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4.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(6): 1355-1359, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787562

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leadership positions occupied by women within academic emergency medicine have remained stagnant despite increasing numbers of women with faculty appointments. We distributed a multi-institutional survey to women faculty and residents to evaluate categorical characteristics contributing to success and differences between the two groups. METHODS: An institutional review board-approved electronic survey was distributed to women faculty and residents at eight institutions and were completed anonymously. We created survey questions to assess multiple categories: determination; resiliency; career support and obstacles; career aspiration; and gender discrimination. Most questions used a Likert five-point scale. Responses for each question and category were averaged and deemed significant if the average was greater than or equal to 4 in the affirmative, or less than or equal to 2 in the negative. We calculated proportions for binary questions. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 55.23% (95/172). The faculty response rate was 54.1% (59/109) and residents' response rate was 57.1% (36/63). Significant levels of resiliency were reported, with a mean score of 4.02. Childbearing and rearing were not significant barriers overall but were more commonly reported as barriers for faculty over residents (P <0.001). Obstacles reported included a lack of confidence during work-related negotiations and insufficient research experience. Notably, 68.4% (65/95) of respondents experienced gender discrimination and 9.5% (9/95) reported at least one encounter of sexual assault by a colleague or supervisor during their career. CONCLUSION: Targeted interventions to promote female leadership in academic emergency medicine include coaching on negotiation skills, improved resources and mentorship to support research, and enforcement of safe work environments. Female emergency physician resiliency is high and not a barrier to career advancement.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência , Médicas , Docentes , Docentes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Mentores , Sexismo
5.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(6): 859-872, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767178

RESUMO

Although women are about half of world's population, they are underrepresented in many sectors including academia and the research scenario in general. Gender gap in Entomology has been pointed out in other publications; however, data for Brazil has never been demonstrated. Here we provide a diagnosis for the Brazilian Entomology scenario in order to contribute to propositions towards disentangling the gender gap in general. We analyzed scientometric data for Brazilian Entomology focusing on gender disparity and on personal perceptions related to the gender gap through an online questionnaire. We detected a pervasive gender bias in which the scissor-shaped curve is the most representative effect of it: women were the majority in lower degree stages but the minority in higher degree stages (permanent positions and positions of prestige and power). We also observed mentorship bias and discussed these results in light of intersectionality and the COVID-19 pandemic. Gender differences were perceived differently by the questionnaire respondents considering age, gender, and parenting. With this data and analyses, we have provided elements to stimulate and support change to a healthier and more equitable academic space.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sexismo , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769567

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyse the inclusion of a gender perspective (GP) in scientific production on interventions for a reduction in psychological distress in children who have experienced parental gender-based violence (CEXPGBV). To achieve this, a review of publications was carried out in the Web of Science, EBSCOhost, ProQuest and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 3418 records were found, and 44 items of research selected. For GP analysis, the questionnaire "Gender perspective in health research" (GPIHR) was applied and relationships with the terminology of violence were analysed, as well as the definition of term used, references to violence by men or received by women and the instruments used to assess these. Generally, the assessed studies do not contain a GP, since 70% of the GPIHR items were answered negatively. Likewise, 89% of research used general terms to refer to violence without referring to gender. These results show the importance of considering instruments such as GPIHR in both the planning and development of future research in order to avoid possible gender bias.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência
8.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 202021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779186

RESUMO

Women in medicine face barriers that hinder progress toward top leadership roles, and the industry remains plagued by the grand challenge of gender inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore how subtle and overt gender biases affect women physicians, physician leaders, researchers, and faculty working in academic health sciences environments and to further examine the association of these biases with workplace satisfaction. The study used a convergent mixed methods approach. Sampling from a list of medical schools in the United States, in conjunction with a list of each state's medical society, the authors analyzed the quantitative survey responses of 293 women in medicine. The authors conducted ordinary least squares multiple regression to assess the relationship of gender barriers on workplace satisfaction. Additionally, 132 of the 293 participants provided written open-ended responses that were explored using a qualitative content analysis methodology. The survey results showed that male culture, lack of sponsorship, lack of mentoring, and queen bee syndrome were associated with lower workplace satisfaction. The qualitative results provided illustrations of how participants experienced these biases. These results emphasize the obstacles that women face and highlight the detrimental nature of gender bias in medicine. The authors conclude by presenting concrete recommendations for managers endeavoring to improve the culture of gender equity and inclusivity.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Sexismo , Estados Unidos
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(10): 4613-4622, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730648

RESUMO

Mental health problems have great international health relevance. From a multifactorial nature, the health conditions considered here as suffering are influenced by social elements such as the construction of masculinity, notwithstanding the evident increasing criticisms and struggles against male sexism. Given this setting, the paper addresses male mental distress and its care, based on a literature review, according to BVS research, and considering the 2010-2020 period. Twenty-two papers were selected from the research. The results of the study were organized into these categories: Characteristics/Particularities of men's mental distress; Access/Way of seeking help by men in distress and approach/Care of men in mental distress. We can conclude that there is a need for more visibility for the relationship between masculinity and suffering and their care specificities, considering the existence of an apparent silent crisis, the right of men (as people) to care, and the possible contribution, albeit indirect and modest, of addressing men's distress to the fight against machismo.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Sexismo , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Saúde do Homem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Autocuidado
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender inequity in the scientific production of the University of Sao Paulo. METHODS: Members of the University of Sao Paulo faculty are the study population. The Web of Science repository was the source of the publication metrics. We selected the measures: total publications and citations, average of citations per year and item, H-index, and history of citations between 1950 and 2019. We used the name of the faculty member as a proxy to the gender identity. We use descriptive statistics to characterize the metrics. We evaluated the scissors effect by selecting faculty members with a high H-index. The historical series of citations was projected until 2100. We carry out analyses for the general population and working time subgroups: less than 10 years, 10 to 20 years, and 20 years or more. RESULTS: Of the 8,325 faculty members, we included 3,067 (36.8%). Among those included, 1,893 (61.7%) were male and 1,174 (38.28%) female. The male gender presented higher values in the publication metrics (average of articles: M = 67.0 versus F = 49.7; average of citations/year: M = 53.9 versus F = 35.9), and H-index (M = 14.5 versus F = 12.4). Among the 100 individuals with the highest H-index (≥ 37), 83% are male. The male curve grows faster in the historical series of citations, opening a difference between the groups whose separation is confirmed by the projection. DISCUSSION: Scientific production at the Universidade de São Paulo is subject to a gender bias. Two-thirds of the faculty are male, and hiring over the past few decades perpetuates this pattern. The large majority of high impact faculty members are male. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that the Universidade de São Paulo will not overcome gender inequality in scientific production without substantive affirmative action. Development does not happen by chance but through choices that are affirmative, decisive, and long-term oriented.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Sexismo , Brasil , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 1006-1028, out.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344161

RESUMO

O estudo tem por objetivo analisar as valências simbólicas identificadas em notícias publicadas no Portal G1 de todos os estados brasileiros sobre os primeiros atos de vacinação contra a covid-19, relacionando-os, em particular, às questões de raça e gênero com foco nas mulheres e sua posição na sociedade. Nessa perspectiva busca-se responder, sob a ancoragem da semiótica de Algirdas Julien Greimas, como a mulher foi representada em cada estado. Os resultados retratam as mulheres como sujeito social 'frágil' e 'dependente' do Estado como 'Pai-Provedor' ao lado do uso de mulheres negras representativas de 'minorias' que remetem a uma ideia de um Brasil diverso e miscigenado. As conclusões evidenciam que a visibilidade conferida à mulher nas campanhas de vacinação disputou espaço com representações de caráter sexista e racista.


The study aims to analyze the symbolic valences identified in news published on the G1 Portal from all Brazilian states about the first acts of vaccination against covid-19, relating them to issues of race and gender with a focus on women and their position in society. From this perspective, we seek to answer, under the anchorage of Algirdas Julien Greimas' semiotics, how women were represented in each state. The results portray women as a 'fragile' and 'dependent' social subject, from the State as a 'Father-Provider', alongside the use of black women representing 'minorities' that refer to an idea of a diverse and miscegenated Brazil. The conclusions show that the visibility given to women in vaccination campaigns disputed space with sexist and racist representations.


El estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las valencias simbólicas identificadas en las noticias publicadas en el Portal G1 de todos los estados brasileños sobre los primeros actos de vacunación contra el covid-19, relacionándolos, en particular, con cuestiones de raza y género, con un enfoque en las mujeres y su posición en la sociedad. Desde esta perspectiva, buscamos responder, bajo el anclaje de la semiótica de Algirdas Julien Greimas, cómo estaban representadas las mujeres en cada estado. Los resultados retratan a la mujer como sujeto social 'frágil' y 'dependiente' del Estado como 'Padre-Proveedor' junto con el uso de mujeres negras representativas de 'minorias' que remiten a una idea de un Brasil diverso y mestizo. Las conclusiones muestran que la visibilidad dada a las mujeres en las campañas de vacunación disputaba espacio con representaciones sexistas y racistas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Jornalismo , Identidade de Gênero , Mulheres , Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Sexismo , Iniquidade de Gênero , Vacinas contra COVID-19
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 514, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regarding the controversy about the overdiagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents there are two main directions addressed as issue of age bias and issue of gender bias. In this relation, replication of findings demonstrating significant overdiagnosis is of importance which make the systematic evaluation of such occurrence necessary. OBJECTIVE: The seminal study by Bruchmüller, Margraf & Schneider, 2012 is replicated here, although in a different cultural context, in this case Iran, as ADHS might be perceived differently there. We assessed both gender bias and the impact of potential overdiagnosis on treatment recommendations. METHODS: A total of 344 licensed Iranian psychiatrists (mean age = 45.17, SD = 9.50) participated in this study. Each psychiatrist received a cover letter that introduced the study as well as a case vignette. Overall, there are eight different cases, one child with ADHD and three non-ADHD children, for both a boy (Ali) and a girl (Sara). Participants also received a questionnaire requesting their particular diagnosis, treatment recommendation and the therapist's sociodemographic information. Chi square tests and multiple logistic regression were applied for data analyses. RESULTS: Overdiagnosis occurred in both girl and boy children, although overdiagnosis was 2.45 more likely in boys than in girls (p < 0.01). With respect to the psychiatrist's gender, we detected no difference between males or females, as both overdiagnosed ADHD in boys (pfemale < 0.01 and pmale < 0.01). Furthermore, ADHD overdiagnosis had a direct impact on medication prescription (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that diagnosticians should strictly adhere to diagnostic criteria to minimize diagnostic error.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Psiquiatria , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Sobremedicalização , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexismo
14.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 90: 102087, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655834

RESUMO

Bias is said to occur when validity is better for one group than another (e.g., when diagnoses are more valid for male or female clients). This article provides (a) a methodological critique of studies on race bias and gender bias in diagnosis and (b) a narrative review of results from studies with good internal validity. The results suggest that race bias occurs for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, comorbid substance abuse and mood disorders, eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. Other results suggest that gender bias occurs for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial and histrionic personality disorders. The way that symptoms are expressed (e.g., Black cultural expressions of depression) appears to have a significant effect on diagnoses. It may be possible to decrease bias by expanding the use of (a) mental health screening, (b) self-report measures including some psychological tests, (c) structured interviews, and (d) statistical prediction rules. Finally, evidence exists that (a) the diagnosis of personality disorders should be made using dimensional ratings and (b) training in cultural diversity and debiasing strategies should be provided to mental health professionals.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade , Sexismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639570

RESUMO

There has long been a gender bias in medicine. This qualitative study aims to identify the experience of sexism among frontline female nurses and further explore their expectations and possible strategies to get rid of gender bias. This is a descriptive phenomenological study of 23 female nurses with 11 ± 3.98 years of experience who spent 36 ± 6.50 days at the frontline during the initial COVID-19 outbreak. We employed Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis method to understand the subjective experiences, revealing the following themes: (a) materialization of gender identity; (b) incoordinate relationships; (c) future voice of female nurses. The gender bias experienced by female frontline nurses further challenges their emotional identity and self-identity. Therefore, it is important to require extensive consciousness-raising and policy support to defend female nurses' rights.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , China , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexismo
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1129, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to accommodate the growing number of HIV clients, improve retention in care and reduce health care burden, the differentiated service delivery (DSD) models were introduced in 2014. One such model, Community Client-Led ART Delivery (CCLAD) was rolled out in Uganda in 2017. The extent of utilization of this model has not been fully studied. The aim of the study was to explore the patients' and health workers' experiences on the utilization of CCLAD model at Bwizibwera Health Centre IV, south western Uganda. METHODS: This was a descriptive study employing qualitative methods. The study had 68 purposively selected participants who participated in 10 focus group discussions with HIV clients enrolled in CCLAD; 10 in-depth interviews with HIV clients not enrolled in CCLAD and 6 in-depth interviews with the health workers. Key informant interviews were held with the 2 focal persons for DSD. The discussions and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and then translated. Both deductive and inductive approaches were employed to analyse the data using in NVivo software. RESULTS: Patients' and health workers' experiences in this study were categorized as drivers and barriers to the utilization of the CCLAD model. The main drivers for utilization of this model at different levels were: individual (reduced costs, living positively with HIV, improved patient self-management), community (peer support and contextual factors) and health system (reduced patient congestion at the health centre, caring health workers as well as CCLAD sensitization by health workers). However, significant barriers to the utilization of this community-based model were: individual (personal values and preferences, lack of commitment of CCLAD group members), community (stigma, gender bias) and health system (frequent drug stockouts, certain implementation challenges, fluctuating implementing partner priorities, shortage of trained health workers and insufficient health education by health workers). CONCLUSION: Based on our findings the CCLAD model is meeting the objectives set out by Differentiated Service Delivery for HIV care and treatment. Notwithstanding the benefits, challenges remain which call on the Ministry of Health and other implementing partners to address these hindrances to facilitate the scalability, sustainability and the realisation of the full-range of benefits that the model presents.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo , Uganda
17.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 48: e20213123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: the attraction of women by Surgery has always existed. Although Surgery has been considered a specialty for men, several women chose it, despite gender bias issues that have persisted over many years. Several obstacles have impacted the practice of women surgeons, leading them to abandon the profession, while others, perhaps bearers of a stronger spirit, managed to overcome them, and won. OBJECTIVE: to assess the rates of perception of harassment against female surgeons as a cause of difficulty and negative feelings related to the specialty. METHODS: we conducted a quantitative and qualitative (personal accounts) research through a questionnaire via Google Forms® sent to all women surgeons registered in the Brazilian College of Surgeons and in a WhatsApp women surgeons' groups. The qualitative analysis was made with the Wordle® app. RESULTS: from 821 questionnaires sent, we obtained 232 responses (28.2%). Harassment perception during training was 49.1% (n=114). From the women surgeons who perceived harassment, 56.1% reported having undergone different training than expected, with statistical significance (p<0.001). The question of having been treated differently due to being a woman also had an impact on harassment perception (77.2% harassed vs 47.5%; p<0.001). Physical (42.1% vs 6.8%) and emotional (92.1% vs 39.8%) threats were also different between groups. CONCLUSION: women surgeons still report great harassment perception, both moral and sexual, which impacts their feelings about the specialty.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual , Cirurgiões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Sexismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(752): 1649-1653, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585862

RESUMO

Implicit biases are a daily occurrence during medical consultations. Biases disrupt the clinical judgment and modify the attitude of the practitioner. They are a source of medical errors and they impact negatively all indicators of quality of care. Biases are rooted in collective stereotypes and individual prejudice and can contribute to sexual harassment and discrimination. Developing strategies to reduce stereotypes and their impact must be a part of any program targeting sexual harassment, sexism or discrimination of any kind. This article offers an understanding of the essence of biases, based on complex cognitive processes, and proposes strategies to increase awareness at the individual and collective level.


Assuntos
Preconceito , Assédio Sexual , Viés , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sexismo
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257903, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591923

RESUMO

Inclusive language focuses on using the vocabulary to avoid exclusion or discrimination, specially referred to gender. The task of finding gender bias in written documents must be performed manually, and it is a time-consuming process. Consequently, studying the usage of non-inclusive language on a document, and the impact of different document properties (such as author gender, date of presentation, etc.) on how many non-inclusive instances are found, is quite difficult or even impossible for big datasets. This research analyzes the gender bias in academic texts by analyzing a study corpus of more than 12,000 million words obtained from more than one hundred thousand doctoral theses from Spanish universities. For this purpose, an automated algorithm was developed to evaluate the different characteristics of the document and look for interactions between age, year of publication, gender or the field of knowledge in which the doctoral thesis is framed. The algorithm identified information patterns using a CNN (convolutional neural network) by the creation of a vector representation of the sentences. The results showed evidence that there was a greater bias as the age of the authors increased, who were more likely to use non-inclusive terms; it was concluded that there is a greater awareness of inclusiveness in women than in men, and also that this awareness grows as the candidate is younger. The results showed evidence that the age of the authors increased discrimination, with men being more likely to use non-inclusive terms (up to an index of 23.12), showing that there is a greater awareness of inclusiveness in women than in men in all age ranges (with an average of 14.99), and also that this awareness grows as the candidate is younger (falling down to 13.07). In terms of field of knowledge, the humanities are the most biased (20.97), discarding the subgroup of Linguistics, which has the least bias at all levels (9.90), and the field of science and engineering, which also have the least influence (13.46). Those results support the assumption that the bias in academic texts (doctoral theses) is due to unconscious issues: otherwise, it would not depend on the field, age, gender, and would occur in any field in the same proportion. The innovation provided by this research lies mainly in the ability to detect, within a textual document in Spanish, whether the use of language can be considered non-inclusive, based on a CNN that has been trained in the context of the doctoral thesis. A significant number of documents have been used, using all accessible doctoral theses from Spanish universities of the last 40 years; this dataset is only manageable by data mining systems, so that the training allows identifying the terms within the context effectively and compiling them in a novel dictionary of non-inclusive terms.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação , Sexismo/psicologia , Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha , Inconsciente Psicológico , Universidades
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