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1.
Physiol Meas ; 45(4)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624240

RESUMO

Objective.Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive imaging method whereby electrical measurements on the periphery of a heterogeneous conductor are inverted to map its internal conductivity. The EIT method proposed here aims to improve computational speed and noise tolerance by introducing sensitivity volume as a figure-of-merit for comparing EIT measurement protocols.Approach.Each measurement is shown to correspond to a sensitivity vector in model space, such that the set of measurements, in turn, corresponds to a set of vectors that subtend a sensitivity volume in model space. A maximal sensitivity volume identifies the measurement protocol with the greatest sensitivity and greatest mutual orthogonality. A distinguishability criterion is generalized to quantify the increased noise tolerance of high sensitivity measurements.Main result.The sensitivity volume method allows the model space dimension to be minimized to match that of the data space, and the data importance to be increased within an expanded space of measurements defined by an increased number of contacts.Significance.The reduction in model space dimension is shown to increasecomputational efficiency, accelerating tomographic inversion by several orders of magnitude, while the enhanced sensitivitytolerates higher noiselevels up to several orders of magnitude larger than standard methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Impedância Elétrica , Tomografia/métodos , Condutividade Elétrica
2.
Int Braz J Urol ; 50(3): 250-260, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Success rates in endourological procedures, notably percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopy (URS), have demonstrated suboptimal outcomes, leading to more reinterventions and radiation exposure. Recently, the use of intraoperative computed tomography (ICT) scans has been hypothesized as a promising solution for improving outcomes in endourology procedures. With this considered, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis encompassing all available studies that evaluate the impact of the use of intraoperative CT scans on surgical outcomes compared to conventional fluoroscopic-guided procedures. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Multiple databases were systematically searched up to December of 2023. This study aimed to directly compare the use of an ICT scan with the standard non-ICT-guided procedure. The primary endpoint of interest was success rate, and the secondary endpoints were complications and reintervention rates, while radiation exposure was also evaluated. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed following Cochrane recommendations. Data was presented as an Odds ratio with 95%CI across trials and a random-effects model was selected for pooling of data. RESULTS: A comprehensive search yielded 533 studies, resulting in the selection of 3 cohorts including 327 patients (103 ICT vs 224 in non-ICT). Primary outcome was significantly higher in the experimental group versus the control group (84.5% vs 41.4% respectively, 307 patients; 95% CI [3.61, 12.72]; p<0.00001; I2=0). Reintervention rates also decreased from 32.6% in the control to 12.6% in the ICT group (OR 0.34; 95%CI [0.12,0.94]; p =0.04; I2= 48%), whereas complication rates did not exhibit significant differences. Radiation exposure was also significantly reduced in two of the included studies. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis highlights a favorable outcome with intraoperative CT scan use in PCNL procedures, showing a considerable increase in SFR when compared to standard fluoroscopy and nephroscopy. Despite limited studies, our synthesis underscores the potential of ICT scans to significantly reduce residual stones and their consequences for endourology patients, as reinterventions and follow-up ionizing radiation studies.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Rim , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Tomografia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 28(4): 375-380, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and adverse events (AEs) of postoperative imatinib therapy through computed tomography (CT) quantitative body composition for intermediate- and high-risk gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). METHODS: The study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 208 patients with intermediate- and high-risk GIST treated surgically and treated with imatinib afterward at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University between October 2011 and October 2021. Images of preoperative CT scans within 1 month were used to determine the body composition of the patients. On the basis of the L3 skeletal muscle index, patients were classified into sarcopenia and nonsarcopenia groups. In 2 groups, AEs related to imatinib were analyzed. RESULTS: The proportion of AEs related to imatinib in the sarcopenia group was higher, and this disparity had a significant statistical significance (P = .013). Sarcopenia was significantly associated with hemoglobin reduction compared with nonsarcopenia (P = .015). There was a significant difference between the sarcopenia group and the nonsarcopenia group in the ratio of severe AEs (grades 3-4). Hemoglobin content (odds ratio [OR], 0.981; 95% CI, 0.963-1.000; P = .045), sex (OR, 0.416; 95% CI, 0.192-0.904; P = .027), and sarcopenia (OR, 5.631; 95% CI, 2.262-14.014; P < .001) were the influential factors of imatinib severe AEs in patients with intermediate- and high-risk GIST within 1 year after imatinib treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with preoperative sarcopenia have a higher incidence and severity of AEs during adjuvant imatinib therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/induzido quimicamente , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Hemoglobinas , Tomografia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos
4.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 143, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin nanoemulsion (CUR-NE) in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto protoscoleces. METHODS: Forty-two inbred BALB/c mice were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Six groups were inoculated intra-peritoneally with 1500 viable E. granulosus protoscoleces, followed for six months and used as infected groups. The infected groups were named as: CEI1 to CEI6 accordingly. The 7th group was not inoculated and was named cystic echinococcosis noninfected group (CENI7). CEI1 and CEI2 groups received 40 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day curcumin nanoemulsion (CUR-NE), respectively. CEI3 received nanoemulsion without curcumin (NE-no CUR), CEI4 received curcumin suspension (CUR-S) 40 mg/kg/day, CEI5 received albendazole 150 mg/kg/day and CEI6 received sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). CENI7 group received CUR-NE 40 mg/kg/day. Drugs administration was started after six months post-inoculations of protoscoleces and continued for 60 days in all groups. The secondary CE cyst area was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan for each mouse before treatment and on the days 30 and 60 post-treatment. The CT scan measurement results were compared before and after treatment. After the euthanasia of the mice on the 60th day, the cyst area was also measured after autopsy and, the histopathological changes of the secondary cysts for each group were observed. The therapeutic efficacy of CUR-NE in infected groups was evaluated by two methods: CT scan and autopsied cyst measurements. RESULTS: Septal calcification in three groups of infected mice (CEI1, CEI2, and CEI4) was revealed by CT scan. The therapeutic efficacy of CUR-NE 40 mg/kg/day (CEI1 group) was 24.6 ± 26.89% by CT scan measurement and 55.16 ± 32.37% by autopsied cysts measurements. The extensive destructive effects of CUR-NE 40 mg/kg/day (CEI1 group) on the wall layers of secondary CE cysts were confirmed by histopathology. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect of CUR-NE (40 mg/kg/day) on secondary CE cysts in BALB/c mice. An apparent septal calcification of several cysts revealed by CT scan and the destructive effect on CE cysts observed in histopathology are two critical key factors that suggest curcumin nanoemulsion could be a potential treatment for cystic echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Cistos , Equinococose , Animais , Camundongos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia
5.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 71(4): 291-297, abril 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232124

RESUMO

Antecedentes: Los bloqueos continuos de los nervios periféricos son de uso común para el manejo del dolor. Sin embargo, la incidencia de desplazamiento o migración del catéter es dudosa, pudiendo ser infraestimada y no denunciarse. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el posicionamiento del extremo del catéter supraescapular antes y después de la manipulación rutinaria y simulada mediante fisioterapia de hombro en un modelo cadavérico anatómico.MétodoSe colocaron 8 catéteres para bloqueo continuo y ecoguiado del nervio supraescapular en cadáveres frescos criopreservados. La tomografía computarizada (TC) confirmó la localización de la punta del catéter tras la inyección de 1ml de medio de contraste. Realizamos una serie de movimientos estandarizados de hombro durante una sesión simulada de fisioterapia de hombro en cadáveres. Tras ello, administramos 1ml de azul de metileno a través de los catéteres, y seguidamente realizamos disecciones para identificar con precisión la localización de las puntas del catéter y compararlas con su localización previa a la «fisioterapia».ResultadosLa imagen de la TC confirmó la localización en todos los casos de los extremos del catéter en la muesca supraescapular. Sin embargo, tras la fisioterapia, se encontró que 2 catéteres (25%) habían migrado y, en especial, uno fue localizado en el músculo supraespinoso y el otro en el músculo trapecio.ConclusiónNuestros hallazgos sugieren que el desplazamiento del catéter puede producirse en cerca del 25% de los casos tras la manipulación mediante fisioterapia simulada. Sin embargo, es necesaria más investigación para determinar la incidencia real de los desplazamientos del catéter en la práctica clínica. (AU)


Background: Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are commonly used for pain management. However, the incidence of catheter dislodgement or migration is unclear, and may be underestimated and underreported. Our objective was to assess suprascapular catheter tip positioning before and after routine simulated shoulder physiotherapy manipulation in an anatomical cadaver model.MethodEight ultrasound-guided continuous suprascapular nerve block catheters were placed in cryopreserved fresh cadavers. Computed tomography (CT) confirmed the location of the catheter tip after injection of 1ml of contrast medium. We performed a series of standardized shoulder movements during a simulated shoulder physiotherapy session in cadavers. Following this, we administered 1ml of methylene blue through the catheters, and then performed anatomical dissections to accurately identify the location of the catheter tips and compare them to their placement prior to the ‘physiotherapy’ResultCT imaging confirmed the location of the catheter tips at the suprascapular notch in all cases. However, following physiotherapy, 2 catheters (25%) were found to have migrated - specifically, 1 was located in the supraspinatus muscle, and the other was located in the trapezius muscle.ConclusionOur findings suggest that catheter dislodgement may occur in approximately 25% of cases following simulated physiotherapy manipulation. However, further research is needed to determine the read incidence of catheter dislodgement in clinical practice. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Tomografia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Anatomia , Anestesia por Condução
6.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 99(4): 165-168, abr. 2024. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232137

RESUMO

La cavitación intracoroidea es un hallazgo identificado con OCT descrito inicialmente en pacientes miopes, pero también aparece en pacientes no miopes. Puede presentarse tanto en el área peripapilar como en el polo posterior. El coloboma macular es un defecto del desarrollo embrionario del polo posterior, y en la OCT estructural es imprescindible la ausencia del epitelio pigmentario de la retina y de los vasos coroideos para su diagnóstico. Este caso presenta la cavitación intracoroidea circunscribiendo el coloboma macular, en ausencia de membrana intercalar. La imagen en face permite valorar la relación entre ambas estructuras, así como la magnitud de las mismas. (AU)


Intrachoroidal cavitation is a finding identified with OCT initially described in myopic patients, it also appears in non-myopic patients. It can occur in both the peripapillary area and the posterior pole. Macular coloboma is a defect of embryonic development of the posterior pole, in structural OCT the absence of the retinal pigment epithelium and choroidal vessels is essential. In this case, intrachoroidal cavitation circumscribes the macular coloboma, in the absence of an intercalary membrane. The face image allows us to assess the relationship between the two structures as well as their magnitude. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Coloboma , Tomografia , Miopia Degenerativa , Cavitação , Oftalmologia
7.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 31-43, Marzo 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551189

RESUMO

Introducción: El cáncer de pulmón (CP) es una enfermedad con gran impacto a nivel mundial en el número de muertes y en costos en salud. La alta incidencia y mortalidad de esta enfermedad asociada al diagnóstico tardío, y la mejoría del pronóstico ante una detección temprana, determinan que sea una patología pasible de beneficiarse mediante detección temprana. La tomografía de baja dosis de radiación (TCBD) demostró ser un método que se pue- de realizar periódicamente a un grupo de personas con alto riesgo de desarrollar CP y así reducir la mortalidad por esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, este beneficio es tal cuan- do se encuentra desarrollado bajo un programa organizado y con participación multi- disciplinaria especializada en cáncer de pulmón. Métodos: Se plantea determinar lineamientos básicos para el desarrollo de la detección temprana de cáncer de pulmón en América Latina para que pueda ser realizada en forma uniforme, con el menor riesgo y el máximo beneficio esperado. Se analizaron las principales publicaciones referidas a este tema, contemplando la diversidad de atención y acceso de América Latina. Resultado: Se desarrollan requerimientos mínimos para la implementación de un pro- grama. Discusión: El número de programas en la región es escaso y depende más de esfuerzos individuales que de políticas generales de salud. Consideramos que estos lineamien- tos pueden servir de apoyo para el desarrollo de más programas en la región y de for- ma más homogénea.


Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is a disease with a great impact worldwide in the number of deaths and health costs. The high incidence and mortality of this disease associated with late diagnosis and the improved prognosis with early detection determine that it is a pathology that can benefit from early detection. Low radiation dose tomography (LDCT) demonstrated a method that can be performed periodically to a group of people at high risk of developing CP and thus reduce mortality from this disease. However, this benefit is such when it is developed under an organized program with multidisciplinary participation specialized in lung cancer. Methods: It is proposed to determine basic guidelines for the development of early de- tection of lung cancer in Latin America so that it can be carried out uniformly, with the lowest risk and the maximum expected benefit. The main publications referring to this topic were analyzed, considering the diversity of care and access in Latin America. Result: Minimum requirements are developed for the implementation of a program. Discussion: The number of programs in the region is small and depends more on individual efforts than on general health policies. We consider that these guidelines can serve as support for the development of more programs in the region and in a more ho- mogeneous way.


Assuntos
Humanos , Planos e Programas de Saúde , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Tomografia/métodos , Incidência , Mortalidade , Educação Profissionalizante , Política de Saúde , América Latina
8.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 88, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Canada, and because early cancers are often asymptomatic screening aims to prevent mortality by detecting cancer earlier when treatment is more likely to be curative. These reviews will inform updated recommendations by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care on screening for lung cancer. METHODS: We will update the review on the benefits and harms of screening with CT conducted for the task force in 2015 and perform de novo reviews on the comparative effects between (i) trial-based selection criteria and use of risk prediction models and (ii) trial-based nodule classification and different nodule classification systems and on patients' values and preferences. We will search Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (for questions on benefits and harms from 2015; comparative effects from 2012) and Medline, Scopus, and EconLit (for values and preferences from 2012) via peer-reviewed search strategies, clinical trial registries, and the reference lists of included studies and reviews. Two reviewers will screen all citations (including those in the previous review) and base inclusion decisions on consensus or arbitration by another reviewer. For benefits (i.e., all-cause and cancer-specific mortality and health-related quality of life) and harms (i.e., overdiagnosis, false positives, incidental findings, psychosocial harms from screening, and major complications and mortality from invasive procedures as a result of screening), we will include studies of adults in whom lung cancer is not suspected. We will include randomized controlled trials comparing CT screening with no screening or alternative screening modalities (e.g., chest radiography) or strategies (e.g., CT using different screening intervals, classification systems, and/or patient selection via risk models or biomarkers); non-randomized studies, including modeling studies, will be included for the comparative effects between trial-based and other selection criteria or nodule classification methods. For harms (except overdiagnosis) we will also include non-randomized and uncontrolled studies. For values and preferences, the study design may be any quantitative design that either directly or indirectly measures outcome preferences on outcomes pertaining to lung cancer screening. We will only include studies conducted in Very High Human Development Countries and having full texts in English or French. Data will be extracted by one reviewer with verification by another, with the exception of result data on mortality and cancer incidence (for calculating overdiagnosis) where duplicate extraction will occur. If two or more studies report on the same comparison and it is deemed suitable, we will pool continuous data using a mean difference or standardized mean difference, as applicable, and binary data using relative risks and a DerSimonian and Laird model unless events are rare (< 1%) where we will pool odds ratios using Peto's method or (if zero events) the reciprocal of the opposite treatment arm size correction. For pooling proportions, we will apply suitable transformation (logit or arcsine) depending on the proportions of events. If meta-analysis is not undertaken we will synthesize the data descriptively, considering clinical and methodological differences. For each outcome, two reviewers will independently assess within- and across-study risk of bias and rate the certainty of the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation), and reach consensus. DISCUSSION: Since 2015, additional trials and longer follow-ups or additional data (e.g., harms, specific patient populations) from previously published trials have been published that will improve our understanding of the benefits and harms of screening. The systematic review of values and preferences will allow fulsome insights that will inform the balance of benefits and harms. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42022378858.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Canadá , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Tomografia , Metanálise como Assunto
9.
J Vis Exp ; (205)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497624

RESUMO

Most infections take place within three-dimensional host tissues with intricate anatomy and locally varying host physiology. The positioning of pathogen cells within this diverse environment significantly affects their stress levels, responses, fate, and contribution to the overall progression of the disease and treatment failure. However, due to the technical difficulties in locating µm-sized pathogen cells within cm-sized host organs, this area of research has been relatively unexplored. Here, we present a method for addressing this challenge. We employ serial two-photon tomography and AI-enhanced image analysis to locate individual Salmonella cells throughout the entire spleen, liver lobes, and whole lymph nodes of infected mice. Using fluorescent reporters and in vivo antibody administration, the replication rate of single Salmonella cells, their local interaction with specific immune cells, and bacterial responses to antibiotics can be determined. These methodologies open avenues for a comprehensive examination of infections, their prevention, and treatment within the three-dimensional tissue context.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Salmonella , Animais , Camundongos , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos , Tomografia
10.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 25(3): 454-462, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In vehicle frontal collisions, it is crucial that the lap belt is designed to engage with the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) of occupants for a reliable restraint. This study aims to understand the influence of different seated postures on the geometrical relationship of the seat belt and the pelvis for various occupants using 3D upright and supine computed tomography (CT) systems. METHODS: The 3D shapes of bones and soft tissues around the pelvis were acquired through a CT scan for 30 participants. They were seated in a rigid seat equipped with a lap belt simulating the front seat of a small car, and wore a lap belt in three seated postures: upright, slouched and reclined. Parameters related to the likelihood of submarining occurrences, such as belt-ASIS overlap (an index for assessing the potential engagement of the lap belt with the ASIS) and the belt-pelvis angle (the difference between the belt angle and the normal direction of the anterior edge of the ilium) were compared. RESULTS: It was observed that the pelvis angle tilted rearward as the hip point was positioned forward and seatback angle increased. This can be seen in the slouched and reclined posture. The belt-pelvis angle was comparable between the slouched and the reclined postures, and was closer to zero (indicating that the lap belt path is closer to perpendicular to the anterior edge of the ilium) compared to the upright posture. In contrast, the belt-ASIS overlap increased with an increasing flesh margin of the ASIS and shallower belt angle. This suggests that the belt-pelvis angle is influenced by the seated posture whereas the belt-ASIS overlap is dependent more on an individual's anthropometry. The plot of belt-pelvis angle and belt-ASIS overlap exhibited significant variability among participants. CONCLUSIONS: The belt-pelvis angle and the belt-ASIS overlap of individuals will provide valuable information for understanding the current belt-fit location and predicting submarining occurrences for individuals in various postures when designing restraint systems.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Cintos de Segurança , Humanos , Antropometria/métodos , Postura , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Tomografia
11.
Opt Express ; 32(4): 5607-5620, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439282

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US) is a valuable tool for imaging soft tissue and visualizing tumor contours. Taking the benefits of US, we presented an integrated dual-modality imaging system in this paper that achieves three-dimensional (3D) bioluminescence tomography (BLT) with multi-view bioluminescence images and 3D US imaging. The purpose of this system is to perform non-invasive, long-term monitoring of tumor growth in 3D images. US images can enhance the accuracy of the 3D BLT reconstruction and the bioluminescence dose within an object. Furthermore, an integrated co-registered scanning geometry was used to capture the fused BLT and US images. We validated the system with an in vivo experiment involving tumor-bearing mice. The results demonstrated the feasibility of reconstructing 3D BLT images in the tumor region using 3D US images. We used the dice coefficient and locational error to evaluate the similarity between the reconstructed source region and the actual source region. The dice coefficient was 88.5%, and the locational error was 0.4 mm when comparing the BLT and 3D US images. The hybrid BLT/US system could provide significant benefits for reconstructing the source of tumor location and conducting quantitative analysis of tumor size.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Tomografia , Animais , Camundongos
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 87, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459515

RESUMO

The 3D render volume reconstruction CT (3D-RVCT) produced detailed images of the PES region, determining its relationships with the surrounding structures. Despite extensive research in veterinary studies on the PES through gross anatomy and CT, there is a lack of studies on the PES of zebu cattle. The study aimed to analyze the PES of Zebu cattle using gross cross-sectional, radiographic, CT, and morphometric methods, with the use of 3D-RVCT to provide anatomical guidance for surgeons and students. The study was performed on sixteen PES regions to provide hard and soft tissues in CT images. Three are five tarsal bones and two large fused (III and IV) metatarsal bones that were completely fused except for their distal extremities, which were divided distally by the intertrochlear notch. The cortical thickness of the metatarsal bone was equal on both sides. The bony septum divided the medullary cavity between the two fused large metatarsal bones in the proximal distal half only and disappeared in the middle part. The reconstruction showed similar sizes in the right and left limbs, confirming the pes bones. The radiographic and CT images could be used as a normal reference for the interpretation of some clinical diseases in the PES. The 3D CT reconstruction of the pes bones was described by various CT oblique dorsal and plantar views. The study focuses on diagnosing PES disorders using CT imaging, improving medical interventions, improving Zebu cattle health outcomes, and empowering students to contribute to veterinary medicine research and advancements.


Assuntos
Tomografia , Bovinos , Animais , Estudos Transversais
13.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 47(4): 496-502, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate shock (IAS) caused by subcutaneous air entrapment (AE) in an early period after subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) implantation has been reported, however, no detailed data on air volume are available. We evaluated the subcutaneous air volume after implantation and its absorption rate one week after implantation. METHODS: Patients who underwent S-ICD implantation in our hospital received chest CT scans immediately after implantation and followed up 1 week later. The total subcutaneous air volume, air around the generator, the distal electrode, and the proximal electrode within 3 cm were calculated using a three-dimensional workstation. Fat areas at the level of the lower edge of the generator were also analyzed. RESULT: Fifteen patients received CT immediately after implantation. The mean age was 45.6 ± 17.9 (66.7% of men), and the mean body mass index was 24.3 ± 3.3. The three-incision technique was applied in seven patients and two-incision technique was in the latter eight patients. The mean total subcutaneous air volume was 18.54 ± 7.50 mL. Air volume around the generator, the distal electrode, and the proximal electrode were 11.05 ± 5.12, 0.72 ± 0.72, and 0.88 ± 0.87 mL, respectively. Twelve patients received a follow-up CT 1 week later. The mean total subcutaneous air was 0.25 ± 0.45 mL, showing a 98.7% absorption rate. CONCLUSION: Although subcutaneous air was observed in all patients after S-ICD implantation, most of the air was absorbed within 1 week, suggesting a low occurrence of AE-related IAS after a week postoperation.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Cardioversão Elétrica , Implantação de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tomografia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Nucl Med Commun ; 45(5): 362-371, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To simulate the artifact caused by an adjacent object on organ-of-interest during filtered back-projection (FBP) tomographic reconstruction (the so-called "ramp filter" artifact) and to demonstrate the extent to which an organ-of-interest is influenced by such adjacent hot spot or attenuating object. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two simulations are conducted with two simplified phantoms: "hot spot" and "cardiac." First one is used to visualize effect of hot spot on its periphery. Second one is used to evaluate effect of nearby object (liver) on left ventricle (LV) as organ-of-interest. To generate sinograms, forward projection process is done with and without modeling radiation attenuation. FBP using windowed ramp filter is done. All slices are analyzed by plotting intensity profiles. RESULTS: In tomographic slices, there is a hypo-intense halo around presumed edge of object when compared to background intensity, more noticeable in phantoms with less blurring. Even with ramp filter applied, no halo is visible in FBP without attenuation for cardiac phantom. In contrast, in slices with considering attenuation, zones with different levels of count suppression on both sides of object are visualized instead. The most prominent one is between liver and LV in simulation with higher-attenuating object and higher activity. CONCLUSION: A single hot spot with sufficient amount of blurring does not distort its surroundings. Hot spots and attenuating objects near organ-of-interest, however, distort myocardial perfusion imaging. Artifactual defects are thus only created when attenuation is modeled during FBP, producing zones of count suppression between organ-of-interest and nearby object or hot spot.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Tomografia , Simulação por Computador , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagens de Fantasmas , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Algoritmos
15.
Anticancer Res ; 44(4): 1583-1589, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. Especially, CCRT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography-based image-guided brachytherapy (CT-based 3D-IGBT) for cervical cancer has resulted in good LC rates. However, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for locally advanced cervical cancer are still low and could be improved. The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment efficacy and late toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and CT-based IGBT with or without concurrent chemotherapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and investigate patterns of failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy at Saitama Medical University International Medical Center. Local control (LC), PFS, patterns of failure, and late toxicity were the evaluated outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 290 patients were enrolled in the study. Median follow-up was 51.5 months. During follow-up, 74 patients developed recurrence: 10 patients with intra-pelvic failure only, 45 with extra-pelvic failure only, and 19 with both. The 3-year LC was 100% for T1b-T2a, 96.8% for T2b, 89.5% for T3b, and 88.5% for T4 disease. The 3-year PFS was 100% for stage IB-IIA, 89.0% for stage IIB, 70.7% for stage IIIB, 72.6% for stage IIIC1r, and 40.1% for stage IVA. The incidence of grade 3-4 gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities was 3.0% and 1.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Combination of EBRT and CT-based IGBT with or without concurrent chemotherapy produced favorable LC with acceptable rates of late toxicities. However, extra-pelvic failures frequently occurred and PFS was less satisfactory in patients with stage III-IVA disease, which indicated the need for additional treatment in these patients.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Braquiterapia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522866

RESUMO

Patients with many forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergo surgical intervention to relieve left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). Cardiovascular Computed Tomography (CCT) defines the complex pathway from the ventricle to the outflow tract and can be visualized in 2D, 3D, and 4D (3D in motion) to help define the mechanism and physiologic significance of obstruction. Advanced cardiac visualization may aid in surgical planning to relieve obstruction in the left ventricular outflow tract, aortic or neo-aortic valve and the supravalvular space. CCT scanner technology has advanced to achieve submillimeter, isotropic spatial resolution, temporal resolution as low as 66 msec allowing high-resolution imaging even at the fast heart rates and small cardiac structures of pediatric patients ECG gating techniques allow radiation exposure to be targeted to a minimal portion of the cardiac cycle for anatomic imaging, and pulse modulation allows cine imaging with a fraction of radiation given during most of the cardiac cycle, thus reducing radiation dose. Scanning is performed in a single heartbeat or breath hold, minimizing the need for anesthesia or sedation, for which CHD patents are highest risk for an adverse event. Examples of visualization of complex left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in the subaortic, valvar and supravalvular space will be highlighted, illustrating the novel applications of CCT in this patient subset.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Obstrução da Via de Saída Ventricular Esquerda , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo , Humanos , Criança , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/etiologia , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/cirurgia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Tomada de Decisões , Tomografia
18.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 135, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT) is routinely employed on the evaluation of dyspnea, yet limited data exist on its assessment of diaphragmatic muscle. This study aimed to determine the capability of CT in identifying structural changes in the diaphragm among patients with ultrasound-confirmed diaphragmatic dysfunction. METHODS: Diaphragmatic ultrasounds conducted between 2018 and 2021 at our center in Marseille, France, were retrospectively collected. Diaphragmatic pillars were measured on CT scans at the L1 level and the celiac artery. Additionally, the difference in height between the two diaphragmatic domes in both diaphragmatic dysfunction cases and controls was measured and compared. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients were included, comprising 24 with diaphragmatic paralysis, 13 with diaphragmatic weakness, and 28 controls. In the case group (paralysis and weakness) with left dysfunctions (n = 24), the CT thickness of the pillars at the level of L1 and the celiac artery was significantly thinner compared with controls (2.0 mm vs. 7.4 mm and 1.8 mm vs. 3.1 mm, p < 0.001 respectively). Significantly different values were observed for paralysis (but not weakness) in the right dysfunction subgroup (n = 15) (2.6 mm vs. 7.4 mm and 2.2 mm vs. 3.8 mm, p < 0.001 respectively, for paralysis vs. controls). Regardless of the side of dysfunction, a significant difference in diaphragmatic height was observed between cases and controls (7.70 cm vs. 1.16 cm and 5.51 cm vs. 1.16 cm, p < 0.001 for right and left dysfunctions, respectively). Threshold values determined through ROC curve analyses for height differences between the two diaphragmatic domes, indicative of paralysis or weakness in the right dysfunctions, were 4.44 cm and 3.51 cm, respectively. Similarly for left dysfunctions, the thresholds were 2.70 cm and 2.48 cm, respectively, demonstrating good performance (aera under the curve of 1.00, 1.00, 0.98, and 0.79, respectively). CONCLUSION: In cases of left diaphragmatic dysfunction, as well as in paralysis associated with right diaphragmatic dysfunction, CT revealed thinner pillars. Additionally, a notable increase in the difference in diaphragmatic height demonstrated a strong potential to identify diaphragmatic dysfunction, with specific threshold values.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Debilidade Muscular , Humanos , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Paralisia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tomografia
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 357: 111996, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522323

RESUMO

Jane, Arnna, and Grant Beaumont went missing from Glenelg Beach in Adelaide, South Australia on 26 January (Australia Day) 1966. Despite multiple land and sea searches over nearly 60 years, the children have not been found. New credible eyewitness testimony led to a site of interest at the now disused New Castalloy factory in North Plympton, Adelaide. This site has a complex stratigraphy of anthropogenic fill, which made ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigations unpromising. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), while not commonly used in a forensic capacity, provided an alternative approach that allowed suitable depth penetration to resolve a feature of interest, which was subsequently excavated by the South Australia Police. This feature did contain organic, and animal remains but, sadly, not the grave of Jane, Arnna, and Grant Beaumont. However, this investigation highlights the potential to use ERT in a forensic capacity, as well as the limitations of using geophysical techniques for covert burial detection.


Assuntos
Ciências Forenses , Radar , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Fenômenos Geológicos , Austrália do Sul , Tomografia
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