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1.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0300213, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954729

RESUMO

Rice wine, well known for its unique flavor, rich nutritional value, and health benefits, has potential for extensive market development. Rhizopus and Aspergillus are among several microorganisms used in rice wine brewing and are crucial for determining rice wine quality. The strains were isolated via Rose Bengal and starch as a combined separation medium, followed by oenological property and sensory evaluation screening. The strain exhibiting the best performance can be screened using the traditional rice wine Qu. The strains YM-8, YM-10, and YM-16, which exhibited strong saccharification and fermentation performance along with good flavor and taste, were obtained from traditional rice wine Qu. Based on ITS genetic sequence analysis, the YM-8, YM-10, and YM-16 strains were identified as Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus arrhizus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The optimum growth temperature of each of the three strains was 30°C, 32°C, and 30°C, and the optimum initial pH was 6.0, 6.5, and 6.5, respectively. The activities of α-amylase, glucoamylase, and protease of YM-16 were highest at 220.23±1.88, 1,269.04±30.32, and 175.16±1.81 U/g, respectively. The amino acid content of rice wine fermented in a 20-L bioreactor with the three mold strains was higher than that of the control group, except for arginine, which was significantly lower than that of the control group. The total amino acid content and the total content of each type of amino acid were ranked as YM-16 > YM-8 > YM-10 > control group, and the amino acid content varied greatly among the strains. The control group had a higher content, whereas YM-8 and YM-16 had lower contents of volatile aroma components than the control group and had the basic flavor substances needed for rice wine, which is conducive to the formation of rice wine aroma. This selected strain, YM-16, has strong saccharification and fermentation ability, is a rich enzyme system, and improves the flavor of rice wine, thereby demonstrating its suitability as a production strain for brewing.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Oryza , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Paladar , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(27): e38857, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968463

RESUMO

In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in comprehending the impact of alcohol consumption on adverse health outcomes. However, the quality of evidence remains limited. Our objective was to conduct a prospective study examining the relationship between different types of alcoholic beverages and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and identifying the thresholds of safe dose stratified by sex using data from the UK Biobank. 502,490 participants were enrolled. These participants were initially registered between 2006 and 2010, and underwent reassessment between 2012 and 2013. All participants completed a detailed questionnaire on their alcohol consumption, including total alcohol consumption yesterday, weekly consumption of red wine, champagne plus white wine, beer, spirits, and fortified wine. All-cause mortality and the incidence of CVD and CKD were considered as the primary outcomes. 2852 participants reported CKD during a median follow-up period of 11.94 years, while 79,958 participants reported CVD over a median follow-up period of 11.35 years. Additionally, 18,923 participants died over a median follow-up period of 11.89 years. After adjusting for variables such as age, sex, education level, smoking status, diet score, and exercise score, total alcohol consumption showed a U-shaped relationship with the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality, but showed an inverse association with the risk of CKD. Upon further classification of alcoholic beverages, our analysis revealed that red wine, champagne plus white wine, beer, spirits, and fortified wine presented a U-shaped relationship with the risk of all-cause mortality and CKD. However, spirits were positively associated with the risk of CVD, only red wine, champagne plus white wine, beer, and fortified wine showed a U-shaped relationship with the risk of CVD. The safe doses of total alcohol consumption should be < 11 g/d for males and < 10 for females, red wine consumption should be < 7 glasses/week for males and < 6 for females, champagne plus white wine consumption should be < 5 glasses/week, and fortified wine consumption should be < 4 glasses/week. Red wine, champagne plus white wine, beer, and fortified wine below the corresponding thresholds of safe dose in our analysis were significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, CVD, and CKD. And these alcoholic beverages under safe doses exhibited a protective effect against conditions like diabetes, depression, dementia, epilepsy, liver cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases, while didn't increase the risk of cancer.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Cerveja/estatística & dados numéricos , Vinho
3.
Food Res Int ; 190: 114558, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945562

RESUMO

Fermented beverages, including wine, can accumulate high concentrations of biogenic amines (BAs), which can pose potential health risks. BAs are produced by various yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during winemaking. LAB are the main contributors to the formation of histamine and tyramine, the most toxic and food safety relevant biogenic amines. Numerous factors, ranging from agricultural and oenological practices to sanitation conditions, can contribute to the formation of BAs in wines. Moreover, organic and biodynamic wines impose limitations on the use of common food additives employed to control the proliferation of native and spoilage microorganisms during vinification and storage. To mitigate histamine production, commercial starter cultures incapable of synthesising histamine have been effectively utilised to reduce wine histamine content. Alternative fermentative microorganisms are currently under investigation to enhance the safety, quality, and typicity of wines, including indigenous LAB, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, and BAs degrading strains. Furthermore, exploration of extracts from BAs-degrading microorganisms and their purified enzymes has been undertaken to reduce BAs levels in wines. This review highlights microbial contributors to BAs in wines, factors affecting their growth and BA production, and alternative microorganisms that can degrade or avoid BAs. The aim is to lessen reliance on additives, providing consumers with safer wine choices.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Fermentação , Vinho , Leveduras , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Leveduras/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Histamina/análise , Histamina/metabolismo , Tiramina/análise , Lactobacillales/metabolismo
4.
Food Res Int ; 190: 114580, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945566

RESUMO

Literature has highlighted that the organic attribute has heuristic value for many consumers, representing an overarching signifier of positive characteristics. Nowadays a plethora of alternative systemic approaches side organic production in the aim to improve the overall sustainability of the agrifood sector. Current study, based on blind and informed tasting, measured sustainability information influence on respondents' (n = 162) perceptions of organic and fungus-resistant grape (FRG) white wines. Findings of the within-subject non hypothetical experiment revealed that information has a stronger, positive impact on participants' perception of organic wine (increasing 13 % monetary preferences) compared to FRG wine (+9%). Additionally, attitudinal characteristics driving consumers' preferences towards FRG wine diverge from organic core motivations.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Vitis , Vinho , Humanos , Vitis/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Paladar , Alimentos Orgânicos , Fungos , Idoso , Percepção Gustatória
5.
Food Res Int ; 190: 114636, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945625

RESUMO

There has been growing interest in the use of mixed cultures comprised of Oenococcus oeni and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce wine with local style and typicality. This study has investigated the influence of the inoculation protocol of O. oeni on the fermentation kinetics and aromatic profile of Chardonnay wine. The one selected autochthonous O. oeni strain (ZX-1) inoculated at different stages of the alcoholic fermentation process successfully completed malolactic fermentation (MLF). Co-inoculum of S. cerevisiae and O. oeni enabled simultaneous alcoholic fermentation and MLF, leading to at least a 30 % reduction in the total fermentation time when compared to the sequential inoculation process, which was attributed to the lower ethanol stress. Meanwhile, co-inoculum stimulated the accumulation of volatile aroma compounds in Chardonnay wine. In particular, the mixed modality where the O. oeni strain ZX-1 was inoculated 48 h after S. cerevisiae allowed higher levels of terpenes, acetates, short-chain, and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters to be produced, which may result in the enhanced floral and fruity attributes of wine. Aroma reconstitution and omission models analysis revealed that the accumulation of linalool, geraniol, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl caprylate during the mixed fermentation process enhanced the stone fruit, tropical fruit, and citrus aromas in Chardonnay wine. Therefore, the simultaneous fermentation of S. cerevisiae and autochthonous O. oeni ZX-1 has a positive effect on MLF and contributes to producing wines with distinctive style.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Odorantes , Oenococcus , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vinho , Vinho/microbiologia , Vinho/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos
6.
Food Res Int ; 190: 114611, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945619

RESUMO

Wine is a cultural product capable of arousing emotions. Measuring emotions and figuring out how much they could influence preferences or purchase decisions of consumers is a new trend in sensory and consumer research. However, the complexity of feelings makes the measure of emotions extremely challenging. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of emotions related to sensory stimuli in wine tasting is still missing. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the emotional power of tasting red wines using a multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis performed by trained panelists, implicit and explicit measurements of emotions and chemical analysis of the wines tasted. Various red wines, renowned for their high polyphenol content and expected to exhibit rich texture, mouthfeel, and aging potential, have been utilized to this extent. The results obtained showed that the emotions measured were well-correlated with quantitative and hedonic attributes obtained using classic sensory analysis. Some aromatic molecules can be identified as markers capable of eliciting positive and negative emotional reactions. While increasing literature in the topic is recently available, our study appears to be the first highlighting the presence of autonomic nervous system (ANS) differences verified by means of electrocardiogram (ECG) features, related to explicit and complete sensory patterns, in response to sensory stimuli related to emotional wine, with higher sympathetic values at extrema and vagal increase in the presence of neutral sensory compounds.


Assuntos
Emoções , Paladar , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Eletrocardiografia , Polifenóis/análise
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(6)2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922171

RESUMO

Viticulture has been an important economic sector for centuries. In recent decades, global wine production has fluctuated between 250 and almost 300 million hectoliters, and in 2022, the value of wine exports reached EUR 37.6 billion. Climate change and the associated higher temperatures could favor the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine. OTA is a mycotoxin produced by some species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and has nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic, and carcinogenic effects on animals and humans. The presence of this toxin in wine is related to the type of wine-red wines are more frequently contaminated with OTA-and the geographical location of the vineyard. In Europe, the lower the latitude, the greater the risk of OTA contamination in wine. However, climate change could increase the risk of OTA contamination in wine in other regions. Due to their toxic effects, the development of effective and environmentally friendly methods to prevent, decontaminate, and degrade OTA is essential. This review summarises the available research on biological aspects of OTA prevention, removal, and degradation.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Ocratoxinas , Vinho , Ocratoxinas/análise , Vinho/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos
8.
Biomolecules ; 14(6)2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38927113

RESUMO

Among the Moscato grapes, Moscato Giallo is a winegrape variety characterised by a high content of free and glycosylated monoterpenoids, which gives wines very intense notes of ripe fruit and flowers. The aromatic bouquet of Moscato Giallo is strongly influenced by the high concentration of linalool, geraniol, linalool oxides, limonene, α-terpineol, citronellol, hotrienol, diendiols, trans/cis-8-hydroxy linalool, geranic acid and myrcene, that give citrus, rose, and peach notes. Except for quali-quantitative analysis, no investigations regarding the isotopic values of the target volatile compounds in grapes and wines are documented in the literature. Nevertheless, the analysis of the stable isotope ratio represents a modern and powerful tool used by the laboratories responsible for official consumer protection, for food quality and genuineness assessment. To this aim, the aromatic compounds extracted from grapes and wine were analysed both by GC-MS/MS, to define the aroma profiles, and by GC-C/Py-IRMS, for a preliminary isotope compound-specific investigation. Seventeen samples of Moscato Giallo grapes were collected during the harvest season in 2021 from two Italian regions renowned for the cultivation of this aromatic variety, Trentino Alto Adige and Veneto, and the corresponding wines were produced at micro-winery scale. The GC-MS/MS analysis confirmed the presence of the typical terpenoids both in glycosylated and free forms, responsible for the characteristic aroma of the Moscato Giallo variety, while the compound-specific isotope ratio analysis allowed us to determine the carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotopic signatures of the major volatile compounds for the first time.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vinho/análise , Vitis/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 475: 134903, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878441

RESUMO

Copper is one of the unavoidable heavy metals in wine production. In this study, the effects on fermentation performance and physiological metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under copper stress were investigated. EC1118 was the most copper-resistant among the six strains. The ethanol accumulation of EC1118 was 26.16-20 mg/L Cu2+, which was 1.90-3.15 times higher than that of other strains. The fermentation rate was significantly reduced by copper, and the inhibition was relieved after 4-10 days of adjustment. Metabolomic-transcriptomic analysis revealed that amino acid and nucleotide had the highest number of downregulated and upregulated differentially expressed metabolites, respectively. The metabolism of fructose and mannose was quickly affected, which then triggered the metabolism of galactose in copper stress. Pathways such as oxidative and organic acid metabolic processes were significantly affected in the early time, resulting in a significant decrease in the amount of carboxylic acids. The pathways related to protein synthesis and metabolism under copper stress, such as translation and peptide biosynthetic process, was also significantly affected. In conclusion, this study analyzed the metabolite-gene interaction network and molecular response during the alcohol fermentation of S. cerevisiae under copper stress, providing theoretical basis for addressing the influence of copper stress in wine production.


Assuntos
Cobre , Etanol , Fermentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Transcriptoma , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Cobre/toxicidade , Etanol/toxicidade , Etanol/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Vinho , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
10.
J Food Sci ; 89(7): 4286-4297, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858776

RESUMO

Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a synthetic, insoluble polymer that can be added to white wines to improve the chemical stability of the final product by precipitating unstable low molecular weight phenolic compounds responsible for visual defects and undesirable flavor characteristics (e.g., excessive bitterness and/or astringency). The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of PVPP on the quality characteristics of Viognier wine when added pre- or post-fermentation as compared to an untreated control wine. Both PVPP-treated wines contained significantly lower concentrations of monomeric phenolics and browning pigments than the control wine (p ≤ 0.05). The addition of PVPP prior to fermentation conferred protection against oxidation of the wine as measured by acetaldehyde concentration (p ≤ 0.05). Analysis of the volatile aroma profile of each wine by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatographymass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) revealed that the overarching aroma profiles of the PVPP-treated wines were significantly different from the control wine, but there was no difference between wines treated with PVPP pre-fermentation versus those treated post-fermentation. Specifically, statistically significant differences were observed in 9 of the 22 quantified aroma compounds, including those notably associated with the "stone fruit" aroma of Viognier. A negative correlation was identified between aroma compound concentration removal and the hydrophobicity of each compound, suggesting that the observed differences in aroma may be due to adsorption of aroma compounds by PVPP. The findings from this study present risks and benefits to wine quality upon treatment with PVPP at commercially recommended levels, and provide potentially valuable information for industrial wine producers.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes , Povidona , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Povidona/química , Povidona/análogos & derivados , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(26): 14865-14873, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38912709

RESUMO

Counterfeit Baijiu has been emerging because of the price variances of real-aged Chinese Baijiu. Accurate identification of different vintages is of great interest. In this study, the combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy was applied for the comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents for Maotai-flavor Baijiu. Furthermore, a novel data fusion strategy combined with machine learning algorithms has been established. The results showed that the midlevel data fusion combined with the random forest algorithm were the best and successfully applied for classification of different Baijiu vintages. A total of 14 differential compounds (belonging to fatty acid ethyl esters, alcohols, organic acids, and aldehydes) were identified, and used for evaluation of commercial Maotai-flavor Baijiu. Our results indicated that both volatiles and nonvolatiles contributed to the vintage differences. This study demonstrated that GC-MS and 1H NMR spectra combined with a data fusion strategy are practical for the classification of different vintages of Maotai-flavor Baijiu.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Aromatizantes/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Vinho/classificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(26): 14899-14911, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38913831

RESUMO

The synthetic community of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is commonly utilized in the food industry for manipulating product properties. However, the intermediate interactions and ecological stability resulting from metabolic differences among various LAB types remain poorly understood. We aimed to analyze the metabolic behavior of single and combined lactic acid bacteria in China rice wine based on microbial succession. Three-stage succession patterns with obligate heterofermentative LAB dominating prefermentation and homofermentative LAB prevailing in main fermentation were observed. Facultative heterofermentative LAB exhibited significant growth. Pairwise coculture interactions revealed 63.5% positive, 34.4% negative, and 2.1% neutral interactions, forming nontransitive and transitive competition modes. Nontransitive competitive combinations demonstrated stability over ∼200 generations through amino acid (mainly aspartic acid, glutamine, and serine) cross-feeding and lactic acid detoxification, which also showed potential for controlling biogenic amines and developing LAB starter cultures. Our findings offer insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of LAB interaction networks.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Ácido Láctico , Lactobacillales , Oryza , Vinho , China , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Oryza/microbiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Vinho/análise , Vinho/microbiologia
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 421: 110788, 2024 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38905810

RESUMO

During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes different compounds, which are crucial for product quality: volatile compounds with sensory impact, and bioactive compounds such as melatonin (MEL) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), linked to health benefits. As many of these compounds are related with yeast's nitrogen metabolism, their production have been studied in four different commercial strains with different nitrogen requirement (Red Fruit, Uvaferm VRB, Lalvin Rhone 2323 and Lalvin QA23) being, Uvaferm UVR the higher nitrogen demander strain. All strains produced the secondary metabolites, notably Uvaferm UVR produced the highest HT concentration, despite its low growth. Uvaferm UVR emerged also as a significant producer of MEL, indicating a potential role in fermentation related stress. Moreover, Uvaferm UVR shows the highest total concentrations of volatile compounds. Multivariate analysis revealed distinct clustering based on nitrogen requirements of the strains, highlighting the strain-dependent metabolic responses.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Melatonina , Nitrogênio , Álcool Feniletílico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vinho , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia , Vinho/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Odorantes/análise
14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(7)2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38936822

RESUMO

AIMS: Incorporating biofertilizers, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AM) fungal inoculants, into vineyard management practices may enhance vine growth and reduce environmental impact. Here, we evaluate the effects of commercially available and local AM fungal inoculants on the growth, root colonization, and nutrient uptake of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera) when planted in a field soil substrate. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a greenhouse experiment, young wine grapes were planted in a field soil substrate and inoculated with one of three commercially available mycorrhizal inoculant products, or one of two locally collected whole soil inoculants. After 4 months of growth, inoculated vines showed no differences in plant biomass, colonization of roots by AM fungi, or foliar macronutrient concentrations compared to uninoculated field soil substrate. However, vines grown with local inoculants had greater shoot biomass than vines grown with mycorrhizal inoculant products. CONCLUSIONS: Although effects from inoculations with AM fungi varied by inoculant type and source, inoculations may not improve young vine performance in field soils with a resident microbial community.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas , Biomassa , Micorrizas , Raízes de Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Vitis , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/microbiologia , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Solo/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia , Vinho/análise , Agricultura/métodos
15.
Food Res Int ; 188: 114442, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823830

RESUMO

The long-term stability of red wine color depends on the formation of polymeric pigments from anthocyanins. Although there is still a lot of uncertainty about the specific structure of this diverse group of pigments, there is consensus that they are reaction products of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Interactions between anthocyanins and pectic polysaccharides have been suggested to stabilize anthocyanins. This study explores the impact of such interactions by adding pectin during red winemaking. The results demonstrate that these interactions induce the formation of additional polymeric pigments which enhance the pigment stability during fermentation and aging. While initial pigment formation is higher in wines with added pectin, a notable proportion of the complexes degrades in the later stages of fermentation. Presumably, tannins form insoluble complexes with pectin, reducing tannin concentration by more than 300 mg/L. Anthocyanin concentrations decrease by over 400 mg/L, and polymeric pigments double. Anthocyanins that form polymeric pigments with pectic polysaccharides expand the range of pigments in red wines with possible consequences for the sensory properties of the wine. These findings highlight the complex interactions between pectin, anthocyanins, and tannins, and their influence on pigment formation and wine composition during fermentation and aging.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Fermentação , Pectinas , Taninos , Vinho , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/análise , Pectinas/química , Vinho/análise , Taninos/química , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Polímeros/química
16.
Food Res Int ; 188: 114510, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823887

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the copigmentation effect of gallic acid on red wine color and to dissect its mechanism at the molecular level. Three-dimensional studies, e.g., in model wine, in real wine and in silico, and multiple indicators, e.g., color, spectrum, thermodynamics and phenolic dynamics, were employed. The results showed that gallic acid significantly enhanced the color quality and stability of red wine. Physico-chemical interactions and chemical transformations should be the most likely mechanism, and physico-chemical interactions are also a prerequisite for chemical transformations. QM calculations of the physico-chemical interactions proved that the binding between gallic acid and malvidin-3-O-glucoside is a spontaneous exothermic reaction driven by hydrogen bonding and dispersion forces. The sugar moiety of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and the phenolic hydroxyl groups of gallic acid affect the formation of hydrogen bonds, while the dispersion interaction was related to the stacking of the molecular skeleton.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Cor , Ácido Gálico , Glucosídeos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Termodinâmica , Vinho , Ácido Gálico/química , Vinho/análise , Glucosídeos/química , Antocianinas/química , Teoria Quântica , Fenóis/química
17.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1294492, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841662

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol consumption has been associated with the occurrence of many health conditions. We analyzed UK Biobank data to explore associations of various conditions to type and amount of alcohol consumed. UK Biobank is a large biomedical database providing information from UK participants, including lifestyle questionnaires and diagnosis data. Methods: Using UK Biobank, we examined the relationship between weekly alcohol consumption, alcohol type and the incidence of eight select conditions. We calculated counts of individuals consuming each type diagnosed with these conditions. To assess the effect of alcohol consumption on each condition's prevalence, we used log-logistic regression models to generate dose-response models for each alcohol type. Results: The alcohol consumed included: red wine (228,439 participants), white wine (188811), beer (182648), spirits (129418), and fortified wine (34598). We observed increased condition prevalence with increasing amounts of alcohol. This was especially seen for chronic obstructive lung disease, cirrhosis of liver, hypertension, gastritis, and type 2 diabetes. Beer consumers showed higher prevalence for most conditions while fortified wine had the largest increases in incidence rates. Only white wine showed decreased incidence for acute myocardial infarction. In general, the prevalence of many conditions was higher among alcohol consumers, particularly for hypertension, 33.8%, compared to 28.6% for non-drinkers. Conclusion: Although many conditions were already prevalent among non-drinkers, participants consuming increasing amounts of alcohol had increased incidence rates for many of the studied conditions. This was especially true for consumers of beer and fortified wine, but also true to a lesser extent for consumers of spirits, red and white wine.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Humanos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Prevalência , Incidência , Adulto , Vinho/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cerveja/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Biobanco do Reino Unido
18.
Molecules ; 29(11)2024 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38893385

RESUMO

Cabernet Sauvignon from the California Paso Robles AVA was processed with a contrasting array of cap management frequencies, consisting of punch-down (PD) frequencies (0, 1, 2, and 3 PD/day) over two vintages, one of which the fruit was harvested at two contrasting maturity levels. Wines followed with up to 3 years of bottle aging for basic and phenolic chemistry, and the wines of the second harvest of 2020 were submitted to sensory analysis. There were almost non-existent effects due to the frequency of punch downs on parameters such as ethanol, pH, titratable acidity, lactic acid, and glucose + fructose. In 2019, the chromatic differences between different PD regimes were subtle, and minor effects of the punch-down frequency were observed for tannins and total phenolics. During the early stages of alcoholic fermentation, higher levels of all anthocyanin classes were observed in 1 PD wines and the lowest levels in 0 PD wines. The anthocyanin content of the wines of the first harvest (unripe) was 27% higher than that of the wines of the second harvest (ripe), but these differences disappeared after 3 years of bottle aging irrespective of the vintage and harvest date. Acylated anthocyanins were preferentially lost during aging, especially in 2019 wines and, to a lesser extent, in 2020 wines. In 2020, the polymeric pigment content of the wines of the second harvest was higher than in the wines of the first harvest, with 3 PD wines showing higher polymeric pigments and yellow hues than 0 and 2 PD wines after 3 years of bottle aging. Sensory analysis of the second harvest of the 2020 wines showed that the wines of all four PD regimes were perceived as drying, signifying they were perceived as equally astringent, which is consistent with comparable tannin levels on said wines. The perception of bitterness increased with the frequency of punch downs; thus, 3 PD wines showed the highest bitterness perception. It was concluded that in sufficiently warm fermentations and small volumes, phenolic extraction occurs regardless of fruit maturity and under conditions of minimum mixing.


Assuntos
Fenóis , Vitis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , California , Paladar , Frutas/química , Humanos , Fermentação
19.
Molecules ; 29(11)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38893553

RESUMO

Grape pomace is the main by-product obtained from wine production that is still enriched in bioactive compounds. Within a framework of waste/by-product reuse through a sustainable approach, various green methods were utilized in this work to recover anthocyanins from the pomace resulting from "Sangiovese" grape vinification. Ultrasound- and Microwave-Assisted Extractions (UAE and MAE) were coupled with the use of green solvents, such as acidified water, an ethanol/water mixture, and Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NaDES), and their efficacy was compared with that of a conventional method based on a methanol/acidified water mixture. The Total Anthocyanin Index ranged from 36.9 to 75.2 mg/g DW for UAE, and from 54.4 to 99.6 mg/g DW for MAE, while resulting in 47.1 mg/g DW for conventional extraction. A Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was applied to MAE, the most efficient technique. Temperature, time, and the solid-to-liquid ratio were set as X variables, while malvidin-3-O-glucoside content and antioxidant activity were used as response variables, measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. The correlation between temperature and time and the antioxidant activity of the extract was positive, while it was found to be negative when considering malvidin-3-O-glucoside concentration as a response variable. Thus, the optimal conditions in temperature, time and solid-to-liquid ratio were different depending on the chosen variable. The results underline the importance of selecting an accurate response when using the response surface methodology approach.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Antioxidantes , Química Verde , Micro-Ondas , Vitis , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Vitis/química , Química Verde/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química , Vinho/análise
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38891815

RESUMO

The growing trend in fruit wine production reflects consumers' interest in novel, diverse drinking experiences and the increasing demand for healthier beverage options. Fruit wines made from kiwi, pomegranates, and persimmons fermented using S. bayanus Lalvin strain EC1118 demonstrate the versatility of winemaking techniques. Kiwifruit, persimmon, and pomegranate wines were analyzed using HPLC and GC-TOFMS analyses to determine their concentrations of phenolic acids and volatile compounds. These results were supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to characterize and compare chemical shifts in the polyphenol regions of these wines. The wines' characterization included an anti-inflammatory assay based on NO, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production in the RAW 264.7 macrophage model. FTIR spectroscopy predicted the antioxidant and phenolic contents in the wines. In terms of polyphenols, predominantly represented by chlorogenic, caffeic, and gallic acids, pomegranate and kiwifruit wines showed greater benefits. However, kiwifruit wines exhibited a highly diverse profile of volatile compounds. Further analysis is necessary, particularly regarding the use of other microorganisms in the fermentation process and non-Saccharomyces strains methods. These wines exhibit high biological antioxidant potential and health properties, providing valuable insights for future endeavors focused on designing healthy functional food products.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Fermentação , Frutas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Camundongos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Animais , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Polifenóis/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Actinidia/química , Punica granatum/química
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