted to associate professor (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.78). Similar sex disparities existed in promotions to full professor (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.81) and appointments to department chair (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.54). These sex differences in promotions and appointments did not diminish over time and were not smaller in the later cohorts than in the earlier cohorts. The sex differences were even larger in the later cohorts with respect to promotion to full professor. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 35-year period, women physicians in academic medical centers were less likely than men to be promoted to the rank of associate or full professor or to be appointed to department chair, and there was no apparent narrowing in the gap over time. (Funded by the University of Kansas Medical Center Joy McCann Professorship for Women in Medicine and the American Association of University Women.).


Assuntos
Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes de Medicina , Médicas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Faculdades de Medicina , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
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