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1.
Instr Course Lect ; 69: 245-254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017731

RESUMO

Women comprise approximately 50% of medical students; however, only 14% of current orthopaedic residents are women. There are many factors that contribute to the reluctance of female medical students to enter the field including limited exposure to musculoskeletal medicine during medical school, negative perception of the field, lack of female mentors, barriers to promotion, and acceptance by senior faculty. Diversity in orthopaedics is critical to provide culturally competent care. Two pipeline programs, the Perry Initiative and Nth Dimensions, have successful track records in increasing female and underrepresented minorities in orthopaedic surgery residency training. Recognizing and combating implicit bias in orthopaedics will improve recruitment, retention, promotion, and compensation of female orthopaedic surgeons. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the current status of women in orthopaedics, describe ways to improve diversity in the field, and make surgeons aware of how implicit bias can contribute to discrepancies seen in orthopaedic surgery, including pay scale inequities and women in leadership positions.


Assuntos
Ortopedia , Médicas , Sexismo , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Procedimentos Ortopédicos
2.
J Vis Commun Med ; 43(1): 1, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914362
3.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(1): 175-186, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554471

RESUMO

Gender disparity exists in leadership roles within healthcare. While the majority of the healthcare workforce is comprised of women, significantly fewer women occupy leadership positions, particularly at executive and board levels. As the field of oncology pharmacy continues to rapidly expand and evolve, an assessment of the current state of women in oncology pharmacy leadership roles is vital to the growth and development of the profession. In the fall of 2017, the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association (HOPA) hosted a summit to explore leadership issues facing women in oncology pharmacy which have the potential to affect our membership and our profession. This meeting included invited participants from across the fields of oncology and pharmacy and was part of HOPA's strategic leadership initiative developed through the work of the HOPA Leadership Development Committee in 2016. This promotes a primary goal of HOPA, which is to support oncology pharmacists as they assume leadership roles within their practices and within healthcare to assure oncology pharmacy is integrated into cancer care. The purpose of this white paper is to (1) summarize key issues that were identified through a membership survey; (2) review ongoing efforts to address the needs of female oncology pharmacists in leadership development; (3) serve as a call to action for individuals and professional organizations to assist with and disseminate these efforts and highlight available resources, and (4) to provide practical steps to meet the needs of individuals, training programs, and institutions/employers.


Assuntos
Liderança , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacêuticos/tendências , Farmácia/tendências , Sexismo/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/tendências , Farmácia/métodos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle
4.
Urology ; 134: 60, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789183
7.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25040, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048276

RESUMO

Objetivamos conhecer a percepção de estudantes de Educação Física acerca de comportamentos e comentários homofóbicos e heterossexistas presentes na formação profissional, identificando sugestões para torná-la mais receptiva à diversidade de sujeitos. Esta pesquisa mista contou, primeiramente, com 260 estudantes que responderam um questionário que foi analisado a partir da frequência de respostas. Na segunda etapa participaram 19, divididos em 3 grupos focais, cujo conteúdo foi transcrito e submetido a análise de conteúdo com auxílio do software QSRNVivo. Os resultados apontam que é forte a incidência de comportamentos e comentários homofóbicos e heterossexistas entre estudantes, ocorrendo sobretudo entre os homens. Afirmam que os(as) docentes reforçam ou silenciam diante dessas condutas e pouco colaboram para criar um ambiente seguro e livre de preconceitos. Para alterar esse cenário, é necessário cultivar o respeito, problematizar o currículo heteronormativo e oportunizar diferentes ações que envolvam a comunidade acadêmica


This study aimed to know the perceptions of physical education students concerning homophobic and heterosexist comments and behaviours in professional education. Also, we identified suggestions to make professional education more suitable to the diversity of subjects. This mixed research was divided into two steps. Firstly, 260 students filled a questionnaire and a descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the results. Subsequently, 19 students participated in three focal groups. Then, the data was transcribed and the information processed using the software (QSRNVivo). Finally, a content analysis was carried out. A strong incidence of homophobic and heterosexist comments and behaviours is seen, frequently among male subjects. Furthermore, the results show that when confronted teachers were voiceless or reinforced the behaviour, consequently not collaborating to a secure and prejudice-free environment. To change this scenario, it is necessary to cultivate respect, problematize the heteronormative curriculum and opportunize different actions involving the academic community


Este estúdio objetivó conocer la percepción de los estudiantes de Educación Física sobre los comportamientos y comentarios homofóbicos y heterosexistas que se encuentran presentes en la formación profesional, identificando las propuestas para cambiarla más receptiva hacia la diversidad de personas. Esta investigación mixta contó, primeramente, con 260 estudiantes que respondieron un cuestionario que fue analizado mediante frecuencias. En la segunda etapa, 19 alumnos que fueron divididos en 3 grupos focales, cuyos datos fueron transcritos y sometidos a análisis de contenido mediante la ayuda de un software (QSRNVivo). Los resultados apuntan una fuerte incidencia de comportamientos y comentarios homofóbicos y heterosexistas entre estudiantes, principalmente entre los hombres. Afirman que los docentes refuerzan o silencian estas conductas y además colaboran poco para crear un ambiente libre de prejuicios. Para cambiar esta situación, es necesario trabajar el respeto, cuestionar el currículo heteronormativo y fomentar diferentes acciones que involucren a la comunidad académica


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Educação Física e Treinamento , Homofobia , Sexismo , Educação Superior , Capacitação Profissional
8.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMO

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Violência contra a Mulher , Conflito (Psicologia) , Homicídio/psicologia
9.
BMJ ; 367: l6721, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the proportional representation of healthcare workers in receipt of New Year honours (NYHs) with workers in other industries and to determine whether the NYH system has gender or geographical biases. DESIGN: Observational study of the UK honours system with a comparative analysis of proportional representation of the UK workforce and subgroup analyses of gender and geographical representations. PARTICIPANTS: Recipients of NYHs from 2009 to 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute risk of receiving an NYH based on industry, gender, or region of the UK. Relative risk of receiving an NYH for services to healthcare compared with other industries. RESULTS: 10 989 NYHs were bestowed from 2009 to 2018, 47% of which were awarded to women. 832 awards (7.6%) were for services to healthcare. People working in sport and in the arts and media were more likely to receive NYHs than those working in healthcare (relative risks of 22.01 (95% confidence interval 19.91 to 24.34) and 5.84 (5.31 to 6.44), respectively). There was no significant difference between the rate of receiving honours for healthcare and for science and technology (P=0.22). 34% (3741) of awards were issued to people living in London and in the southeast of England, and only 496 of 1447 (34%) higher order awards (knighthoods, damehoods, companions of honour, and commanders of the order of the British empire) were received by women. CONCLUSIONS: In relation to the size of its workforce, a career in healthcare is not as "honourable" as careers in certain other industries. Geographical and gender biases might exist in the honours system.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Geografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
10.
BMJ ; 367: l6541, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732513
13.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 93-107, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184868

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene como propósito reflexionar sobre la situación de estigma y discriminación que afecta a personas con VIH/SIDA. Esto constituye una vulneración a los derechos fundamentales de estas personas y una barrera en el avance hacia la eliminación de la enfermedad. Ya que estudios realizados en diferentes países dan cuenta que las personas en esta condición se sienten discriminadas por la sociedad, y por los profesionales de la salud. Este es uno de los aspectos que ha dificultado el acceso al tratamiento, su adhesión, y educación para el cambio de conducta en los grupos de riesgo


Aquest article té com a propòsit reflexionar sobre la situació d'estigma i discriminació que afecta a persones amb VIH/SIDA. Això constitueix una vulneració dels drets fonamentals d'aquestes persones i una barrera en l'avanç cap a l'eliminació de la malaltia. Estudis realitzats en diferents països exposen que les persones en aquesta condició se senten discriminades per la societat i pels professionals de la salut. Aquest és un dels aspectes que ha dificultat l'accés al tractament, l'adhesió al mateix, i educació per al canvi de conducta en el grups de risc


This article aims to reflect on the situation of stigma and discrimination affecting people with HIV/AIDS. This constitutes a violation of the fundamental rights of these people and a barrier to progress towards the elimination of the disease. Studies carried out in different countries show that people in this condition feel discriminated against by society and by health professionals. This is one of the aspects that has hindered access to treatment, adherence, and behaviour change education in at-risk groups


Assuntos
Humanos , Ageismo/ética , Sexismo , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Risco , Relações Profissional-Paciente/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Soroprevalência de HIV , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Direitos Humanos
16.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1389-1398, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe survey methods used to examine reported experiences of discrimination against African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, Native Americans, women, and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) adults. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data came from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey of 3453 US adults, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We examined the survey instrument, sampling design, and weighting of the survey, and present selected survey findings. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Examining reported discrimination experienced by multiple groups in a telephone survey requires attention to details of sampling and weighting. In health care settings, 32 percent of African Americans reported discrimination, as did 23 percent of Native Americans, 20 percent of Latinos, 18 percent of women, 16 percent of LGBTQ adults, and 13 percent of Asian Americans. Also, 51 percent of LGBTQ adults, 42 percent of African Americans, and 38 percent of Native Americans reported identity-based violence against themselves or family members; 57 percent of African Americans and 41 percent of women reported discrimination in pay or promotions; 50 percent of African Americans, 29 percent of Native Americans, and 27 percent of Latinos reported being discriminated against in interactions with police. CONCLUSIONS: Even the small selection of results presented in this article as examples of survey measures show a pattern of substantial reported discrimination against all six groups studied.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
18.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(10): 634-640, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580726

RESUMO

Women in math, science, and engineering (MSE) often face stereotype threat: they fear that their performance in MSE will confirm an existing negative stereotype-that women are bad at math-which in turn may impair their learning and performance in math. This research investigated if sexist nonverbal behavior of a male instructor could activate stereotype threat among women in a virtual classroom. In addition, the research examined if learners' avatar representation in virtual reality altered this nonverbal process. Specifically, a 2 (avatar gender: female vs. male) × 2 (instructor behavior: dominant sexist vs. nondominant or nonsexist) between-subjects experiment was used. Data from 76 female college students demonstrated that participants learned less and performed worse when interacting with a sexist male instructor compared with a nonsexist instructor in a virtual classroom. Participants learned and performed equally well when represented by female and male avatars. Our findings extend previous research in physical learning settings, suggesting that dominant-sexist behaviors may give rise to stereotype threat and undermine women's learning outcomes in virtual classrooms. Implications for gender achievement gaps and stereotype threat are discussed.


Assuntos
Matemática , Sexismo/psicologia , Estereotipagem , Realidade Virtual , Mulheres , Gráficos por Computador , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Mulheres/educação , Mulheres/psicologia
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576979

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Discrimination based on sexual orientation can influence vulnerability to HIV, increasing exposure to risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVES: To analyze data using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify groups of individuals with specific patterns of discrimination based on sexual orientation (DSO). METHODS: Cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in 12 Brazilian cities in 2016. LCA was used to characterize discrimination among MSM based on 13 variables in the survey questionnaire. The proportions of men reporting DSO and other variables of interest were estimated using Gile's Successive Sampling estimator. RESULTS: Most MSM were young, single, had a religion, had a high school or college degree, black or brown skin color, and socioeconomic status classified as average. More than half of the participants reported that they had been discriminated against during the last 12 months due to their sexual orientation (65%), more than a third said they had felt afraid of walking in public places during the past 12 months, and about one-fifth of participants reported having been victims of physical or sexual assault due to DSO. DSO was classified into four latent classes: "very high", "high", "moderate" and "low", with estimates of 2.2%, 16.4%, 35.1%, and 46.19%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We observed a high proportion of discrimination against MSM in this study. The use of LCA differentiated parsimoniously classes of discrimination.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Autorrelato , Sexismo/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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